home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy

Influenza is more likely to cause severe illness in pregnant Flu symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose. When you experience the symptoms of a sore throat, this is often the first sign that a cold is on its way! The most common cause of a sore throat is a viral. To help ease their symptoms, look to a variety of home remedies rather dissolved in a cup of warm water) to help relieve a sore throat. home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy

Home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy -

Cold or Flu During Pregnancy and Miscarriage

Winter is cold season, and it can be hard to avoid catching a virus during those months. Should you be especially worried about common winter viruses if you're pregnant? Could a cold, flu, or COVID-19 cause harm to a baby or trigger a miscarriage? Find out more below. 

Miscarriage Risk

Although cold and flu viruses can certainly make you uncomfortable (especially if you're pregnant and certain medications are off-limits), they aren't likely to cause miscarriage.

During the 1918 flu pandemic, the influenza virus clearly played a role in miscarriages. It's thought that one in 10 pregnant women had early miscarriages during that time, over and above what would be considered the expected incidence.

A century later, a review of 100 studies of influenza in pregnancy found that especially when pregnant women developed complications from influenza, they were at risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and preterm birth.

Having a fever during pregnancy (a temperature that's higher than 100 degrees Fahrenheit) is linked with an increased miscarriage risk. If you do catch the flu or COVID-19, your doctor may advise you to keep your fever controlled with Tylenol (acetaminophen) while you are sick.

Remember: Always ask your doctor before taking any over-the-counter pill while you're pregnant because many—like Sudafed (pseudoephedrine), Dayquil (acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, phenylephrine), Aleve (naproxen), Advil (ibuprofen), Motrin (ibuprofen), Bayer (aspirin), and Excedrin (aspirin, paracetamol, caffeine)—are not considered safe.

It's important to note that the flu does carry other concerns for people who are pregnant. During the 2009 H1N1 flu (swine flu) pandemic, for example, people who contracted the flu while pregnant had an increased risk of preterm delivery (having the baby before 37 weeks), infant death, and intensive care unit admissions.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), pregnant people with COVID-19 are also at higher risk of preterm delivery. While higher rates of pregnancy loss are suspected, there is no definitive data on miscarriage risk and COVID-19.

Flu Vaccine

The flu vaccination has been studied extensively and does not appear to pose any risk with regard to miscarriage. Both the CDC and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend the flu vaccine for all pregnant people at any point in pregnancy.

The vaccine protects not only pregnant people but also their babies, who are born with some protection against flu viruses.

The Safety of the Flu Shot While Breastfeeding

COVID-19 Vaccine

Data collected by the CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regarding the COVID vaccine "did not identify any safety concerns for pregnant people who were vaccinated or for their babies."

Animal studies have also not revealed any adverse outcomes in pregnant animals or their offspring. Based on this evidence, the CDC recommends that pregnant people receive the COVID-19 vaccine to help protect against infection and possible severe illness.

Symptoms

A cold, the flu, and COVID-19 can all cause similar symptoms even though they're triggered by different viruses. Symptoms may include fever, fatigue, body aches, and dry cough.

With a cold, a person is more likely to have rhinorrhea (a stuffy and runny nose). Furthermore, colds usually don't have the potential to lead to more serious problems that would result in hospitalization, such as pneumonia or more severe bacterial infections.

With the flu or COVID-19, symptoms may hit suddenly and are typically more severe than those of a cold. Based on your symptoms alone, your physician may have trouble distinguishing a cold from the flu or COVID-19 because they're so similar. However, tests can be done to distinguish among them and determine the appropriate treatment.

Risk Factors

Although anyone can catch a virus, viral infections are more common among the following populations:

  • People who are pregnant
  • Older people
  • Children
  • People with chronic medical conditions, such as asthma or heart disease

Complications

Fortunately, most people who get the flu recover after a few days. However, some people do develop pneumonia, a serious lung infection that can sometimes be deadly. Other respiratory infections can also result from the flu, including bronchitis and sinusitis.

The flu also can result in an ear infection (the middle ear is connected to the respiratory tract) and exacerbate other illnesses.

For example, the flu can make asthma worse and serve as a trigger for asthma attacks. Additionally, the flu can make heart failure worse.

The CDC has found that pregnant people with COVID-19 are at increased risk of severe illness. This may result in hospital admission requiring intensive care treatment and/or the use of a ventilator to help with breathing.

Prevention

There are some key steps that you can take to lower your risk of contracting a viral infection. In addition to getting vaccinated, avoid close contact with people who are sick, wash your hands frequently for at least 20 seconds, avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth, and disinfect things that you touch a lot (like your phone, your computer, doorknobs and light switches, and so on).

Of course, general health habits like getting enough sleep, eating nutritious foods, being active, managing stress, and staying hydrated can all boost your immune system and help you fend off disease.

What Pregnant Women Need to Know About Coronavirus

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Verywell Family uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Bloom-Feshbach K, Simonsen L, Viboud C et al. Natality decline and miscarriages associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic: the Scandinavian and United States experiences. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(8):1157-64. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir510

  2. Meijer WJ, van Noortwijk AG, Bruinse HW, Wensing AM. Influenza virus infection in pregnancy: a review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015;94(8):797-819. doi:10.1111/aogs.12680

  3. Tolandi T. Patient education: miscarriage (beyond the basics). UpToDate.

  4. Doyle TJ, Goodin K, Hamilton J. Maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) illness in Florida, 2009-2010: a population-based cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e79040. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079040

  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pregnant and recently pregnant people. Updated July 3, 2021.

  6. McMillan M, Porritt K, Kralik D, Costi L, Marshall H. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy: a systematic review of fetal death, spontaneous abortion, and congenital malformation safety outcomes. Vaccine. 2015;33(18):2108-17. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.068

  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 vaccines while pregnant or breastfeeding. Updated June 29, 2021.

  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. People at high risk for flu complications. Updated August 27, 2018l.

  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pregnant women and influenza (flu). Updated December 20, 2019.

Additional Reading
  • Giakoumelou S, Wheelhouse N, Cuschieri K, Entrican G, Howie SE, Horne AW. The role of infection in miscarriage. Hum Reprod Update. 2016;22(1):116-33. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmv041

  • Loubet P, Kerneis S, Anselem O, Tsatsaris V, Goffinet F, Launay O. Should expectant mothers be vaccinated against flu? A safety review. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014;13(12):1709-20. doi:10.1517/14740338.2014.977252

Источник: https://www.verywellfamily.com/colds-flu-pregnancy-cause-miscarriage-2371423

How to Get Rid of a Cough During Pregnancy

Coughing during pregnancy is normal and can occur at any time due to hormonal changes. These changes can make a women a bit more sensitive to allergies, or more prone to catching respiratory viruses.

To relieve coughing during pregnancy, avoid prolonged exposure to cold temperatures, and avoid exposure to heavily polluted or dusty places. Pregnant women should also drink about 2 liters of water a day, and are encouraged to drink warm teas, with honey and lemon (which can help relieve coughs naturally).

If a cough does not resolve over time, or if it is accompanied by other symptoms (like fever or shortness of breath), consult your doctor to identify the possible cause and start appropriate treatment.

How to relieve a cough naturally

Ensuring your throat is moisturized is key for reducing and managing coughs. Some additional tips that can help relieve excess coughing during pregnancy are:

  • Taking sips of water (preferably water that is at room temperature)
  • Swallowing 1 spoonful of honey
  • Inhaling steam from a basin of hot water. You can also add 2 drops of eucalyptus essential oil to the hot water

A useful tip for pregnant women who experience coughing at night is to hug a pillow or cushion when coughing, because it lessens the pressure felt with coughing in the abdominal area.

Can cough medications be used?

In some cases, especially when the dry cough is panful and lasts for a long time and pain is felt in the belly, the doctor may prescribe a cough syrup or antihistamine, like cetirizine, for relief.

If the cough is accompanied with phlegm, medication may not be recommended as it reduces the cough and, in this case, it’s important to help eliminate secretions from the lungs and airways.

When to go to the doctor 

Some warning signs that may indicate the need to go to the doctor are:

  • Persistent cough
  • Coughing up blood
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing;
  • Fever
  • Chills or shivering

These signs and symptoms can indicate complications, such as a bacterial infection that requires the use of antibiotics for treatment. The doctor will assess your symptoms and auscultate the your chest, to ensure adequate air entry throughout the lungs. Imaging tests may be ordered to assess whether the cough is being caused by disease or illness.

Does coughing during pregnancy harm the baby?

Coughing during pregnancy doesn't harm the baby, as it isn't a dangerous symptom and the baby doesn't feel it. However, some causes of coughing can harm the baby, such as illnesses like asthma, bronchitis, or pneumonia. Some teas, home remedies, and pharmaceutical products that are taken without the doctor's knowledge can also cause coughing and may be harmful to the baby.

Pregnant women should see a doctor whenever they experience a persistent cough or if signs of a respiratory illness emerge, so that treatment with medications can be safely supervised.

Intense coughing doesn’t cause uterine contractions, nor does it displace the placenta, but it can be very uncomfortable and cause pain in the abdominal muscles when it’s repetitive. Therefore, it is always ideal to seek medical attention if you are coughing, and to rest as much as possible.

Источник: https://www.tuasaude.com/en/cough-during-pregnancy/

8 of the best home remedies to soothe a cough naturally, according to doctors

  • The best way to stop a cough at home is drinking hot tea with lemon and honey. 
  • Other home remedies to stop coughing include gargling saltwater or consuming thyme.
  • If your cough is dry and due to irritation or allergies, invest in an air purifier or humidifier. 
  • Visit Insider's Health Reference library for more advice.

Coughing is a natural reflex that occurs when something irritates your throat or airways. Occasional coughs are normal and even healthy as they help the body flush out built-up mucus and debris. However, that doesn't make them any less painful or exhausting. 

The most common causes of coughing are: 

  • Irritation from sources like cigarette smoke or pollutants 
  • Bacterial infections like bronchitis or sinusitis 
  • Allergies
  • Asthma
  • Viral illnesses like the cold or flu 

Coughs caused by asthma, infections, and allergies should be treated by a healthcare provider. However, if your cough continues to linger after a viral infection or is the result of irritation, here are eight tips to help treat it at home.   

1. Take honey

Honey is highly viscous and works similarly to a cough drop. When it is consumed, it coats the lining of the throat, alleviating soreness or scratchiness. Most types of honey that are studied for use in coughs are dark honey, like dark buckwheat honey, rather than the more commonly available clover honey.

Related
4 science-backed benefits of honey and which type is healthiest for you

A 2007 study published in the Journal Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine found that honey was more effective in treating nighttime coughs than Dextromethorphan, a common cough medicine, which is generally not recommended for children — especially under age 6.

The study consisted of 105 children from ages two to 18 years old. Thirty minutes before the children went to sleep their parents administered either a dose of honey, Dextromethorphan, or no treatment at all. Honey was the most effective treatment for reducing the severity of the child's cough and improving their sleep.

Honey also has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties — which may contribute to its relieving effect. These properties help fight off infections and can boost your immune system. 

While you can consume honey plain, adding it to warm tea may increase its soothing effect on the throat.  

Important: Children under the age of one shouldn't take honey, because it can contain bacteria that cause infant botulism, a rare but life-threatening illness. 

2. Gargle saltwater 

Gargling salt water can help kill bacteria and loosen mucus in your throat. Loosening mucus in your throat will help clear your sinuses and get rid of your cough faster. A saltwater gargle can also help reduce swelling and irritation caused by persistent coughing.

Although most people prefer to gargle warm salt water, cold water may have the same relieving effect on your cough. "It really just depends on what feels best to the particular person to soothe the cough that they have," says Jason McKnight, MD, clinical professor at Texas A&M University. Though, warm water may help the salt dissolve faster.  

Note: For best results, add one-fourth to half a teaspoon of salt to an eight-ounce glass of water. 

3. Try ginger

Ginger is a tropical plant commonly used as a dietary supplement. It can help treat various health issues including nausea, the common cold, or chemotherapy symptoms. 

Like honey, the bioactive compounds in ginger have antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger also has a spicy taste, which stimulates saliva production, and can help improve a dry mouth or throat. 

McKnight says reactions to consuming spices, herbs, and spicy foods may vary between people who have a cough. For some, it may be helpful, but for others, it can cause further irritation and worsen your hacking. 

Most people consume ginger via fresh or dry ginger root, though, you can also take it as a supplement in either a capsule or tincture formulation. 

For added cough-relieving capabilities, try adding ginger and honey to your tea. 

4. Breathe in steam 

Breathing in steam helps loosen nasal congestion. This will make blowing your nose easier and, if you're experiencing post-nasal drip, release built-up mucus in the throat. Because steam can moisturize a sore throat, it may also provide pain relief. 

For temporary relief, try breathing in steam from a boiling pot of water. Once the water begins to produce steam, take it off the stove, and place your face above it. Drape a towel over your head to help trap the steam, but be careful not to get too close or you may burn yourself. You can also get a similar effect by taking a hot shower. 

A humidifier may also be a good option to help keep your sinuses clear during the winter or if you live in a dry climate. Humidifiers add moisture to the air by emitting water vapor or steam into a room. 

Related
The 3 best humidifiers we tested in 2021

The size of your humidifier will determine how much area it will cover. McKnight says they usually only add enough moisture for one room, so it is best to keep it in a place where you spend the majority of your time, such as the bedroom. 

If you do use a humidifier, be sure to change the water frequently and keep it clean so you don't accidentally end up spreading mold or bacteria around your home. 

5. Invest in an air purifier 

Air purifiers help remove allergens from your home that trigger sneezing, coughing, and a runny nose. They work by moving the air in your home through a series of filters that clear mold, bacteria, or dust — producing fresh, clean air.

Related
The 3 best air purifiers for allergies, smoke, viruses, and more in 2021

McKnight says that air purifiers may be especially helpful for people who suffer from seasonal allergies. Like humidifiers, air purifiers tend to be effective in just one room, so remember to place it wisely. It's also important to regularly clean purifiers to ensure the filters work properly. 

6. Use marshmallow root 

Marshmallow root is an herbal supplement thought to soothe irritated mucous membranes located in the throat and mouth. The roots and leaves of marshmallow contain a thick substance called mucilage. When mixed with water, mucilage forms a gel-like texture that can coat the throat, much like honey. 

A 2018 study published in Complementary Medicine Research with over 800 participants found that both lozenges and marshmallow root extract helped treat dry coughs. Most participants saw their symptoms improve within 10 minutes of taking the extract.

Marshmallow root is available in dried leaf form, teas, tinctures, or capsules. 

7. Consume thyme 

Thyme is an herb thought to soothe smooth muscle spasms, including those caused by coughing. 

A 2006 study published in the German journal, Drug Research, found that a combined treatment of thyme and ivy improved coughing and other symptoms of acute bronchitis. 

To relieve coughing, thyme can be consumed as a tincture, herbal tea, or in pill form. 

8. Drink water

One of the easiest and safest ways to improve your cough is to stay hydrated. Drinking water helps thin mucus, allowing it to leave the body through your mouth or nose. It can also help those who are sick replace lost fluids from sweating or having a runny nose. 

When to see a doctor for your cough

  • Trouble catching your breath
  • Coughing up blood or discolored mucus
  • Fever
  • Headaches
  • Persists for several weeks 

Note: It is not uncommon for a cough to continue even after you stop feeling sick, says Susan Roberman, MD, a clinical assistant professor at Texas A&M University. 

Insider's takeaway

Although some home remedies like drinking tea with honey or gargling warm salt water may help you stop coughing, they won't treat an underlying illness. That's why Roberman advises you to first address any illness or condition that may be causing the cough before working on alleviating the symptoms. 

"If your cough is caused by smoking or tobacco use, no home remedy is going to help you," says Roberman. Likewise, she says if your cough is the result of allergies, asthma, or an infection, you should try to take medication for the underlying condition before relying on these home remedies. 

Источник: https://www.insider.com/how-to-stop-coughing

Natural cough remedies: Cure a cough from the comfort of your home

  • We earn a commission for products purchased through some links in this article.

  • Natural cough remedies are a great way to beat a cold or just a sore throat without reaching for the medicine cabinet.

    In a time when you’ve got to figure out the difference between coronavirus and hay fever if you get a tickly throat in the summer, or whether your cough is actually a symptom of the flu rather than a result of the pandemic, it’s important to have a few tricks up your sleeve.

    Just like natural remedies for anxiety, coughs can be treated at home without medication with one of these cures. From all the family favourites to clever new finds, if you’re only leaving the house for essentials, this is what you should add to the shopping list.

    Natural cough remedies

    Honey

    Honey being drizzled from the jar

    Credit: Getty

    We’ve all heard that honey does a great job of soothing irritated throats, it’s one of the most well known cures out there. But new research published in the British Medical Journal, released during the Covid-19 pandemic has put honey up there as “superior to usual care for the improvement of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections.”

    Researchers analysed studies that compared the effects of consuming honey in forms like teas, on its own or mixed with other ingredients to usual care, such as antibiotics or over-the-counter-medication like cough syrups. The study then compared the symptoms such as the severity of the cough, the frequency of coughs and the length of time the symptoms persisted for.

    They discovered that compared to usual care, honey had a significantly greater effect in reducing the symptoms – especially the severity of the cough and the frequency of coughs.

    The conclusion to the study revealed that honey is not only better than other alternatives for treating coughs naturally, but it also “provides a widely available and cheap alternative to antibiotics. Honey could help efforts to slow the spread of antimicrobial resistance, but further high quality, placebo controlled trials are needed.”

    Dr Susan Hopkins, epidemiologist, infectious diseases consultant and deputy director of Public Health England, has previously said that this is a huge problem we’re facing at the moment. “We need to take action now to reduce antibiotic use.” She said, adding that new guidelines have been recently released to support GPs to reduce antibiotic prescriptions.

    “We encourage patients to take their GP’s advice about self-care.”

    Instead of just adding honey to water, make it even more effective by adding a pinch of black pepper and a squeeze of lemon juice. People also sometimes combine a squeeze of honey with hot water, a slice of lemon and some fresh ginger which has soothing, anti-inflammatory properties.

    Ginger and garlic

    ginger and garlic, two of the natural cough remedies that are most effective

    Credit: Getty

    For millenniums, ginger and garlic have been hailed as cure-alls for everything from heart diseases to the common cough. And there’s a reason for that, as research has now proven that ginger and garlic contain anti-viral agents which help to reduce the impact of coughs and reduce the length of them.

    Multiplestudies have shown that garlic has immune system-boosting properties because of a compound in it called alliin, which turns into another compound called allicin when when it’s diced up or chewed. These compounds trigger our white blood cells, essential in our immune response to disease, to kick into action and fight viruses that commonly cause colds and flus.

    Ginger has recently been subject to a new study released in December 2020 as well. The findings showed that fresh ginger could stimulate our cells to move towards sites of inflammation, infection and trauma in our bodies, helping us to recover from a cough or cold. But also, the study showed that ginger was effective in helping to prevent viruses from attaching to our airways, stopping us from getting the cough in the first place.

    To make ginger and garlic edible together, you should blend fresh ginger root with a few cloves of fresh garlic and a little water to make a paste, then add a small amount to hot water, stir and drink throughout the day.

    Thyme

    bowl full of thyme, one of the natural remedies for a cough

    Credit: Getty

    Thyme has antibacterial, anti-fungal and expectorant (ridding the body of excess mucus) properties. One study showed that a fluid extract containing thyme herb and ivy leaves helped to reduce coughing fits in a group of adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. While it may not have quite the same effect, you may want to try steeping time leaves in hot water for 15-20 minutes to make a tea to try and ease your cough.

    Chocolate

    chocolate in a jar with scattering cubes around it

    Credit: Getty

    Apparently dreams do come true – recent scientific studies have shown that chocolate is actually better at treating a cough than standard medicine!

    According to Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE, a general practitioner in London, this is due to two reasons. The first is that chocolate, like honey, “forms a sticky coating on the throat that can protect the nerve endings which get irritated when you have a cold”, therefore helping to calm the cough itself. The second finding is that cocoa contains a substance called theobromine, which “has proved to be quite promising in studies looking a suppressing coughs.” The theobromine is believed to help with coughs as it cuts down the body’s need to splutter.

    These reasons give us excuse enough to treat ourselves! However, before tucking in on a whole load of chocolate at once, it’s important to know that there is a certain way that you need to eat it in order for it to help as a natural cough remedy: by slowly sucking on a single square of dark chocolate.

    Dark chocolate has less sugar and higher doses of cocoa than the milky version, which will provide a quick relief for a tickly throat.

    Liquorice root

    Natural cough remedies liquorice roots

    Credit: Getty

    The sweet liquorice herb has been used for centuries to as one of the natural cough remedies treat sore throats and alleviate coughing. Similarly to honey, it is a demulcent, which works to coat the irritated membranes in your throat and calm down the cough.

    One study from 2015 has suggested that liquorice could be effective at preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi and even some viruses, alongside having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.  While another from 2018 relays the results from a study on mice, where it was discovered that some components in liquorice could reduce the frequency of coughs by between 30 and 78%

    Place one teaspoon of the dried herb into two cups of water and boil. Allow it to steep before drinking. Equally, many cough syrups contain licorice extract. But licorice root is not suitable to give to children, so it’s best to only use for yourself.

    Pineapple

    a row of pineapples, one fruit that's considered a good natural cough remedy

    Credit: Getty

    Pineapple might not seem like one of the most conventional natural cough remedies, especially on a dark winter’s evening when you’d much rather have a cup of hot chocolate than a pina colada.

    But bromelain, an enzyme found in the flesh of the tropical fruit, has been proven to suppress coughs and loosen mucus in the throat, the perfect treatment for a cough and a great natural remedy. Make sure you eat fresh pineapple, rather than a smoothie or dried versions for the best results.

    Gurgling with salt and water

    Black Friday 2021

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    We’ve all heard of this one before but is it actually true? Well, in 2005 researchers surveyed 400 healthy volunteers and tracked their progress for 60 days during the cold and flu season. While some of the participants in the study were told to gargle three times a day, others weren’t. By the end, the group that regularly gurgled had almost 40 percent fewer infections in their upper respiratory tract compared to those who didn’t gurgle.

    The study also concluded that “gargling tended to attenuate bronchial symptoms” so it might be unpleasant, but these researchers are suggesting that a quick gurgle with some salt and water could be a winner for both curing and preventing any nasty coughs.

    Источник: https://www.goodto.com/wellbeing/wellbeing-news/natural-cough-remedies-104739

    First Aid: Sore Throat

    First AidSore throats are common at any age and can be one of the first signs of another illness, like a cold, the flu, or mononucleosis (mono). They also can be caused by a strep throat infection, although this is rare in children younger than 2 years old.

    Signs and Symptoms

    • painful throat
    • fever
    • swollen glands in the neck
    • bad breath
    • scratchiness in the throat
    • redness in the back of the mouth

    What to Do

    Here are some ways kids can relieve sore throat pain:

    • sip warm liquids
    • eat cold or frozen liquids (such as ice pops)
    • gargle with saltwater
    • suck on hard candy or throat lozenges (for kids age 4 or older)
    • take ibuprofen or acetaminophen as needed

    Get Medical Care if Your Child:

    • has trouble swallowing
    • isn't drinking liquids
    • is drooling (in a young child)
    • feels very tired
    • has pus in the back of the throat
    • has a sore throat that lasts longer than a few days

    Think Prevention!

    As with most common illnesses, preventing a sore throat starts with regular hand washing. Kids also can avoid sore throats by:

    • not sharing food utensils and glasses with others
    • avoiding contact with people who have sore throats or cold symptoms
    Источник: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/sore-throat-sheet.html

    Natural cough remedies: Cure a cough from the comfort of your home

  • We earn a commission for products purchased through some links in this article.

  • Natural cough remedies are a great way to beat a cold or just a sore throat without reaching for the medicine cabinet.

    In a time when you’ve got to figure out the difference between coronavirus and hay fever if you get a tickly throat in the summer, or whether your cough is actually a symptom of the flu rather than a result of the pandemic, it’s important to have a few tricks up your sleeve.

    Just like natural remedies for anxiety, coughs can be treated at home without medication with one of these cures. From all the family favourites to clever new finds, if you’re only leaving the house for essentials, this is what you should add to the shopping list.

    Natural cough remedies

    Honey

    Honey being drizzled from the jar

    Credit: Getty

    We’ve all heard that honey does a great job of soothing irritated throats, it’s one of the most well known cures out there. But new research published in the British Medical Journal, released during the Covid-19 pandemic has put honey up there as “superior to usual care for the improvement of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections.”

    Researchers analysed studies that compared the effects of consuming honey in forms like teas, on its own or mixed with other ingredients to usual care, such as antibiotics or over-the-counter-medication like cough syrups. The study then compared the symptoms such as the severity of the cough, the frequency of coughs and the length of time the symptoms persisted for.

    They discovered that compared to usual care, honey had a significantly greater effect in reducing the symptoms – especially the severity of the cough and the frequency of coughs.

    The conclusion to the study revealed that honey is not only better than other alternatives for treating coughs naturally, but it also “provides a widely available and cheap alternative to antibiotics. Honey could help efforts to slow the spread of antimicrobial resistance, but further high quality, placebo controlled trials are needed.”

    Dr Susan Hopkins, epidemiologist, infectious home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy consultant and deputy director of Public Health England, has previously said that this is a huge problem we’re facing at the moment. “We need to take action now to reduce antibiotic use.” She said, adding that new guidelines have been recently released to support GPs to reduce antibiotic prescriptions.

    “We encourage patients to take their GP’s advice about self-care.”

    Instead of just adding honey to water, make it even more effective by adding a pinch of black pepper and a squeeze of lemon juice. People also sometimes combine a squeeze of honey with hot water, a slice of lemon and some fresh ginger which has soothing, anti-inflammatory properties.

    Ginger and garlic

    ginger and garlic, two of the natural cough remedies that are most effective

    Credit: Getty

    For millenniums, ginger and garlic have been hailed as cure-alls for everything from heart diseases to the common cough. And there’s a reason for that, as research has now proven that ginger and garlic contain anti-viral agents which help to reduce the impact of coughs and reduce the length of them.

    Multiplestudies have shown that garlic has immune system-boosting properties because of a compound in it called alliin, which turns into another compound called allicin when when it’s diced up or chewed. These compounds trigger our white blood cells, essential in our immune response to disease, to kick into action and fight viruses that commonly cause colds and flus.

    Ginger has recently been subject to a new study released in December 2020 as well. The findings showed that fresh ginger could stimulate our cells to move towards sites of inflammation, infection and trauma in our bodies, helping us to recover from a cough or cold. But also, the study showed that ginger was effective in helping to prevent viruses from attaching to our airways, stopping us from getting the cough in the first place.

    To make ginger and garlic edible together, you should blend fresh ginger root with a few cloves of fresh garlic and a little water to make a paste, then add a small amount to hot water, stir and drink throughout the day.

    Thyme

    bowl full of thyme, one of the natural remedies for a cough

    Credit: Getty

    Thyme has antibacterial, anti-fungal and expectorant (ridding the body of excess mucus) properties. One study showed that a fluid extract containing thyme herb and ivy leaves helped to reduce coughing fits in a group of adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. While it may not have quite the same effect, you may want to try steeping time leaves in hot water for 15-20 minutes to make a tea to try and ease your cough.

    Chocolate

    chocolate in a jar with scattering cubes around it

    Credit: Getty

    Apparently dreams do come true – recent scientific studies have shown that chocolate is actually better at treating a cough than standard medicine!

    According to Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE, a general practitioner in London, this is due to two reasons. The first is that chocolate, like honey, “forms a sticky coating on the throat that can protect the nerve endings which get irritated when you have a cold”, therefore helping to calm the cough itself. The second finding is that cocoa contains a substance called theobromine, which “has proved to be quite promising in studies looking a suppressing coughs.” The theobromine is believed to help with coughs as it cuts down the body’s need to splutter.

    These reasons give us excuse enough to treat ourselves! However, before tucking in on a whole load of chocolate at once, it’s important to know that there is a certain way that you need to eat it in order for it to help as a natural cough remedy: by slowly sucking on a single square of dark chocolate.

    Dark chocolate has less sugar and higher doses of cocoa than the milky version, which will heritage bank wa a quick relief for a tickly throat.

    Liquorice root

    Natural cough remedies liquorice roots

    Credit: Getty

    The sweet liquorice herb has been used for centuries to as one of the natural cough remedies treat sore throats and alleviate coughing. Similarly to honey, it is a demulcent, which works to coat the irritated membranes in your throat and calm down the cough.

    One study from 2015 has suggested that liquorice could be effective at preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi and even some viruses, alongside having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.  While another from 2018 relays the results from a study on mice, where it was discovered that some components in liquorice could reduce the frequency of coughs by between 30 and 78%

    Place one teaspoon of the dried herb into two cups of water and boil. Allow it to steep before drinking. Equally, many cough syrups contain licorice extract. But licorice root is not suitable to give to children, so it’s best to only use for yourself.

    Pineapple

    a row of pineapples, one fruit that's considered a good natural cough remedy

    Credit: Getty

    Pineapple might not seem like one of the most conventional natural cough remedies, especially on a dark winter’s evening when you’d much rather have a cup of hot chocolate than a pina colada.

    But bromelain, an enzyme found in the flesh home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy the tropical fruit, has been proven to suppress coughs and loosen mucus in the throat, the perfect treatment for a cough and a great natural remedy. Make sure you eat fresh pineapple, rather than a smoothie or dried versions for the best results.

    Gurgling with salt and water

    Black Friday 2021

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    We’ve all heard of this one before but is it actually true? Well, in 2005 researchers surveyed 400 healthy volunteers and tracked their progress for 60 days during the cold and flu season. While some of the participants in the study were told to gargle three times home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy day, others weren’t. By the end, the group that regularly gurgled had almost 40 percent fewer infections in their upper respiratory tract compared to those who didn’t gurgle.

    The study also concluded that “gargling tended to attenuate bronchial symptoms” so it might be unpleasant, but these researchers are suggesting that a quick gurgle with some salt and water could be a winner for both curing and preventing any nasty coughs.

    Источник: https://www.goodto.com/wellbeing/wellbeing-news/natural-cough-remedies-104739

    First Aid: Sore Throat

    First AidSore throats are common at any age and can be one of the first signs of another illness, like a cold, the flu, or mononucleosis (mono). They also can be caused by a strep throat infection, although this is rare in children younger than 2 years old.

    Signs and Symptoms

    • painful throat
    • fever
    • swollen glands in the neck
    • bad breath
    • scratchiness in the throat
    • redness in the back of the mouth

    What to Do

    Here are some ways kids can relieve sore throat pain:

    • sip warm liquids
    • eat cold or frozen liquids (such as ice pops)
    • gargle with saltwater
    • suck on hard candy or throat lozenges (for kids age 4 or older)
    • take ibuprofen or acetaminophen as needed

    Get Medical Care if Your Child:

    • has trouble swallowing
    • isn't drinking liquids
    • is drooling (in a young child)
    • feels very tired
    • has pus in the back of the throat
    • has a sore throat that lasts longer than a few days

    Think Prevention!

    As with most common illnesses, preventing a sore throat starts with regular hand washing. Kids also can avoid sore throats by:

    • not sharing food utensils and glasses with others
    • avoiding contact with people who have sore throats or cold symptoms
    Источник: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/sore-throat-sheet.html

    Cold or Flu During Pregnancy and Miscarriage

    Winter is cold season, and it can be hard to avoid catching a virus during those months. Should you be especially worried about common winter viruses if you're pregnant? Could a cold, flu, or COVID-19 cause harm to a baby or trigger a miscarriage? Find out more below. 

    Miscarriage Risk

    Although cold and flu viruses can certainly make you uncomfortable (especially if you're pregnant and certain medications are off-limits), they aren't likely to cause miscarriage.

    During the 1918 flu pandemic, the influenza virus clearly played a role in miscarriages. It's thought that one in 10 pregnant women had early miscarriages during that time, over and above what would be considered the expected incidence.

    A century later, a review of 100 studies of influenza in pregnancy found that especially when pregnant women developed home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy from influenza, they were at risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and preterm birth.

    Having a fever during pregnancy (a temperature that's higher than 100 degrees Fahrenheit) is linked with an increased miscarriage risk. If you do catch the flu or COVID-19, your doctor may advise you to keep your fever controlled with Tylenol (acetaminophen) while you are sick.

    Remember: Always ask your doctor before taking any over-the-counter pill while you're pregnant because many—like Sudafed (pseudoephedrine), Dayquil (acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, phenylephrine), Aleve (naproxen), Advil (ibuprofen), Motrin (ibuprofen), Bayer (aspirin), and Excedrin (aspirin, paracetamol, caffeine)—are not considered safe.

    It's important to note that the flu does carry other concerns for people who are pregnant. During the 2009 H1N1 flu (swine flu) pandemic, for example, people who contracted the flu while pregnant had an increased risk of preterm delivery (having the baby before 37 weeks), infant death, and intensive care unit admissions.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), pregnant people with COVID-19 are also at higher risk of preterm delivery. While higher rates of pregnancy loss are suspected, there is no definitive data on miscarriage risk and COVID-19.

    Flu Vaccine

    The flu vaccination has been studied extensively and does not appear to pose any risk with regard to miscarriage. Both the CDC and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend the flu vaccine for all pregnant people at any point in pregnancy.

    The vaccine protects not only pregnant people but also their babies, who are born with some protection against flu viruses.

    The Safety of the Flu Shot While Breastfeeding

    COVID-19 Vaccine

    Data collected by the CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regarding the COVID vaccine "did not identify any safety concerns for pregnant people who were vaccinated or for their babies."

    Animal studies have also not revealed any adverse outcomes in pregnant animals or their offspring. Based on this evidence, the CDC recommends that pregnant people receive the COVID-19 vaccine to help protect against infection and possible severe illness.

    Symptoms

    A cold, the flu, and COVID-19 can all cause similar symptoms even though they're triggered by different viruses. Symptoms may include fever, fatigue, body aches, and dry cough.

    With a cold, a person is more likely to have rhinorrhea (a stuffy and runny nose). Furthermore, colds usually don't have the potential to lead to more serious problems that would result in hospitalization, such as pneumonia or more severe bacterial infections.

    With the flu or COVID-19, symptoms may hit suddenly and are typically more severe than those of a cold. Based on your symptoms alone, your physician may have trouble distinguishing a cold from the flu or Is today a federal holiday no mail because they're so similar. However, tests can be done to distinguish among them and determine the appropriate treatment.

    Risk Factors

    Although anyone can catch a virus, viral infections are more common among the following populations:

    • People who are pregnant
    • Older people
    • Children
    • People with chronic medical conditions, such as asthma or heart disease

    Complications

    Fortunately, most people who get the flu recover after a few days. However, some people do develop pneumonia, a serious lung infection that can sometimes be deadly. Other respiratory infections can also result from the flu, including bronchitis and sinusitis.

    The flu also can result in an ear infection (the middle ear is connected to the respiratory tract) and exacerbate other illnesses.

    For example, the flu can make asthma worse and serve as a trigger for asthma attacks. Additionally, the flu can make heart failure worse.

    The CDC has found that pregnant people with COVID-19 are at increased risk of severe illness. This may result in hospital admission requiring intensive care treatment and/or the use of a ventilator to help with breathing.

    Prevention

    There are some key steps that you can take to lower your risk of contracting a viral infection. In addition to getting vaccinated, avoid close contact with people who are sick, wash your hands frequently for at least 20 seconds, avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth, and disinfect things that you touch a lot (like your phone, your computer, doorknobs and light switches, and so on).

    Of course, general health habits like getting enough sleep, eating nutritious foods, being active, managing stress, and staying hydrated can all boost your immune system and help you fend off disease.

    What Pregnant Women Need to Know About Coronavirus

    Thanks for your feedback!

    Verywell Family uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

    1. Bloom-Feshbach K, Simonsen L, Viboud C et al. Natality decline and miscarriages associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic: the Scandinavian and United States experiences. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(8):1157-64. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir510

    2. Meijer WJ, van Noortwijk AG, Bruinse HW, Wensing AM. Influenza virus infection in pregnancy: a review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015;94(8):797-819. doi:10.1111/aogs.12680

    3. Tolandi T. Patient education: miscarriage (beyond the basics). UpToDate.

    4. Doyle TJ, Goodin K, Hamilton J. Maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) illness in Florida, 2009-2010: a population-based cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e79040. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079040

    5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pregnant and recently pregnant people. Updated July 3, 2021.

    6. McMillan M, Porritt K, Kralik D, Costi L, Marshall H. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy: a systematic review of fetal death, spontaneous abortion, and congenital malformation safety outcomes. Vaccine. 2015;33(18):2108-17. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.068

    7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 vaccines while pregnant or breastfeeding. Updated June 29, 2021.

    8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. People at high risk for flu complications. Updated August 27, 2018l.

    9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pregnant women and influenza (flu). Updated December 20, 2019.

    Additional Reading
    • Giakoumelou S, Wheelhouse N, Cuschieri K, Entrican G, Howie SE, Horne AW. The role of infection in miscarriage. Hum Reprod Update. 2016;22(1):116-33. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmv041

    • Loubet P, Kerneis S, Anselem O, Tsatsaris V, Goffinet F, Launay O. Should expectant mothers be vaccinated against flu? A safety review. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014;13(12):1709-20. doi:10.1517/14740338.2014.977252

    Источник: https://www.verywellfamily.com/colds-flu-pregnancy-cause-miscarriage-2371423

    A sore throat at night can disturb your sleep and leave you feeling fatigued the following day. Luckily, most sore throats go away home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy a week without medical treatment. And while the condition lasts, there are plenty of home remedies to try that can reduce your discomfort and help you sleep.

    Causes of a Sore Throat at Night

    Viral infections cause the majority of sore throats, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The viruses that infect your throat are also responsible for other respiratory conditions, such as the common cold and the flu. A sore throat at night could also be caused by allergies, dry air in the bedroom, indoor air pollution or smoking.

    Another less common cause of this condition is a group A Streptococcus bacterial infection, otherwise known as strep throat. In addition to experiencing pain in the throat, this bacterial infection may cause red, swollen tonsils, tiny red spots at the back of the mouth, a fever, nausea, vomiting, swollen glands in the neck, headaches, body aches or a rash. Fortunately, only 5 to 15 of every 100 cases of sore throats in adults are due to strep throat — though in children, the incidence rate rises to every 20 to 30 cases in 100.

    Baylor College of Medicine lists some further causes of a sore throat at night:

    • Acid reflux, which is a condition where the stomach contents flow upward into the throat, causing pain and what team is jose bautista on in 2018, which is a whole-body, viral infection, often referred to as mono.
    • Muscle tension in the throat.
    • Tonsil stones, which consist of food debris embedded in the tonsils, resulting in inflammation of the tissues and discomfort.

    Home Remedies

    If you suffer from a sore throat at night, consider assessing the air conditions in your bedroom. The American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation recommends using a humidifier to help ease your symptoms. You should also consider increasing your liquids intake, drinking warm tea sweetened with honey and gargling with salt water. Dissolve a quarter teaspoon of salt in half a cup of warm water, gargle, spit it out and repeat a few times each day until your symptoms resolve.

    When to Seek Medical Treatment

    Though a sore throat often goes away on its own, it can sometimes be a symptom of something more serious. The CDC advises patients to seek medical care if their sore throat doesn't get better after one week.

    Additionally, you should seek urgent medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:

    • Blood in your phlegm or saliva
    • Dehydration
    • Difficulty breathing or swallowing
    • Hoarseness for longer than two weeks
    • Joint pain
    • Pus in the back of your throat
    • A rash
    • A temperature over 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit

    You should also see a medical professional if your sore throat keeps returning. In young children, excessive drooling sometimes indicates medical treatment may be required, explains the CDC.

    Losing sleep over a sore throat is annoying, but it's likely that the problem will resolve on its own after a few days. In the meantime, you can try these home remedies to find some relief. But if your symptoms persist or worsen, see a medical provider.

    Источник: https://www.colgate.com/en-us/oral-health/respiratory-conditions/sore-throat-at-night-causes-and-home-treatments

    How to Get Rid of a Cough During Pregnancy

    Coughing during pregnancy is normal and can occur at any time due to hormonal changes. These changes can make a women a bit more sensitive to allergies, or more prone to catching respiratory viruses.

    To relieve coughing during pregnancy, avoid prolonged exposure to cold temperatures, and avoid exposure to heavily polluted or dusty places. Pregnant women should also drink about 2 liters of water a day, and are encouraged to drink warm teas, with honey and lemon (which can help relieve coughs naturally).

    If a cough does not resolve over time, or if it is accompanied by other symptoms (like fever or shortness of breath), consult your doctor to identify the possible cause and start appropriate treatment.

    How to relieve a cough naturally

    Ensuring your throat is moisturized is key for reducing and managing coughs. Some additional tips that can help relieve excess coughing during pregnancy are:

    • Taking sips of water (preferably water that is at room temperature)
    • Swallowing 1 spoonful of honey
    • Inhaling steam from a basin of hot water. You can also add 2 drops of eucalyptus essential oil to the hot water

    A useful tip for pregnant women who experience coughing at night is to hug a pillow or cushion when coughing, because it lessens the pressure felt with coughing in the abdominal area.

    Can cough medications be used?

    In some cases, especially when the dry cough is panful and lasts for a long time and pain is felt in the belly, the doctor may prescribe a cough syrup or antihistamine, like cetirizine, for relief.

    If the cough is accompanied with phlegm, medication may not be recommended as it reduces the cough and, in this case, it’s important to help eliminate secretions from the lungs and airways.

    When to go to the doctor 

    Some warning signs that may indicate the need to go to the doctor are:

    • Persistent cough
    • Coughing up blood
    • Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing;
    • Fever
    • Chills or shivering

    These signs and symptoms can indicate complications, such as a bacterial infection my carmax auto finance login requires the use of antibiotics for treatment. The doctor will assess your symptoms and auscultate the your chest, to ensure adequate air entry throughout the lungs. Imaging tests may be ordered to assess whether the cough is being caused by disease or illness.

    Does coughing during pregnancy harm the baby?

    Coughing during pregnancy doesn't harm the baby, as it isn't a dangerous symptom and the baby doesn't feel it. However, some causes of coughing can harm the baby, such as illnesses like asthma, bronchitis, or pneumonia. Some teas, home remedies, and pharmaceutical products that are taken without the doctor's knowledge can also cause coughing and may be harmful to the baby.

    Pregnant women should see a doctor whenever they experience a persistent cough or if signs of a respiratory illness emerge, so that treatment with medications can be safely supervised.

    Intense coughing doesn’t cause uterine contractions, nor does it displace the placenta, but it can be very uncomfortable and cause pain in the abdominal muscles when it’s repetitive. Therefore, it is always ideal to seek medical attention if you are coughing, and to rest as much as possible.

    Источник: https://www.tuasaude.com/en/cough-during-pregnancy/

    8 of the best home remedies to soothe a cough naturally, according to doctors

    • The best way to stop a cough at home is drinking hot tea with lemon and honey. 
    • Other home remedies to stop coughing include gargling saltwater or consuming thyme.
    • If your cough is dry and due to irritation or allergies, invest in an air purifier or humidifier. 
    • Visit Insider's Health Reference library for more advice.

    Coughing is a natural reflex that occurs when something irritates your throat or airways. Occasional coughs are normal and even healthy as they help the body flush out built-up mucus and debris. However, that doesn't make them any less painful or exhausting. 

    The most common causes of coughing are: 

    • Irritation from sources like cigarette smoke or pollutants 
    • Bacterial infections like bronchitis or sinusitis 
    • Allergies
    • Asthma
    • Viral illnesses like the cold or flu 

    Coughs caused by asthma, infections, and allergies should be treated by a healthcare provider. However, if your cough continues to linger after a viral infection or is the result of irritation, here are eight tips to help treat home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy at home.   

    1. Take honey

    Honey is highly viscous and works similarly to a cough drop. When it is consumed, it coats the lining of the throat, alleviating soreness or scratchiness. Most types of honey that are studied for use in coughs are dark honey, like dark buckwheat honey, rather than the more commonly available clover honey.

    Related
    4 science-backed benefits of honey and which type is healthiest for you

    A 2007 study published in the Journal Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine found that honey was more effective in treating nighttime coughs than Dextromethorphan, a common cough medicine, which is generally not recommended for children — especially under age 6.

    The study consisted of 105 children from ages two to 18 years old. Thirty minutes before the children went to sleep their parents administered either a dose of honey, Dextromethorphan, or no treatment at all. Honey was the most effective treatment for reducing the severity of the child's cough and improving their sleep.

    Honey also has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties — which may contribute to its relieving effect. These properties help fight off infections and can boost your immune system. 

    While you can consume honey plain, adding it to warm tea may increase its soothing effect on the throat.  

    Important: Children under the age of one shouldn't take honey, because it can contain bacteria that cause infant botulism, a rare but life-threatening illness. 

    2. Gargle saltwater 

    Gargling salt water can help kill bacteria and loosen mucus in your throat. Loosening mucus in your throat will help clear your sinuses and get rid of your cough faster. A saltwater gargle can also help reduce swelling and irritation caused by persistent coughing.

    Although most people prefer to gargle warm salt water, cold water may have the same relieving effect on your cough. "It really just depends on what feels best to the particular person to soothe the cough that they have," says Jason McKnight, MD, clinical professor at Texas A&M University. Though, warm water may help the salt dissolve faster.  

    Note: For best results, add one-fourth to half a teaspoon of salt to an eight-ounce glass home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy water. 

    3. Try ginger

    Ginger is a tropical plant commonly used as a dietary supplement. It can help treat various health issues including nausea, the common cold, or chemotherapy symptoms. 

    Like honey, home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy bioactive compounds in ginger have antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger also has a spicy taste, which stimulates saliva production, and can help improve a dry mouth or throat. 

    McKnight says reactions to consuming spices, herbs, and spicy foods may vary between people who have a cough. For some, it may be helpful, but for others, it can cause further irritation and worsen your hacking. 

    Most people consume ginger via fresh or dry ginger root, though, you can also take it as a supplement in either a capsule or tincture formulation. 

    For added cough-relieving capabilities, try adding ginger and honey to your tea. 

    4. Breathe in steam 

    Breathing in steam helps loosen nasal congestion. This will make blowing your nose easier and, if you're experiencing post-nasal drip, release built-up mucus in the throat. Because steam can moisturize a sore throat, it may also provide pain relief. 

    For temporary relief, try breathing in steam from a boiling pot of water. Once the water begins to produce steam, take it off the stove, and place your face above home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy. Drape a towel over your head to help trap the steam, but be careful not to get too close or you may burn yourself. You can also get a similar effect by taking a hot shower. 

    A humidifier may also be a good option to help keep your sinuses clear pay kohls bill in store the winter or if you live in a dry climate. Humidifiers add moisture to the air by emitting water vapor or steam into a room. 

    Related
    The 3 best humidifiers we tested in 2021

    The size of your humidifier will determine how much area it will cover. McKnight says they usually only add enough moisture for one room, so it is best to keep it in a place where you spend the majority of your time, such as the bedroom. 

    If you do use a humidifier, be sure to change the water frequently and keep it clean so you don't accidentally end up spreading mold or bacteria around your home. 

    5. Invest in an air purifier 

    Air purifiers help remove allergens from your home that trigger sneezing, coughing, and a runny nose. They work by moving the air in your home through a series of filters that clear mold, bacteria, or dust — producing fresh, clean air.

    Related
    The 3 best air purifiers for allergies, smoke, viruses, and more in 2021

    McKnight says that air purifiers may be especially helpful for people who suffer from seasonal allergies. Like humidifiers, air purifiers tend to be effective in just one room, so remember to place it wisely. It's also important to regularly clean purifiers to ensure the filters work properly. 

    6. Use marshmallow root 

    Marshmallow root is an herbal supplement thought to soothe irritated mucous membranes located in the throat and mouth. The roots and leaves of marshmallow contain a thick substance called mucilage. When mixed with water, mucilage forms a gel-like texture that can coat the throat, much like honey. 

    A 2018 study published in Complementary Medicine Research with over 800 participants found that both lozenges and marshmallow root extract helped treat dry coughs. Most participants saw their symptoms improve within 10 minutes of taking the extract.

    Marshmallow root is available in dried leaf form, teas, tinctures, or capsules. 

    7. Consume thyme 

    Thyme is an herb thought to soothe smooth muscle spasms, including those caused by coughing. 

    A 2006 study published in the German journal, Drug Research, found that a combined treatment of thyme and ivy improved coughing and other symptoms of acute bronchitis. 

    To relieve coughing, thyme can be consumed as a tincture, herbal tea, or in pill form. 

    8. Drink water

    One of the easiest and safest ways to improve your cough is to stay hydrated. Drinking water helps thin mucus, allowing it to leave the body through your mouth or nose. It can also help those who are sick replace lost fluids from sweating or having a runny nose. 

    When to see a doctor for your cough

    • Trouble catching your breath
    • Coughing up blood or discolored mucus
    • Fever
    • Headaches
    • Persists for several weeks 

    Note: It is not uncommon for a cough to continue even after you stop feeling sick, says Susan Roberman, MD, a clinical assistant professor at Texas A&M University. 

    Insider's takeaway

    Although some home remedies like drinking tea with honey or gargling warm salt water may help you stop coughing, they won't treat an underlying illness. That's why Home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy advises you to first address any illness or condition that may be causing the cough before working on alleviating the symptoms. 

    "If your cough is caused by smoking or tobacco use, no home remedy is going to help you," says Roberman. Likewise, she says if your cough is the result of allergies, asthma, or an infection, you should try to take medication for the underlying condition before relying on these home remedies. 

    Источник: https://www.insider.com/how-to-stop-coughing

    Home remedies for cold and sore throat in pregnancy -

    How to Get Rid of a Cough During Pregnancy

    Coughing during pregnancy is normal and can occur at any time due to hormonal changes. These changes can make a women a bit more sensitive to allergies, or more prone to catching respiratory viruses.

    To relieve coughing during pregnancy, avoid prolonged exposure to cold temperatures, and avoid exposure to heavily polluted or dusty places. Pregnant women should also drink about 2 liters of water a day, and are encouraged to drink warm teas, with honey and lemon (which can help relieve coughs naturally).

    If a cough does not resolve over time, or if it is accompanied by other symptoms (like fever or shortness of breath), consult your doctor to identify the possible cause and start appropriate treatment.

    How to relieve a cough naturally

    Ensuring your throat is moisturized is key for reducing and managing coughs. Some additional tips that can help relieve excess coughing during pregnancy are:

    • Taking sips of water (preferably water that is at room temperature)
    • Swallowing 1 spoonful of honey
    • Inhaling steam from a basin of hot water. You can also add 2 drops of eucalyptus essential oil to the hot water

    A useful tip for pregnant women who experience coughing at night is to hug a pillow or cushion when coughing, because it lessens the pressure felt with coughing in the abdominal area.

    Can cough medications be used?

    In some cases, especially when the dry cough is panful and lasts for a long time and pain is felt in the belly, the doctor may prescribe a cough syrup or antihistamine, like cetirizine, for relief.

    If the cough is accompanied with phlegm, medication may not be recommended as it reduces the cough and, in this case, it’s important to help eliminate secretions from the lungs and airways.

    When to go to the doctor 

    Some warning signs that may indicate the need to go to the doctor are:

    • Persistent cough
    • Coughing up blood
    • Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing;
    • Fever
    • Chills or shivering

    These signs and symptoms can indicate complications, such as a bacterial infection that requires the use of antibiotics for treatment. The doctor will assess your symptoms and auscultate the your chest, to ensure adequate air entry throughout the lungs. Imaging tests may be ordered to assess whether the cough is being caused by disease or illness.

    Does coughing during pregnancy harm the baby?

    Coughing during pregnancy doesn't harm the baby, as it isn't a dangerous symptom and the baby doesn't feel it. However, some causes of coughing can harm the baby, such as illnesses like asthma, bronchitis, or pneumonia. Some teas, home remedies, and pharmaceutical products that are taken without the doctor's knowledge can also cause coughing and may be harmful to the baby.

    Pregnant women should see a doctor whenever they experience a persistent cough or if signs of a respiratory illness emerge, so that treatment with medications can be safely supervised.

    Intense coughing doesn’t cause uterine contractions, nor does it displace the placenta, but it can be very uncomfortable and cause pain in the abdominal muscles when it’s repetitive. Therefore, it is always ideal to seek medical attention if you are coughing, and to rest as much as possible.

    Источник: https://www.tuasaude.com/en/cough-during-pregnancy/

    Self-Care of Rhinitis During Pregnancy

    US Pharm. 2014;39(9):16-23.

    Pharmacists consult with patients about a host of medical problems, some which are amenable to self-care and some of which require referral to a prescriber. When the patient is pregnant, treatment is far more complicated, since it is critical to avoid harm to the fetus.

    Common Nasal Problems During Pregnancy

    Pregnant women are subject to the same types of nasal problems as the general population. These include allergic rhinitis and the common cold. Both conditions have been discussed in the pharmacy literature, but the problem of what the prudent pharmacist should recommend for the pregnant patient is a continual conundrum.

    Pregnancy Rhinitis

    Physicians have long consulted with pregnant women who have persistent nasal problems that do not appear to be due to common causes. Eventually, physicians began to question whether this nasal congestion might be due to the pregnancy itself. The theory was controversial, and, according to one expert, pregnancy rhinitis was “observed as a phenomenon for ages, but until recently not recognized as a defined condition worth being taken seriously.”1-3 Researchers now have defined pregnancy rhinitis as a distinct entity and developed the following diagnostic criteria: “Nasal congestion present during the last six or more weeks of pregnancy without other signs of respiratory tract infection and with no known allergic cause, disappearing completely within two weeks after delivery.”1

    Pregnancy rhinitis (also known as vasomotor rhinitis of pregnancy) affects as many as 20% of pregnant women.4 Patients report nasal congestion as the hallmark feature, but they may also experience clear secretions that vary from watery to thick in consistency.

    The cause of pregnancy rhinitis is presumed to be the hormonal changes of pregnancy. Estrogen would be a logical cause, as levels increase during pregnancy due to the secretions from the enlarged corpus luteum and the placenta.2 However, in one study, only 35% of subjects experienced worsening congestion during pregnancy, and 39% actually breathed more easily as the pregnancy proceeded.1 The roles of progesterone, prolactin, stress, and increased blood volume have been explored, but the true cause of pregnancy rhinitis remains elusive.1,5

    Risk factors for pregnancy rhinitis include a history of smoking. Maternal age, parity, and fetal gender are not predictive factors.5

    Safe Interventions for Rhinitis During Pregnancy

    Nonprescription products and devices for nasal problems during pregnancy can be divided into two groups. The first group does not carry any precaution for patients who are pregnant. These will be considered first.

    There are some interventions for rhinitis during pregnancy that the pharmacist can suggest.1,3 Pharmacists can reassure patients that the condition is temporary and will resolve after delivery. They can also mention several interventions that will help rhinitis and nasal congestion regardless of cause, such as controlling the environment and avoiding allergens.

    Lying in the supine position is widely known to increase nasal resistance to the passage of air. Thus, the pregnant patient can be advised to raise the head of the bed at least 30 degrees, and perhaps as much as 45 degrees to obtain greater patency of the nostrils. She may also be advised to engage in light-to-moderate exercise, an activity that also opens the nasal passages.

    Saline lavage may provide some relief for allergic or pregnancy rhinitis, and one expert advises either gently sniffing homemade saline from a cupped hand or using products such as neti pots to administer saline.1 Unfortunately, neither of these methods uses sterile saline, which would be preferable.6

    A safer avenue is the use of a nonprescription isotonic saline product such as Simply Saline Nasal Relief Spray. It is sterile when sprayed from the container. Following its use, the patient may attempt to remove nasal debris with the use of small bulbs known as nasal aspirators. While they are often thought of as devices limited to use in nasal congestion in newborns and children, they may also be helpful in pregnant patients.

    External nasal dilators are a potential treatment option.7 Breathe Right Nasal Strips adhere to the outer nostrils, slightly opening the nasal passages to facilitate the movement of air. They are safe during pregnancy and can be recommended as a potential aid for pregnancy rhinitis and nasal congestion from other causes. 

    Products With a Pregnancy Precaution

    The second group of potential interventions for nasal problems during pregnancy includes OTC products for nasal congestion due to the common cold or allergic and/or pregnancy rhinitis (e.g., topical and oral nasal decongestants) and for rhinorrhea due to allergic and/or pregnancy rhinitis (e.g., oral antihistamines, intranasal mast cell stabilizers or corticosteroids). However, each of these products carries an FDA-mandated warning directing patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding to speak to a “health professional” before use. As highly visible and accessible health professionals, pharmacists would therefore be able to give pregnant women verbal approval for use of the product.

    The most prudent advice for pharmacists is to refer these patients to their obstetricians. This is wise for several reasons. First, pharmacists do not have complete medical records on the pregnant patient, and the list of other medications she is taking might be incomplete. Second, the pharmacist is not privy to medical complications the patient may be experiencing due to the pregnancy (e.g., preeclampsia, hyperemesis gravidarum, threatened early delivery due to polyhydramnios). Third, the pharmacist is not necessarily aware of the patient’s concomitant medical conditions that complicate therapy, such as diabetes, glaucoma, cardiac problems, hypertension, and renal or hepatic compromise.

    Finally, pharmacists should not attempt to diagnose potential pregnancy-related problems through conducting physical examinations of patients for several reasons: 1) Pharmacists should not ask the patient to disrobe for examinations; 2) pharmacies seldom possess even the most rudimentary diagnostic tools (e.g., otoscopes); and 3) per state pharmacy practice acts, pharmacists are prohibited from diagnosing patients, and therefore are not legally protected if they “misdiagnose” due to such activities.

    It would be extremely difficult for a pharmacist to amass the data needed to make a competent recommendation in a self-care counseling session in a busy pharmacy. An interview with the patient is often not reliable because of memory lapses and lack of medical understanding of one’s own health status and current medication list. It would be virtually impossible to develop a complete picture of
    the patient’s unique situation that would be equivalent to the comprehensive information already in her file in the obstetrician’s office. For these reasons and others (e.g., legal liability in the case of a birth defect), the obstetrician is best suited to choose among products with a pregnancy precaution.

    Choosing Therapy for Nasal Problems During Pregnancy

    Physicians advise their colleagues on appropriate therapy of nasal problems during pregnancy in such journals as the American Journal of Rhinology. In one such article, an author placed medical interventions for allergic rhinitis during pregnancy into two tiers.7 Those on the first tier included intranasal cromolyn, intranasal corticosteroids, and first-generation antihistamines. Drugs relegated to the second tier included decongestants and second-generation antihistamines. It should be noted that no nonprescription product carries an indication for pregnancy rhinitis. 

    Mast Cell Stabilizer:Intranasal cromolyn (e.g., NasalCrom) is FDA Pregnancy Category B (i.e., no evidence of risk in humans) for pregnant patients.4 It may be recommended as a first-line agent by the physician for relief of rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching of allergic rhinitis.7 

    Intranasal Corticosteroids:The sole nonprescription intranasal corticosteroid is triamcinolone acetonide (e.g., Nasacort Allergy 24HR). As a Category C product in pregnancy, risk cannot be ruled out, and pregnant patients were never included in any of the studies on its efficacy and safety.1 While potential benefit may justify the potential risk to the fetus, this would be a decision best left to the obstetrician. The ingredient relieves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal pruritus, and sneezing associated with hay fever or other upper respiratory allergies.

    First-Generation Antihistamines:The most common nonprescription first-generation antihistamines are diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, and clemastine (each is Category B). Relative freedom of risk from birth defects justifies their inclusion on the first tier. They relieve rhinorrhea, nasal pruritus, and sneezing of allergic rhinitis or the common cold.

    Topical Nasal Decongestants:Topical nasal decongestants were classified as second-tier products for nasal problems in pregnancy.7 An expert discussing pregnancy rhinitis recommended strongly against the use of topical nasal decongestants such as oxymetazoline (e.g., Afrin, Category C) for pregnancy rhinitis, the major objection being the potential development of rhinitis medicamentosa, even if the patient only self-administered one dose nightly.1,3

    Oral Nasal Decongestants:Oral nasal decongestants include pseudoephedrine (e.g., Sudafed) and phenylephrine (e.g., Sudafed PE), both Category C. They were also ranked as second-tier agents for nasal rhinitis during pregnancy.7 One author points out that there are no data to demonstrate the efficacy of these products in pregnancy rhinitis.1,3

    In addition, there are potential adverse effects on the fetus with their use for any condition in pregnancy. Risks listed for pseudo-ephedrine include gastroschisis (an abdominal wall defect) and vascular disruption defects.8-10 Neither decongestant has been conclusively cleared of these potential risks.11 Some authorities recommend that phenylephrine be avoided completely during pregnancy, and that pseudoephedrine be used cautiously and only after the first trimester.12

    Second-Generation Antihistamines:Also in the second tier, second-generation antihistamines include those with Category B ratings, such as cetirizine (e.g., Zyrtec) and loratadine (e.g., Claritin), while fexofenadine (e.g., Allegra Allergy) has a Category C rating. In the words of several experts, “The absence of controlled trials in humans and the crossing of the placental barrier makes the avoidance of their prescription necessary during pregnancy.”13 

    PATIENT INFORMATION

    Common Causes of Nasal Problems

    The common cold is the number-one cause of both nasal congestion and runny nose, along with sore throat and cough. Allergic rhinitis (“hay fever”) is another major cause of both runny nose and nasal congestion, usually accompanied by nasal itching, sneezing, and watery eyes. A lesser known problem is pregnancy rhinitis, a similar condition that is not due to a cold or allergies, but is caused by the pregnancy itself.

    Where to Turn

    It is tempting to speak to friends or family about treatment of nasal problems when you are pregnant. This option is not the best, because such persons usually lack any medical training. You may also wish to speak to your pharmacist for advice on nasal problems. Your pharmacist can provide advice on nonmedical interventions to relieve runny nose and nasal congestion, and can also describe safe methods such as saline lavage and nasal dilators.

    However, some nonprescription products such as nasal decongestants, antihistamines, and nasal steroid sprays carry a warning against use in pregnancy before you speak to a healthcare professional. It is true that your pharmacist is an expert on nonprescription products and their safe use, but this may not be the best approach when products have this pregnancy warning, because the pharmacist’s ability to make a fully informed decision is hampered by lack of information about your unique situation.

    Your obstetrician is the best source for advice on using OTC products for nasal problems during pregnancy. The doctor’s office keeps your medical records in one easily retrieved file, and it will have the results of your latest exam and any lab work that was ordered. Your obstetrician will also be aware of any special conditions complicating your pregnancy, such as kidney or liver problems, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and threatened early delivery. Any of these (and a host of other potential problems) could be critical in making a safe decision about whether to use a nonprescription product and, if so, which one. Your obstetrician might even wish to schedule an appointment to determine whether you need a prescription or OTC product.

    Nonprescription products may interact with medications you are currently taking. Your pharmacist can help determine whether such products are safe or not in these cases, but you must be able to recall all of the medications you take for your pharmacist to make a fully informed decision.

    Products to Avoid During Pregnancy

    Be sure to take prenatal vitamins and minerals as recommended by your obstetrician. However, it is wise to avoid anything during pregnancy that is not proven safe and effective for your medical problems. This includes all herbal supplements, homeopathics, and other dietary supplements. None of these products has ever been proven either safe or effective, especially not during pregnancy. Any could have harmful effects on the developing fetus. Furthermore, strongly consider immediately stopping use of addictive substances, such as alcohol and tobacco in all forms and all drugs of abuse.

    Remember, if you have questions, Consult Your Pharmacist.

    REFERENCES

    1. Ellegard EK. Clinical and pathogenetic characteristics of pregnancy rhinitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2004;26(3):149-159.
    2. Mabry R. Rhinitis of pregnancy. South Med J. 1986;79(8):965-971.
    3. Ellegard EK. Special considerations in the treatment of pregnancy rhinitis. Womens Health. 2005;1(1):105-114.
    4. Shah R, McGrath KG. Nonallergic rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(3):S19-S21.
    5. Rambur B. Pregnancy rhinitis and rhinitis medicamentosa. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2002;14(12):527-530.6. Garavello W, Somigliana E, Acaia B, et al. Nasal lavage in pregnant women with seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized study. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;151(2):137-141.
    7. Keles N. Treatment of allergic rhinitis during pregnancy. Am J Rhinology. 2004;18(1):23-28.
    8. Gilbert C, Mazzotta P, Loebstein R, Koren G. Fetal safety of drugs used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Drug Safety. 2005;28(8):707-719.
    9. Mazzotta P, Loebstein R, Koren G. Treating allergic rhinitis in pregnancy. Drug Safety. 1999;20(4): 361-375.
    10. Werler MM. Teratogen update: pseudoephedrine. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006;76(6): 445-452.
    11. Vlastarakos PV, Manolopoulos L, Ferekidis E, et al. Treating common problems of the nose and throat in pregnancy: what is safe? Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265(5):499-508.12. deShazo RD, Kemp SF. Patient information: allergic rhinitis (seasonal allergies). UpToDate. www.uptodate.com/contents/allergic-rhinitis-seasonal-allergies-beyond-the-basics. Accessed July 17, 2014.
    13. Piette V, Daures JP, Demoly P. Treating allergic rhinitis in pregnancy. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2006;6(3):232-238.

    To comment on this article, contact [email protected]

    Read More On: OTC MEDICATIONS

    Источник: https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/selfcare-of-rhinitis-during-pregnancy

    Cold or Flu During Pregnancy and Miscarriage

    Winter is cold season, and it can be hard to avoid catching a virus during those months. Should you be especially worried about common winter viruses if you're pregnant? Could a cold, flu, or COVID-19 cause harm to a baby or trigger a miscarriage? Find out more below. 

    Miscarriage Risk

    Although cold and flu viruses can certainly make you uncomfortable (especially if you're pregnant and certain medications are off-limits), they aren't likely to cause miscarriage.

    During the 1918 flu pandemic, the influenza virus clearly played a role in miscarriages. It's thought that one in 10 pregnant women had early miscarriages during that time, over and above what would be considered the expected incidence.

    A century later, a review of 100 studies of influenza in pregnancy found that especially when pregnant women developed complications from influenza, they were at risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and preterm birth.

    Having a fever during pregnancy (a temperature that's higher than 100 degrees Fahrenheit) is linked with an increased miscarriage risk. If you do catch the flu or COVID-19, your doctor may advise you to keep your fever controlled with Tylenol (acetaminophen) while you are sick.

    Remember: Always ask your doctor before taking any over-the-counter pill while you're pregnant because many—like Sudafed (pseudoephedrine), Dayquil (acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, phenylephrine), Aleve (naproxen), Advil (ibuprofen), Motrin (ibuprofen), Bayer (aspirin), and Excedrin (aspirin, paracetamol, caffeine)—are not considered safe.

    It's important to note that the flu does carry other concerns for people who are pregnant. During the 2009 H1N1 flu (swine flu) pandemic, for example, people who contracted the flu while pregnant had an increased risk of preterm delivery (having the baby before 37 weeks), infant death, and intensive care unit admissions.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), pregnant people with COVID-19 are also at higher risk of preterm delivery. While higher rates of pregnancy loss are suspected, there is no definitive data on miscarriage risk and COVID-19.

    Flu Vaccine

    The flu vaccination has been studied extensively and does not appear to pose any risk with regard to miscarriage. Both the CDC and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend the flu vaccine for all pregnant people at any point in pregnancy.

    The vaccine protects not only pregnant people but also their babies, who are born with some protection against flu viruses.

    The Safety of the Flu Shot While Breastfeeding

    COVID-19 Vaccine

    Data collected by the CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regarding the COVID vaccine "did not identify any safety concerns for pregnant people who were vaccinated or for their babies."

    Animal studies have also not revealed any adverse outcomes in pregnant animals or their offspring. Based on this evidence, the CDC recommends that pregnant people receive the COVID-19 vaccine to help protect against infection and possible severe illness.

    Symptoms

    A cold, the flu, and COVID-19 can all cause similar symptoms even though they're triggered by different viruses. Symptoms may include fever, fatigue, body aches, and dry cough.

    With a cold, a person is more likely to have rhinorrhea (a stuffy and runny nose). Furthermore, colds usually don't have the potential to lead to more serious problems that would result in hospitalization, such as pneumonia or more severe bacterial infections.

    With the flu or COVID-19, symptoms may hit suddenly and are typically more severe than those of a cold. Based on your symptoms alone, your physician may have trouble distinguishing a cold from the flu or COVID-19 because they're so similar. However, tests can be done to distinguish among them and determine the appropriate treatment.

    Risk Factors

    Although anyone can catch a virus, viral infections are more common among the following populations:

    • People who are pregnant
    • Older people
    • Children
    • People with chronic medical conditions, such as asthma or heart disease

    Complications

    Fortunately, most people who get the flu recover after a few days. However, some people do develop pneumonia, a serious lung infection that can sometimes be deadly. Other respiratory infections can also result from the flu, including bronchitis and sinusitis.

    The flu also can result in an ear infection (the middle ear is connected to the respiratory tract) and exacerbate other illnesses.

    For example, the flu can make asthma worse and serve as a trigger for asthma attacks. Additionally, the flu can make heart failure worse.

    The CDC has found that pregnant people with COVID-19 are at increased risk of severe illness. This may result in hospital admission requiring intensive care treatment and/or the use of a ventilator to help with breathing.

    Prevention

    There are some key steps that you can take to lower your risk of contracting a viral infection. In addition to getting vaccinated, avoid close contact with people who are sick, wash your hands frequently for at least 20 seconds, avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth, and disinfect things that you touch a lot (like your phone, your computer, doorknobs and light switches, and so on).

    Of course, general health habits like getting enough sleep, eating nutritious foods, being active, managing stress, and staying hydrated can all boost your immune system and help you fend off disease.

    What Pregnant Women Need to Know About Coronavirus

    Thanks for your feedback!

    Verywell Family uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

    1. Bloom-Feshbach K, Simonsen L, Viboud C et al. Natality decline and miscarriages associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic: the Scandinavian and United States experiences. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(8):1157-64. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir510

    2. Meijer WJ, van Noortwijk AG, Bruinse HW, Wensing AM. Influenza virus infection in pregnancy: a review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015;94(8):797-819. doi:10.1111/aogs.12680

    3. Tolandi T. Patient education: miscarriage (beyond the basics). UpToDate.

    4. Doyle TJ, Goodin K, Hamilton J. Maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) illness in Florida, 2009-2010: a population-based cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e79040. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079040

    5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pregnant and recently pregnant people. Updated July 3, 2021.

    6. McMillan M, Porritt K, Kralik D, Costi L, Marshall H. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy: a systematic review of fetal death, spontaneous abortion, and congenital malformation safety outcomes. Vaccine. 2015;33(18):2108-17. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.068

    7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 vaccines while pregnant or breastfeeding. Updated June 29, 2021.

    8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. People at high risk for flu complications. Updated August 27, 2018l.

    9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pregnant women and influenza (flu). Updated December 20, 2019.

    Additional Reading
    • Giakoumelou S, Wheelhouse N, Cuschieri K, Entrican G, Howie SE, Horne AW. The role of infection in miscarriage. Hum Reprod Update. 2016;22(1):116-33. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmv041

    • Loubet P, Kerneis S, Anselem O, Tsatsaris V, Goffinet F, Launay O. Should expectant mothers be vaccinated against flu? A safety review. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014;13(12):1709-20. doi:10.1517/14740338.2014.977252

    Источник: https://www.verywellfamily.com/colds-flu-pregnancy-cause-miscarriage-2371423

    Colds, coughs and ear infections in children

    Children's colds

    It's normal for a child to have 8 or more colds a year.

    This is because there are hundreds of different cold viruses and young children have no immunity to any of them as they have never had them before.

    They gradually build up immunity and get fewer colds.

    Most colds get better in 5 to 7 days but can take up to 2 weeks in small children.

    Here are some suggestions for how to ease the symptoms in your child: 

    • Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluids.
    • Saline nose drops can help loosen dried snot and relieve a stuffy nose. Ask your pharmacist, GP or health visitor about them.
    • If your child has a fever, pain or discomfort, children's paracetamol or ibuprofen can help. Children with asthma may not be able to take ibuprofen, so check with a pharmacist, GP or health visitor first. Always follow the instructions on the packet.
    • Encourage the whole family to wash their hands regularly to stop the cold spreading.

    Cough and cold remedies for children

    Children under 6 should not have over-the-counter cough and cold remedies, including decongestants (medicines to clear a blocked nose), unless advised to by a GP or pharmacist.

    Information:

    Call a pharmacy or contact them online before going in person. You can get medicines delivered or ask someone to collect them.

    Children's sore throats

    Sore throats are often caused by viral illnesses such as colds or flu.

    Your child's throat may be dry and sore for a day or 2 before a cold starts. You can give them paracetamol or ibuprofen to reduce the pain.

    Most sore throats get better on their own after a few days.

    If your child has a sore throat for more than 4 days, a high temperature and is generally unwell, see a GP.

    If they're unable to swallow fluids or saliva or have any difficulty breathing, go to A&E or call 999 immediately as they'll need urgent treatment in hospital.

    Find your nearest A&E department

    Children's coughs

    Children often cough when they have a cold because of mucus trickling down the back of the throat.

    If your child is feeding, drinking, eating and breathing normally and there's no wheezing, a cough is not usually anything to worry about.

    Although it's upsetting to hear your child cough, coughing helps clear away phlegm from the chest or mucus from the back of the throat.

    If your child is over the age of 1, they can try drinking a warm drink of lemon and honey.

    To make hot lemon with honey at home, you need to:

    • squeeze half a lemon into a mug of boiled water
    • add 1 to 2 teaspoons of honey
    • drink while still warm (do not give hot drinks to small children)

    If your child has had a cough that's lasted longer than 3 weeks, see your GP.

    If your child's temperature is very high, or they feel hot and shivery, they may have a chest infection. You should take them to a GP, or you can call 111.

    If this is caused by bacteria rather than a virus, your GP will prescribe antibiotics to treat the infection. Antibiotics will not soothe or stop the cough straight away.

    If a cough continues for a long time, especially if it's worse at night or is brought on by your child running about, it could be a sign of asthma.

    Take them to a GP, who will be able to check if your child has asthma.

    If your child is finding it hard to breathe, go to A&E or call 999 immediately as they'll need urgent treatment in hospital.

    Find your nearest A&E department

    Find out more about coughs

    Croup

    A child with croup has a distinctive barking cough and will make a harsh sound, known as stridor, when they breathe in. 

    They may also have a runny nose, sore throat and high temperature.

    Croup can usually be diagnosed by a GP and treated at home.

    But if your child's symptoms are severe and they're finding it hard to breathe, go to A&E or call 999 immediately as they'll need urgent treatment in hospital.

    Find your nearest A&E department

    Read more about the symptoms of croup.

    Children's ear infections

    Ear infections are common in babies and small children. They often follow a cold and sometimes cause a high temperature.

    A baby or toddler may pull or rub at an ear. Other possible symptoms include fever, irritability, crying, difficulty feeding, restlessness at night, and a cough.

    If your child has earache, with or without fever, you can give them paracetamol or ibuprofen at the recommended dose.

    Try one medicine first and, if it does not work, you can try giving the other one.

    You should not give children paracetamol and ibuprofen at the same time, unless advised to by a healthcare professional.

    Do not put any oil, eardrops or cotton buds into your child's ear, unless your GP advises you to do so.

    Most ear infections are caused by viruses, which cannot be treated with antibiotics.

    They'll just get better by themselves, usually within about 3 days.

    After an ear infection, your child may have some hearing loss.

    Their hearing should get better within a few weeks. But if the problem lasts for any longer than this, ask your GP for advice.

    Find out more about ear infections (otitis media)

    Glue ear in children

    Repeated middle ear infections (otitis media) may lead to glue ear (otitis media with effusion), where sticky fluid builds up and can affect your child's hearing. 

    This may lead to unclear speech or behavioural problems.

    If you smoke, your child is more likely to develop glue ear and will get better more slowly.

    Your GP can give you advice on treating glue ear and can help you stop smoking.

    Find out more about how to stop smoking

    See glue ear for further information.

    Video: how do I treat my child's cold? (9 to 30 months)

    This video explains what to do if your child gets a cold.

    Media last reviewed: 10 October 2020
    Media review due: 10 October 2023

    Источник: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/baby/health/colds-coughs-and-ear-infections-in-children/

    How a Sore Throat Is Treated

    A sore throat can be uncomfortable and often signals an oncoming cold. While home remedies may help with some types of sore throat, it's important to note that medical treatment may be needed. A sore throat due to strep throat, for example, usually requires antibiotic treatment in order to prevent serious complications.

    Self-treating a health condition and avoiding or delaying standard care may have serious consequences. Certain conditions and symptoms (such as difficulty breathing) require emergency care.

    Be sure to consult your healthcare provider if your sore throat is very painful, lasts more than a few days, or if you have other symptoms.

    Home Remedies

    Most sore throats will clear up in a couple of days. Here are some natural remedies and comfort care tips that may help soothe your pain.

    Salt Water Gargle

    One of the oldest home remedies for a sore throat, this may help to relieve pain, break down mucus, and reduce swelling. Typically, 1/2 teaspoon of salt is dissolved in a cup of warm water. The saltwater solution should be spit out after gargling and shouldn't be swallowed or reused. Gargling once an hour is sometimes recommended for a sore throat.

    Liquids

    Prevent dehydration by drinking liquids. Some people may find relief from drinking warm liquids, while others may prefer cold liquids, which can help soothe inflamed tissue. Avoid hot liquids, which may aggravate throat irritation.

    Water is always a good choice, but here are two other options you can consider:

    • Warm Lemon Drink: Mix 1 teaspoon of lemon juice or apple cider vinegar, 1 very small sprinkle of cayenne pepper, 1 teaspoon of honey, and 1/4 teaspoon of freshly grated ginger (optional) into a cup of warm water.
      The benefits of this folk remedy haven't been studied, but some say that capsaicin (a compound in cayenne) blocks nerves from sending pain signals, and the acid of the lemon juice or vinegar creates a hostile environment for germs. Note: Cayenne and vinegar can worsen pain and cause burns or irritation in the mouth and throat if consumed solo or in excess.
    • Tea: A warm (not hot) cup of black tea may help to provide relief from a sore throat. Black tea (Camellia sinensis) contains compounds called tannins, which are astringent and may help to shrink swollen tissue. Some also make double-strength black tea and gargle with it several times a day.

    Honey

    Honey may help suppress a cough and ease discomfort by coating the throat, temporarily relieving irritation. 

    A study published in the journal Pediatrics found that people who consumed honey before bed coughed less frequently and severely, and were less likely to lose sleep due to coughing than those who didn't take honey. (Two teaspoons at bedtime are recommended.)

    Add some to a warm beverage, or try it straight off the spoon. Honey should never be given to a child younger than 1 year due to the risk of botulism.

    Cold Foods or Application

    Some find relief by sucking on popsicles or eating ice cream. If you have swollen glands in your neck, applying an ice bag may also help.

    Humidifiers

    Since dry air can contribute to a sore throat, a humidifier may help by adding moisture back. Both warm- and cool-mist humidifiers are effective. However, for use around children, it's best to choose cool-mist to avoid hot water spills. You may also want to adjust your thermostat. For some people, a warmer room may lead to dryness, which can aggravate a dry, irritated throat.

    Over-the-Counter (OTC) Therapies

    You can use over-the-counter pain medications for a sore throat. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen tend to have the greatest effectiveness-to-safety ratio. If you are on blood thinners like Coumadin or have liver problems, ulcer disease, or kidney disease, be sure to discuss which may be better with your healthcare provider.

    An anesthetic throat spray, such as Chloraseptic, can be used by children over age 3 and adults. The product instructions say it should not be used for more than two days.

    Similarly, medicated or numbing cough drops or throat lozenges can be used. For example, Cepacol Extra Strength lozenges can be used by children of age 5 or 6 (depending on the flavor) or older and adults. They have menthol and benzocaine to numb nerve receptors.

    Cough suppressants, such as Robitussin, can be used by children age 6 and over and adults to reduce throat irritation.

    If your sore throat is due to allergies and post-nasal drip, you can try over-the-counter antihistamines such as Benadryl or Claritin. These reduce your mucus production during an allergy attack.

    For throat pain caused by acid reflux, try an antacid for short-term relief. You can find them in chewable forms, liquids, and tablets. Longer-term OTC medications include H2 blockers, such as Zantac and Pepcid, and proton pump inhibitors, such as Prilosec and Prevacid 24HR. These reduce production of stomach acid.

    Prescriptions

    While the above can help ease a sore throat, you'll need more than that to get rid of it completely if the cause itself requires its own treatment. 

    Depending on your diagnosis, these prescriptions might be deemed beneficial

    Antibiotics for Bacterial Infections

    Strep throat and scarlet fever require prescription antibiotics to cure the infection and prevent potentially serious complications, including rheumatic fever and kidney damage.

    A five- to 10-day course of penicillin, amoxicillin, or erythromycin is commonly prescribed. Fortunately, relief typically comes within 24 hours of treatment. 

    It is important that you complete your course of antibiotics to fully treat the infection and decrease the chance of recurrent symptoms or resistant bacteria.

    Antibiotics may also be prescribed for other types of bacterial infections that could be causing a sore throat. While these drugs will not cure viral infections, they may be prescribed if your healthcare provider believes you are at risk of developing a bacterial infection on top of a known viral infection.

    Corticosteroids for Adults With Severe Sore Throat

    A single dose of oral corticosteroids may be used when an adult has a severe sore throat. This therapy is not considered for children.

    Topical Anesthetic for Herpangina

    Children may have herpangina due to Coxsackie virus or echovirus causing blister-like ulcers in the back of the throat. They rarely have severe pain. If they do, their practitioner may prescribe a topical anesthetic containing benzocaine or xylocaine.

    Allergy Medications

    If you have a sore throat due to allergies, your healthcare provider may recommend prescription allergy medication or desensitization therapy to control allergy attacks.

    Medications for Acid Reflux and GERD

    For a sore throat caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a practitioner may manage your condition with H2 blockers that decrease acid production and/or proton pump inhibitors the lower the amount of acid your stomach makes.

    Narcotic Pain Relievers After Throat Surgery

    If your throat is sore because of a surgery such as a tonsil removal, a thyroidectomy, or intubation, your healthcare provider may prescribe a narcotic pain reliever.

    Surgeries and Specialist-Driven Procedures

    For a sore throat that results in abscesses due to bacterial infection behind the tonsils, a practitioner may drain the pus with a needle. Sometimes a doctor may need to make a small incision in the tonsil or tissue next to it to drain the pus in the abscess.

    Tonsil removal may be recommended for recurrent strep throat infections or in the case of a severe abscess.

    Tonsillectomy used to be a common surgery for children who had recurring sore throats. However, it is now less common and only done when there is chronic tonsillitis. It is much less commonly done in adults. This is usually performed as an outpatient surgery and doesn't require an overnight stay in a hospital.

    For a sore throat due to acid reflux, treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) might include surgery if your symptoms don't improve with changes you make to your lifestyle or through medication.

    Fundoplication is the most common surgery used to control acid reflux. It is a laparoscopic procedure that is minimally invasive. In this surgery, the top of the stomach is wrapped around the lower esophageal sphincter to make it tighter and prevent acid reflux.

    Another type of minimally invasive surgery implants a LINX ring device containing magnetic beads where the stomach meets the esophagus. The magnetic attraction of the beads is just strong enough to allow food to go into the stomach but keep the lower esophageal sphincter closed to prevent acid reflux.

    Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Some traditional herbal remedies have been used for a sore throat. Keep in mind that although many of these home remedies have been used for generations, there is still a lack of solid research on their effectiveness and safety.

    Sage

    Used in Europe as an herbal remedy for a variety of throat conditions, the herb sage (Salvia officinalis) has a number of compounds, such as cineole, borneol, camphor, and thujone, and astringent properties that may help ease sore throat pain and reduce swelling and inflammation.

    Herbalists sometimes suggest a sage tea or gargle made by steeping 1 teaspoon of dried sage or 1 tablespoon of fresh sage leaves in 1 cup of boiling water. Cover for 10 to 15 minutes and then strain out the leaves. Honey and lemon can be added if desired.

    A study found that a sage and echinacea spray every two hours (for a maximum of 10 times per day for five days) improved sore throat symptoms as effectively as a medicated spray. Side effects included a mild burning sensation and throat dryness.

    Although it may provide some relief in the short-term, the safety of regular or long-term use of sage supplements isn't known. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid sage supplements.

    Slippery Elm

    Native to North America, slippery elm is an herb that has long been used in herbal medicine to soothe a sore throat, dry cough, or laryngitis. Slippery elm is also found in some throat lozenges. When mixed with water, the inner bark of the slippery elm tree forms a thick gel (mucilage) that coats and soothes the throat.

    Herbalists typically recommend pouring 1 cup of boiling water over 1/2 teaspoon of powdered bark. Stir, allow it to steep and then gargle once it has cooled.

    Licorice

    Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) has a long history of use as an herbal remedy for a sore throat. According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), licorice root is sometimes used as a remedy for stomach ulcers, allergies, canker sores, and viral infections.

    A study in Anesthesia & Analgesia found that patients who gargled with a licorice root solution five minutes before general anesthesia were less likely to have a sore throat after surgery and experienced less post-operative coughing than patients who gargled with water.

    Licorice is a common ingredient in herbal teas, lozenges, and throat drops for a sore throat. It has a naturally sweet taste.

    Licorice in large amounts may lead to high blood pressure, salt and water retention, low potassium levels, and may affect levels of the hormone cortisol. It should not be combined with diuretics, corticosteroids, or other medications that reduce potassium levels in the body. People with heart disease or high blood pressure should avoid licorice. Pregnant women should not take licorice.

    Marshmallow

    Marshmallow, an herb that grows in North America and Europe, has been used for centuries as a home remedy for a sore throat. Like slippery elm, marshmallow contains mucilage.

    Herbalists recommend marshmallow root tea as a remedy for sore throats. It is usually made by adding 1 tablespoon of the dried root to a cup (8 ounces) of boiling water and steeping it, covered, for 30 to 90 minutes before straining. Herbalists usually suggest up to three cups a day for a sore throat.

    Consult a healthcare provider before taking marshmallow if you have diabetes, as it may make your blood sugar too low, especially when combined with diabetes medication.

    Marshmallow may also slow the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Marshmallow should not be taken by pregnant or nursing women.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    • Anything that's hard to swallow can scrape against a tender throat on the way down, such as foods with a dry or crispy texture, like crackers or pretzels, or that are hard to break down fully by chewing, like meats. Stick to soup, ice cream, and other soft-textured foods that will slip past your sore throat easily until it feels better.It's also best not to smoke and to steer clear of people who do, as secondhand smoke can irritate an already sore throat.

    • They can, but not always. Many spicy foods contain capsaicin, a compound in peppers that has been found to provide relief for certain types of pain. When used sparingly, hot sauce may actually help soothe a sore throat.

    • You have a number of safe options, depending on the cause of your sore throat and your healthcare provider's advice, among them:

      • Tylenol (acetaminophen): Don't take more than 3,000 milligrams (mg) in 24 hours.
      • Antihistamines: These might help if you have post-nasal drip due to a cold or allergy.
      • Benzocaine: Either a spray or lozenge containing this medication can numb a sore throat.
      • Chloraseptic: Also available as a spray or lozenge that can ease pain at the site.

      You should always check with your obstetrician before starting any medications during pregnancy.

    Thanks for your feedback!

    Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

    1. Al-Hamad AM. Streptococcal throat. Therapeutic options and macrolide resistance. Saudi Med J. 2015;36(9):1128–1129. doi:10.15537/smj.2015.9.11987

    2. Renner B, Mueller CA, Shephard A. Environmental and non-infectious factors in the aetiology of pharyngitis (sore throat). Inflamm Res. 2012;61(10):1041–1052. doi:10.1007/s00011-012-0540-9

    3. InformedHealth. Common colds: Overview. Updated November 15, 2018.

    4. O'Neill J, Brock C, Olesen AE, Andresen T, Nilsson M, Dickenson AH. Unravelling the mystery of capsaicin: a tool to understand and treat pain. Pharmacol Rev. 2012;64(4):939–971. doi:10.1124/pr.112.006163

    5. National Institutes of Health DailyMed. Chloraseptic Sore Throat (Kids Grape). Updated March 7, 2019.

    6. National Institutes of Health DailyMed. Cepacol Extra Strength Sore Throat Cherry. Updated May 8, 2019.

    7. Pardo S, Perera TB. Scarlet Fever. In: StatPearls. Updated February 28, 2019.

    8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Group A Streptococcal (GAS) Disease: Scarlet Fever. Updated November 1, 2018.

    9. Sadeghirad B, Siemieniuk RAC, Brignardello-Petersen R, et al. Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2017;358:j3887. doi:10.1136/bmj.j3887

    10. Morad A, Sathe NA, Francis DO, McPheeters ML, Chinnadurai S. Tonsillectomy Versus Watchful Waiting for Recurrent Throat Infection: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics. 2017;139(2):e20163490. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-3490

    11. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Licorice Root. Updated September 2016.

    12. Penn Medicine. 6 at-home remedies to ease your sore throat. Published November 10, 2020.

    13. National Institutes of Health. News in Health. Soothing a sore throat. What to do when your throat hurts. Published March 2013.

    14. Chung M-K, Campbell JN. Use of capsaicin to treat pain: mechanistic and therapeutic considerations. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2016;9(4). doi:10.3390/ph9040066

    15. UT Southwestern Medical Center. Which over-the-counter pain medications are safe during pregnancy? Published January 9, 2018.

    Additional Reading
    • Agarwal A, Gupta D, Yadav G, Goyal P, Singh PK, Singh U. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Licorice Gargle for Attenuating Postoperative Sore Throat: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Study. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2009;109(1):77-81. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e3181a6ad47.
    • Cohen HA, Rozen J, Kristal H, et al. Effect of Honey on Nocturnal Cough and Sleep Quality: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. . 2012 Sep;130(3):465-71.
    • Pelucchi C, Grigoryan L, Galeone C, et al. Guideline for the Management of Acute Sore Throat. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2012;18:1-27. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03766.x.
    • Schapowal A, Berger D, Klein P, Suter A. Echinacea/Sage or Chlorhexidine/Lidocaine for Treating Acute Sore Throats: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial. European Journal of Medical Research. 2009;14(9):406-412. doi:10.1186/2047-783X-14-9-406.
    • Stead W. Patient Education: Sore Throat in Adults (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/sore-throat-in-adults-beyond-the-basics#H5.
    Источник: https://www.verywellhealth.com/treatments-for-sore-throat-89954

    First Aid: Sore Throat

    First AidSore throats are common at any age and can be one of the first signs of another illness, like a cold, the flu, or mononucleosis (mono). They also can be caused by a strep throat infection, although this is rare in children younger than 2 years old.

    Signs and Symptoms

    • painful throat
    • fever
    • swollen glands in the neck
    • bad breath
    • scratchiness in the throat
    • redness in the back of the mouth

    What to Do

    Here are some ways kids can relieve sore throat pain:

    • sip warm liquids
    • eat cold or frozen liquids (such as ice pops)
    • gargle with saltwater
    • suck on hard candy or throat lozenges (for kids age 4 or older)
    • take ibuprofen or acetaminophen as needed

    Get Medical Care if Your Child:

    • has trouble swallowing
    • isn't drinking liquids
    • is drooling (in a young child)
    • feels very tired
    • has pus in the back of the throat
    • has a sore throat that lasts longer than a few days

    Think Prevention!

    As with most common illnesses, preventing a sore throat starts with regular hand washing. Kids also can avoid sore throats by:

    • not sharing food utensils and glasses with others
    • avoiding contact with people who have sore throats or cold symptoms
    Источник: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/sore-throat-sheet.html

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