population of north and south america

In these 57 countries are living 1.02 bn people (= 13.2% of the world's population). They account for around 33% of global economic output. North America. The population of North America in 2018 was 364,295,996, a 0.65% increase from 2017. Download Historical Data Save as Image. In New Mexico, 46% of the population speaks Spanish, followed by 38% in Britain took control over countries of North, Central and South America during.

Population of north and south america -

Continent and Region Populations 2021

Africa

After Asia, Africa is the largest and most populous of the seven continents. It is perhaps the most diverse in terms of cultures, languages, and people groups, some of which are still untouched by Westernization and modernity. Paleoanthropologists believe that humans originated in Africa and that from there, they migrated throughout the rest of the world. Africa has historically been the home of many great civilizations, such as those of Ancient Egypt, Timbuktu, and Abyssinia.

Today, there are 55 sovereign states in Africa, though there are thousands of people groups, many of which speak their own languages, have their own traditions and cultures, and consider themselves to be nations.

Today, Africa is best understood as being divided into two regions. North Africa is north of the Sahara desert; its countries are predominantly Muslim, and most of the people speak Arabic. Sub-Saharan Africa lies south of the Sahara desert, and while it includes many Muslim populations, it also has significant communities of Christians and other religions.

Of all the seven continents, Africa suffered the worst effects of colonization. The slave trade led to many Africans being kidnapped and sent to North America to work on plantations. Countries like Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom governed countries in such a way that the people were forced into servitude. The colonial governments created countries whose borders were so arbitrary that people groups became separated from each other. The effects on traditional, indigenous culture were disastrous.

Many of the long-standing conflicts in Africa today, such as the wars in the Congo, are the legacy of colonialism. The governments of many African countries are notoriously corrupt, and sadly, genocides, such as those in Rwanda and Sudan, continue to occur.

However, one success story is that of South Africa. Following the end of Dutch colonial rule, a policy of apartheid ensured that black Africans had few rights and that whites who lived there enjoyed lifestyles of privilege and prestige. Thankfully, the fall of apartheid and the election of Nelson Mandela showed that African countries could heal from the ravages of colonialism. Today in South Africa, though, there are still significant disparities between whites and blacks, and many blacks remain in dire poverty.

Today, countries in Africa have some of the lowest human development indexes (HDIs) in the world. Nearly all of the 30 countries with the lowest HDIs, as reported by the United Nations, are in Africa; missing from the list is Somalia, in the horn of Africa, which is considered to be a failed state and is one of the most impoverished and dangerous places in the world. However, Africa is abundant in natural resources and hard-working people; what is holding the continent back is the corrupt governments and longstanding conflicts that came to dominate the scene following the withdrawal of colonial governments. Africa is not poor but rather poorly managed.

Africa’s geography is dominated by the Sahara desert, which is the world’s largest desert and is growing due to the environmental crisis. The Nile River is possibly the longest river in the world (though some believe that the Amazon may actually be longer), and it provides water to the countries of Sudan and Egypt. Africa has vast savannahs and woodlands, but the continent is being deforested at twice the global average. Giant land animals, such as elephants, giraffes, and rhinoceroses, are endangered because of poaching. Given that much of the continent is impoverished and under corrupt governments, addressing the environmental crisis in Africa requires international action.

The African Union, which formed in 2001 and includes all 55 African countries, can be seen as a corollary to the European Union. It has strengthened relations among nations in Africa and hopes to work to decrease poverty and end human rights violations. One notable sign of success in Africa is that during the civil war in the Congo, neighboring African countries, rather than Western countries, have been intervening and attempting to promote peace and reconciliation. With assistance from international organizations, countries all across Africa will become even more empowered to lift themselves out of poverty and address the environmental crisis.

Источник: https://worldpopulationreview.com/continents

X-ray Market Size will Escalate Rapidly in the Near Future

X-ray Market: Introduction

According to the report, the global X-ray market was valued at ~US$ 10.8 Bn in 2018 and is projected to expand at a CAGR of 5.5% from 2019 to 2027. Different types of X-ray devices are available in the market such as stationary/fixed and portable. These diagnostic X-ray devices can be used for various applications, including cardiovascular, respiratory, dental, and mammography. Rise in prevalence of chronic diseases across the world and rapidly aging global population with augmented healthcare needs boost market growth. North America dominated the global X-ray market in 2018 and the trend is anticipated to continue during the forecast period. High awareness about medical imaging devices, financial capability to purchase expensive machines, rise in demand for technologically advanced & innovative products in hospitals, diagnostic laboratories, and outpatient ambulatory surgery centers; and high infrastructure investment supporting healthcare facilities boost the growth of the market in the region. Asia Pacific is likely to be a highly lucrative market for X-ray during the forecast period.

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Increase in Aging Population with High Healthcare Needs and Commercialization of Technologically Advanced X-ray Systems to Drive Market

Most developed countries have a high geriatric population. It has also been estimated that around 82% of the people who succumb to a coronary artery disease are aged 65 years and above. According to WHO estimates, the geriatric population would increase at a rapid pace in developed countries such as the U.S., the U.K., and Japan. Access to various diagnostic and treatment services has improved due to favorable health care policies and advancements in healthcare facilities in countries such as the U.S., Japan, the U.K. and other countries in Western Europe. This in turn has increased life expectancy of the population. Brazil, China, Thailand, and South Korea are expected to have a large geriatric population in the shortest span of time. Aged individuals are more prone to diseases and disorders; hence, have high healthcare requirements. Aged individuals would increase the patient pool in these countries, which in turn is likely to boost the growth of the X-ray market in Asia Pacific in the next few years.

Recent introduction of advanced, highly portable digital X-ray systems have resulted in an increased demand globally. Moreover, demand for bedside imaging and diagnostics, home healthcare, and minimally invasive solutions is rising across the globe. New X-ray technology produces striking 3D images in full color. Various new and technologically advanced X-ray systems have been introduced by major manufacturers operating in this market.

Stationary/Fixed Products to Dominate Market

Based on product type, the global X-ray market has been bifurcated into stationary/fixed and portable. The portable segment has been split into mobile and handheld. The stationary/fixed segment dominated the global X-ray market in 2018. However, the portable segment is expected to expand at the highest CAGR from 2019 to 2027. Advent of wireless and low-power consuming portable X-ray technologies, which are leading to innovation and development of advanced portable X-ray, fuels the growth of the global market. In February 2015, GE Measurement and Control launched portable ERESCO 300 MF4-R X-ray tube, which helps in geometric magnification and inspection time reduction in film-based and digital radiography.

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Digital to be Promising Technology

In terms of technology, the global X-ray market has been classified into analog and digital. The digital segment has been segregated into computed radiography and direct digital radiography. The digital segment is expected to expand at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. Sensors integrated in digital X-ray systems, especially in systems with direct digital radiology technology, help the system to capture images at a rapid rate of 60 images per hour. Better image quality in less time is a major factor driving the digital X-ray segment.

Mammography to be Key Application

Based on application, the global X-ray market has been segmented into cardiovascular, respiratory, dental, mammography, and others. The mammography segment is expected to expand at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. According to the World Cancer Research Fund International, there were over 2 million new cases of cancer in 2018. The introduction of new and technologically advanced X-ray systems, rise in awareness about the disease & its diagnosis, and affordability of people fuel the growth of the global market.

Hospitals & Clinics End User to Account for Major Share

In terms of end user, the global X-ray market has been categorized into hospitals & clinics, diagnostic centers, ambulatory surgical centers, and research centers. The hospitals & clinics segment dominated the global X-ray market in terms of revenue in 2018 and the trend is projected to continue during the forecast period. The growth of the segment can be attributed to the rise in the rate of hospitalization and a range of services offered by hospitals at a single site.

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North America to Dominate Global Market

The global X-ray market has been segmented into five major regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominated the global X-ray market in 2018, followed by Europe. North America accounted for major share of the global X-ray market in 2018. Rise in adoption of disease detection radiology imaging products and increase in number of clinical trials for the development of these products for different disorders boost the growth of the market in the region. The X-ray market in Asia Pacific is anticipated to expand at a higher CAGR from 2019 to 2027 primarily due to rise in prevalence of chronic disorders and increase in awareness about disease diagnosis for proper treatment in the region.

Competition Landscape

Siemens Healthcare, Koninklijke Philips N.V., GE Healthcare, and Shimadzu Corporation are the leading players in the global X-ray market and hold majority share. The global X-ray market is fragmented in terms of number of players. Key players in the global market include Agfa-Gevaert N.V., Canon Medical Systems Corporation, Carestream Health, FUJIFILM Holdings Corporation, GE Healthcare, Konica Minolta Medical Imaging, Koninklijke Philips N.V., PerkinElmer, Inc., Shimadzu Corporation, Siemens Healthcare, and Varian Medical Systems.

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Источник: https://www.biospace.com/article/x-ray-market-size-will-escalate-rapidly-in-the-near-future/

This operation update includes a 3-month extension to continue to respond to the current migratory flows and to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants that are expected to cross the Panamanian border with Costa Rica in the upcoming weeks.

The rationale behind the extension is to respond to the migrants’ needs in the upcoming months. Just in October, 29,604 migrants crossed the Darien, which is the highest monthly number of migrants crossing the border that has been reported over the last years. Based on the reported number of migrants crossing Darien and the experience from previous years, it is expected that the migrant flows will continue or even increase during the months of December through February 2022.

Currently, the migrants are crossing the border between Panama and Costa Rica from different entry points, CRRC has proposed to respond to the pressing needs of migrants in different geographical locations. The proposed actions will be focused on the border with Nicaragua, specifically in Las Tablillas, Los Chiles, Alajuela province and Peñas Blancas, La Cruz, Guanacaste province. Both entry points are in the northern border with Nicaragua. In addition, there will be complementary actions in Corredores, Punta Arenas province on the southern border with Panama where CRRC will be supported by UNICEF to respond to the migration crisis.

In addition, this timeframe extension includes an increase in the geographical areas to respond to migrants’ pressing needs. The official figures have not changed over the last weeks, however, informal data shared by the CRRC shows that the number of migrants crossing the border daily is increasing. There are no changes on the initial support included in the original EPoA; the same programmatic activities will be implemented during the duration of the operation.

As mentioned above, there are two new included municipalities in two of the provinces that were initially identified:
Las Tablillas, Los Chiles, Alajuela province and Peñas Blancas, La Cruz, Guanacaste province. Therefore, it was decided to request a timeframe extension for an additional 3 months, with a new end date of 28 February 2022 (and revised strategic approach), to allow the operation to hire two Field Project Assistants to be responsible for implementing the proposed actions and assistance to migrants through mobile posts at different identified points along the borders.

A. Situation analysis

Description of the disaster

Between June and October 2021, the population movement across the Darien Gap crossing increased considerably. According to information provided by National Migration Service from Panama, some 700 to 1,000 people are arriving in Panama every day. Once migrants arrive in one of the three Migration Reception Stations in Panama, migrants continue to experience harsh travel conditions and difficulties generating situations of extreme vulnerability.

Migrants continue to arrive in Darién, most of them heading to North America, facing all kinds of risks during their journey across the Darién jungle and along the migration route in Central America and Mexico. The main factors driving increased migration flows include the socio-political and economic conditions in the migrants' countries of origin, violence, unemployment, racism, unequal opportunities, increased poverty, and extreme weather conditions.

Since 2016, Costa Rica has become a frequent passage route for Haitians, Cubans, Venezuelans, and migrants from other countries. Numbers have been increasing in recent months as borders in the southern cone have begun to open after being closed due to the pandemic

Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Costa Rican government has temporarily restricted the entry of foreign nationals classified as non-residents. This has also affected the humanitarian bridge that had allowed them to cross the country in “transit”. These actions are based on Executive Decree 42238-MGP-S of 17 March 2020 and 30 October 2020, which forbids the entry of foreign nationals planning to cross the country from north to south and vice versa except for humanitarian reasons, as authorized by the General Directorate of Migration and Foreigner Affairs (DGME) and after coordinating with the relevant authorities in Panama and Nicaragua.

Despite the restrictions and the DGME's routine border controls, a significant number of people manage to slip past and enter irregularly to continue their way.

In the last five years, the country has experienced a significant increase in people applying for refugee status, mainly from Nicaragua and Venezuela. In 2020, Costa Rica took in 121,983 persons of concern, of whom 9,613 are refugees, and 89,770 are persons applying for and waiting to be granted refugee status.

In addition, there is a major social crisis in neighbouring Nicaragua that has been ongoing since May 2018. The political situation is expected to deteriorate further, given the upcoming presidential elections in Nicaragua in November 2021.

Costa Rica has been experiencing various migration flows from Nicaragua and other Central American countries since the 1980s due to the armed conflicts in the region, and migration from Nicaragua increased in the 1990s because of the economic crisis. According to the census conducted by the National Institute of Census and Statistics, 385,899 immigrants were living in the country by 2011, accounting for 9 percent of the total population.
Most immigrants continue to be from Nicaragua (more than 287,000), accounting for 74.6 percent of resident immigrants. These numbers include all migrants irrespective of their migration status, which are counted by the census. Another segment (some 100,000 individuals) comprises the floating migrants who come to Costa Rica to work with border areas. Their stay is based on agricultural cycles and do not remain in the country permanently and are therefore not counted in censuses; however, they need to be considered when analysing migration flows from Nicaragua.

Источник: https://reliefweb.int/report/costa-rica/costa-rica-population-movement-dref-operation-n-mdrcr020-operation-update-no-1

Indigenous Peoples, Democracy and Political Participation / Pueblos Indígenas, Democracia y Participación Política Demographic distributionTendencias Demográphicas


Ultima actualización / Last updated: October 13, 2006

Demographic distribution

The five Latin American countries with the largest indigenous populations are: Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, and Ecuador. The actual size and percentages of these populations however varies according to the sources being used and how indigenous peoples are defined or identified by these sources.

CountryTotal PopulationTotal
Indigenous Population
% of Indigenous PopulationYear of Census
Bolivia8,090,7325,358,10766.22001
Ecuador12,156,608830,4186.82001
Mexico97,014,8677,618,9907.92000
Guatemala11,237,1964,433,21839.52002
Peru25,939,3293,968,71715.3ENIV 2000

Source: Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), sobre la base de procesamientos especiales de los microdatos censales.

Bolivia: According to the national census of 2001 of people aged 15 and over, 62% of individuals identified themselves as belonging to one of the 50 native populations (IWGIA - The Indigenous World - 2006, 182). The largest indigenous peoples in Bolivia are the Quechuas and Aymaras that are concentrated in the highlands and valleys, rather than the plains. Between 1992 and 2001, the total population in urban areas grew at an annual rate of 4% due to a process of migration of indigenous peoples from the countryside to cities (Pozo, Casazola and Yañez Aguilar 2005, 41). Nevertheless, according to 2002 household survey, rural areas are still predominantly indigenous (Ibid, 42). The geographic distribution of indigenous populations is as follows: 67% reside in the highlands, 60% reside in the populations, but on the plains, indigenous peoples only account for 17% of the population (Ibid).

Ecuador: There are 13 indigenous nationalities including Kichwa, Siona, Secoya, Cofán, Huaorani, Shiwiar, Shuar, Achuar, Chachi, Espera, Tsa'chila, Huancavilca, and Awa (IWGIA - The Indigenous World - 2006, 161). The indigenous nationalities are distributed in the highlands, the Amazon and the coast, with the largest concentration of indigenous peoples being in the highlands. Two things are important to note about the indigenous population. First, there is a real questioning of the size and percentage of the indigenous population in Ecuador. For example data contained in a UNESCO report of the Unidad para la Cultura Democrática y la Gobernabilidad, notes that the percentage of indigenous population was 24.85% by 1998 (Nieto and Montesinos 1999, 66). In another report elaborated by Roque Roldán for the Inter-American Development Bank, the indigenous population is identified as accounting for 43% of the national population (2002). Second, although there has been some recent indigenous migration from rural areas to cities, it is fairly clear that the rural indigenous population continues to be significantly higher than the urban.According to the 2001 census, 82% of the indigenous population is rural and only 18% is urban (INEC, Censo 2001).

Mexico:Of the five countries that form part of this analysis, Mexico is the country with the largest number of indigenous peoples but the lowest percentage in relation to the total national population. Indigenous peoples located in the Southern part of the country in such states as Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Yucatan have the highest percentage of indigenous peoples.One of the reasons that may account for this is the continuity of native languages, cultural identities and stronger community relations. In terms of georgraphical distribution, 80% of indigenous peoples live in southern Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Tlaxcala, Veracruz and Yucatán), 15% live in central Mexico (Aguascalientes, Colima, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, and Zacatecas), and 7% live in the northern region (Baja California, Baja California Sur, Coahuila, Durango, Sonora, Chihuahua, Nueva León, Tamaulipas) and metropolitan areas of Mexico City (Hall and Patrinos 2005, 151 and 197).

Guatemala:According to the most recent census dating from late 2002, the Guatemalan population is approximately 11.2 million people, of whom 39.5% self-identify as indigenous. However, some other references state that the figure on the percentage of indigenous peoples should be considered to be 60% (IWGIA - The Indigenous World - 2004, 94) or more (Roque Roldán 2002, 4). The indigenous population are divided into three groups: Maya, Xinca and Garúfuna. The Maya are the majority group, the Garúfuna are estimated to number no more than 150,000 persons and the Xinca no more than 100,000. Up until May 2003, there were 23 indigenous languages fully recognized and defined amongst themselves and by the Guatemalan State (IWGIA - The Indigenous World - 2004, 94). Of these 23, 21 are Mayan Indian languages, and the other two belong to the Xinca (related to the Nahua language) and Garúfuna (an Afro-Caribbean indigenous language). Between 1989 and 2000, the portion of the indigenous population that lived in urban areas rose by 6%. At the same time, there was also a significant migration of Mayans to the US. According to a study conducted in 2004 by the Guatemala Office of the International Orgnaization of Migration (IOM), there were 139,702 Mayan-speaking inmigratns in the US (Dardon, 2005).

Peru: Based upon the national censuses, Néstor Valdivia calculated that the indigenous population had decreased from 51% in 1940, to 36% in 1961, to 28% in 1972, to 20% in 1993, and to 15% in 2000. The criteria used by theses censuses to define an indigenous person was if the head of the household or the head's spouse had a non-spanish, non-foreign mother tongue. However, if the criteria extends to include households were the head's parents or grandparents have an indigenous language as their mother tongue, then the percentage of indigenous poplution would increase to 48% (IWGIA - The Indigenous World - 2006, 171). The indigenous population can be divided into three distinct geographic regions: the sierra, the coast, and the Amazon. Most indigenous peoples live in the sierra, including Quechuas and Aymaras. However, there has been a large indigenous migration from the sierra to urban areas, specially to Lima. In addition, there are at least 14 recorded indigenous peoples who live in isolation in the Amazon region (IWGIA - The Indigenous World - 2002-3).

Bibliographical References

Hall, Gillette and Harry A. Patrinos (editors). 2006. Indigenous Peoples, Poverty and Human Development in Latin America. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.

Macmillan International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. 2006. The Indigenous World 2006. Copenhaguen, Denmark.

Dardon, Jacobo. 2005 Pueblos Indígenas y la Migración Internacional en Guatemala: de las Comunidades en Resistencia hacia las Comunidades Trasnacionales. Report presented at the Conference "Migración, Pueblos Indígenas y Afro-americanos" organized by the Universidad Nacional de México, Universidad Iberoamericana de Puebla and the Instituto de Ciencias Jurídicas A.C. in México City, November 2005.

Del Popolo, Fabiana y Ana María Oyarce. América Latina, Población Indígena: Perfil Sociodemográfico en el Marco de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo y de las Metas del Milenio. Notas de Población No. 79. CELADE/División de Población. LC/G.2284-P/E Julio 2005: pp. 1-40.

Macmillan International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. 2005. The Indigenous World 2005. Copenhaguen, Denmark.

Macmillan International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. 2004. The Indigenous World 2004. Copenhaguen, Denmark.

Macmillan International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. 2002-2003. The Indigenous World 2002-2003 Copenhaguen, Denmark.

Roldán, Roque. Los Pueblos Indígenas de Colombia en el Umbral del Nuevo Milenio.

Poverty Rates

Along with analysis of demographic trends, there has also been an increasing amount of analysis of the differences in poverty rates betweeen indigenous peoples and non-indigenous populations in Latin American countries. This data is particularly important in understanding the situation of ethnic inequality. It is also useful in the preparation of targeted social, economic and human development policies that effectively address the reduction of poverty among indigenous peoples taking into account their cultural values and identities. In addition, such policies are crucial for ensuring the political rights of indigenous peoples, and for providing them with an effective voice in the evloution of multicultural democracies.

The current data which exist on the differences in poverty rates between indigenous peoples and non-indigenous populations is as follows:

CountryYear  
Bolivia2002% of population living in poverty% of population living in extreme poverty
National 63.139.5
Indigenous 73.952.5
Non-Indigenous 52.526.9
Ecuador1998% of population living in poverty% of population living in extreme poverty
National 62.526.9
Indigenous 86.955.6
Non-Indigenous 61.125.2
Guatemala2000% of population living in poverty% of population living in extreme poverty
National 51.613.4
Indigenous 73.724.3
Non-Indigenous 37.66.5
Mexico2002% of population living in poverty% of population living in extreme poverty
National 51.720.3
Indigenous 89.768.5
Non-Indigenous 46.714.9
Peru2000% of population living in poverty% of population living in extreme poverty
National 46.511.7
Indigenous 62.822.2
Non-Indigenous 43.09.5

Bibliographical References

Hall, Gillette and Harry Anthony Patrinos. 2006. Indigenous Peoples, Poverty and Human Development in Latin America. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.

United Nations Economic Commission on Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). 2005. The Millenium Development Goals. A Latin American and Caribbean Perspective. Santiago, Chile: United Nations Publications.

Источник: https://pdba.georgetown.edu/IndigenousPeoples/demographics.html

Native American populations descend from three key migrations

Scientists have found that Native American populations - from Canada to the southern tip of Chile - arose from at least three migrations, with the majority descended entirely from a single group of First American migrants that crossed over through Beringia, a land bridge between Asia and America that existed during the ice ages, more than 15,000 years ago.

nativeamerican

By studying variations in Native American DNA sequences, the international team found that while most of the Native American populations arose from the first migration, two subsequent migrations also made important genetic contributions. The paper is published in the journal Nature today.

"For years it has been contentious whether the settlement of the Americas occurred by means of a single or multiple migrations from Siberia," said Professor Andres Ruiz-Linares (UCL Genetics, Evolution and Environment), who coordinated the study. "But our research settles this debate: Native Americans do not stem from a single migration. Our study also begins to cast light on patterns of human dispersal within the Americas."

In the most comprehensive survey of genetic diversity in Native Americans so far, the team took data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups, studying more than 300,000 specific DNA sequence variations called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to examine patterns of genetic similarities and differences between the population groups.

The study of Native American populations is technically very challenging because of the widespread occurrence of European and African mixture in Native American groups

Professor Andres Ruiz-Linares

The second and third migrations have left an impact only in Arctic populations that speak Eskimo-Aleut languages and in the Canadian Chipewyan who speak a Na-Dene language. However, even these populations have inherited most of their genome from the First American migration. Eskimo-Aleut speakers derive more than 50% of their DNA from First Americans, and the Chipewyan around 90%. This reflects the fact that these two later streams of Asian migration mixed with the First Americans they encountered after they arrived in North America.

"There are at least three deep lineages in Native American populations," said co-author David Reich, Professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School. "The Asian lineage leading to First Americans is the most anciently diverged, whereas the Asian lineages that contributed some of the DNA to Eskimo-Aleut speakers and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada are more closely related to present-day East Asian populations."

The team also found that once in the Americas, people expanded southward along a route that hugged the coast with populations splitting off along the way. After divergence, there was little gene flow among Native American groups, especially in South America. 

Two striking exceptions to this simple dispersal were also discovered. First,  Central American Chibchan-speakers have ancestry from both North and South America, reflecting back-migration from South Americaand mixture of two widely separated strands of Native ancestry. Second, the Naukan and coastal Chukchi from north-eastern Siberia carry 'First American' DNA. Thus, Eskimo-Aleut speakers migrated back to Asia, bringing Native American genes.

The team's analysis was complicated by the influx into the hemisphere of European and African immigrants since 1492 and the 500 years of genetic mixing that followed. To address this, the authors developed methods that allowed them to focus on the sections of peoples' genomes that were of entirely Native American origin.

"The study of Native American populations is technically very challenging because of the widespread occurrence of European and African mixture in Native American groups," said Professor Ruiz-Linares. 

"We developed a method to peel back this mixture to learn about the relationships among Native Americans before Europeans and Africans arrived," Professor Reich said, "allowing us to study the history of many more Native American populations than we could have done otherwise."

The assembly of DNA samples from such a diverse range of populations was only possible through a collaboration of an international team of 64 researchers from the Americas (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Russia and the USA), Europe (England, France, Spain and Switzerland) and Russia.


Links:

Professor Andres Ruiz-Linares
UCL Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment 
Professor David Reich

Источник: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/2012/jul/native-american-populations-descend-three-key-migrations
Urbanization in Latin America

Cities are global leaders whose innovative policies are increasingly transcending boundaries to shape domestic and international trends. The relative power of cities to influence the global agenda will only increase in the coming decades. More than half of the world’s population lives in urban areas; by 2050, 70 percent, or more than six billion people, will be urban dwellers.

The Atlantic Council is at the forefront of an emerging global dialogue on urbanization through its Urban World 2030 project, which brings together foreign and security policymakers and urban specialists to address ways to turn global urbanization into a net positive.

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20140205 RioRio de Janeiro has launched an ambitious project to digitalize impoverished areas and tackle citizen connectivity challenges for low income people. The city will also host the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympics.Latin America, the most urbanized region in the world, merits special attention in how to capture the growth of cities to create innovative policies that foster equitable economic growth, good governance, long-term housing and public space solutions, and efficient urban services. The Atlantic Council’s Adrienne Arsht Latin America Center, which began operations in October 2013, will collaborate with the Council’s Strategic Foresight Initiative to be a leading voice in examining innovative urban solutions in Latin America and share lessons learned within the global context.  

Latin America: The World’s Urban Leader

Over the past forty years, Latin American cities have boomed. In 1950, 40 percent of the region’s population was urban, but by 1990 it was up to 70 percent. Today, about 80 percent of the region’s population lives in cities, making Latin America the world’s most urbanized region. (In comparison, the European Union is 74 percent urbanized, the East Asia and Pacific region, 50 percent). By 2050, UN-Habitat predicts Latin America’s cities will include 90 percent of the region’s population.

20140205 MedellinStreetA busy street in Medellín, Colombia, where more than two million people commute in the country’s second largest city. Medellín has transformed itself from murder capital to the most innovative city in the world in just two decades.Latin America’s dramatic shift to a highly urbanized region has significant ramifications, many of which have been detailed by the McKinsey Global Institute:

  • Today, 260 million people live in the region’s 198 large cities (populations of more than 200,000 people) and generate 60 percent of Latin America’s GDP. This is more than 1.5 times the contribution expected from large cities in Western Europe.
  • Brazil and Mexico, the region’s urban leaders, are home to 81 of the region’s large cities. These two countries are projected to contribute 35 percent of Latin America’s overall growth by 2025.
  • By 2025, 315 million people will live in Latin America’s large cities where the per-capita GDP is estimated to reach $23,000—more than that of Portugal in 2007.
  • Latin American cities have become hubs for technological innovation. For example, Rio de Janeiro—a city in which 22 percent of its six million residents live in favelas—is using GPS data to digitally map previously invisible communities, connecting them to better health care, transportation, and Internet services.
  • Infrastructure challenges related to transportation capacity, urban sprawl, and housing development need attention, but Latin America is making strong progress on communications infrastructure and citizen connectivity. The region has the world’s fastest growing Internet population, with 147 million unique visitors online.

Such explosive, unprecedented growth will require innovative shifts in urban planning, economic models, and global governance structures. Growing cities will have to revamp public infrastructure expenditure to increase citizens’ living standards, but these transformations also offer a unique opportunity for city leaders to shape an emerging global dialogue on urban development.

Moving Forward: Policy Considerations

As the world’s most urbanized region, Latin America is a critical platform from which to launch a global dialogue on urban trends. For urbanization to be a net positive for Latin America—and for the world to learn from the region’s experiences—policy formulation must take into account the following:

  • Economic Opportunity. Latin America’s working-age population is projected to expand until it peaks in the 2040s at around 470 million potential workers. These young, urban workers are critical for creating wealth and raising regional living standards, but policies must be in place to provide access to quality education and opportunities to enter the formal workforce through channels that maximize their know-how and ability to unleash new generators of economic development.
  • Service Provision. The cost of delivering basic services is much less expensive in cities than in rural areas. But water, housing, education, and other services must be equitably provided to minimize the growth of urban haves and have-nots as increased urban inequality foments marginalization as well as crime and violence.
  • Public-Private Collaboration. Many examples exist of the public and private sectors working together to improve schools, build and improve public spaces, and facilitate a future pipeline of workers. In Mexico, for example, the Tecnológico de Monterrey system partners with business to leverage its research. Education is one of the most critical indicators of future success; the increased concentration of urban youth offers an opportunity for education officials to partner with business to improve curriculum but also to ensure that schools are teaching the subjects that business are looking for in their future workers.
  • Transportation and Mobility. The growing middle class in Latin America and in many parts of the world presents a tremendous opportunity for improved social equity and for addressing the many ills inherent with poverty. But rising living standards also create new demands on infrastructure, among them transportation. Latin American cities such as Curitiba, Brazil, and Bogotá, Colombia have been at the forefront of creating new modes of transportation to reduce congestion. Still, both intra-city and intercity mobility must be improved to reduce the burden on transportation infrastructure and the environment.
  • Decentralization and Citizen Participation. Latin America has historically been marked by highly concentrated control of political and fiscal resources. However, recent years have seen a decentralization of resources and power from national governments to state and local authorities in select countries. With that, citizens increasingly demand participation in local government decision-making, and participatory budgeting and planning has been established in municipalities in countries such as Peru and Bolivia. Citizen empowerment bodes well for democratic institutions and stability, but more attention must be focused on how to provide local authorities and cities with the technical know-how to make informed decisions.

In the coming decades, cities will increasingly shape local and national policy and decision-making. The Adrienne Arsht Latin America Center seeks to become a hub for thought leadership on Latin America’s leading role in the global urban trend by examining lessons learned around the region’s urbanization story and connecting Latin America’s experience to that of cities across the world.
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Источник: https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/commentary/article/urbanization-in-latin-america/

Population and development in Latin America and the Caribbean

Abstract

PIP: The data sheet compiled by the Population Reference Bureau and reprinted here provides a picture of many of the principal population characteristics of Latin America and the Caribbean. The reduced rate of average population increase, to 2.3% annually, compares favorably with the peak level that reached nearly 3% in 1960. Mortality rates have continued to decline in the intervening period, and fertility has decreased even more, resulting in a notable drop in overall rates of population growth for the region as a whole. Yet, total population has jumped from about 208 million in 1960 to an estimated 390 million in 1983. Statistics for the 2 regions obscure important differences in the patterns of growth among countries. Among Spanish speaking countries, the ones in "Temperate South America" represent a distinct type. Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay are all growing at less than 1.6% annually. These 3 countries have completed the demographic transition. 2 more Spanish speaking political units in the Caribbean, Cuba and Puerto Rico, also fall into this category. Most of the English speaking islands in the Caribbean, plus Martinique and Guadaloupe, have also passed through demographic transition. The growth pattern of nearly all the countries in this category has baeen influenced by outmigration. A 2nd population category in Latin America and the Caribbean is composed of countries that had high rates of growth in 1960 but have reduced growth significantly in the past 2 decades as a result of modernizing influences and family planning programs. This category includes several of Latin America's most populous countries, i.e., Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and Venezuela, plus several smaller countries like Panama, Costa Rica, and Paraguay. A number of Caribbean countries also fall into this category. This 2nd group is the one to watch for assessing the future relationship of population to development. A 3rd category of countries in the region includes several nations that are growing at over 3% annually. The principal reason for their high growth levels in a sustained high rate of fertility. The prospects for many of these countries are not promising. Changes in the pattern of births and deaths have occurred mainly as a result of modernizing influences and the adoption of family planning. Of the two, modernization seems to be more important. Several countries encourage family planning as a means of reducing population growth rates. A number of countries with public family programs justify them as a human right or as a means of improving the health of mothers and children and not as a way to reduce growth rates. Argentina and Uruguay continue their strong pronatalist policies, and Chile and Bolivia have moved from policies favoring family planning to a reverse position. Other population data presented covers internal and international migration, urbanization, and population growth and development.

MeSH terms

  • Americas
  • Birth Rate
  • Caribbean Region
  • Central America
  • Demography
  • Developed Countries
  • Developing Countries
  • Economics
  • Emigration and Immigration*
  • Employment*
  • Family Planning Policy
  • Family Planning Services
  • Geography
  • Health Planning*
  • Latin America
  • North America
  • Population
  • Population Dynamics*
  • Population Growth*
  • Social Change*
  • Social Class
  • Socioeconomic Factors*
  • South America
  • Urban Population
  • Urbanization*
Источник: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12279675/
population of north and south america

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