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Liberty Tax to Provide Immediate Relief for Federal Workers Furloughed or Working Without Pay Due to Government Shutdown
VIRGINIA BEACH, Va.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jan 23, 2019 --Liberty Tax, Inc. (OTC PINK: TAXA) today expanded its Easy Advance* program to offer Federal government workers furloughed or working without pay due to the government shutdown access to an immediate tax refund advance of $500 with no interest or fees if they have an expected net Federal tax refund of at least $1,001**. In addition, Liberty Tax is offering a $25 discount on their tax preparation fee***.
Liberty Tax customers affected by the government shutdown who apply for an Easy Advance in any amount will be approved for a minimum advance of $500 without the normal loan approval process, or for a higher amount applied for, if certain underwriting criteria are met.
“Offering furloughed federal workers pre-approved access to this minimum refund advance program is the right thing to do – and we’re honored to help them meet their essential needs and ease some anxiety,” Nicole Ossenfort, CEO of Liberty Tax, said. “Because these funds are typically available within 24 hours of approval, families can have much-needed money in their hands quickly.”
Liberty Tax professionals can also help government workers furloughed or working without pay due to the government shutdown understand tax reform and the changes the new tax law may have for their tax return, tax deductions, and tax credits. Liberty Tax is trusted by millions for its accurate tax preparation and its promise to get taxpayers the lowest tax liability or the biggest refund to which they are entitled.
The partial government shutdown, the longest in history, has left some 800,000 federal workers without paychecks. Many federal government workers have said they live paycheck-to-paycheck, and they are concerned about how to pay their mortgage and other monthly bills. The Easy Advance can be the perfect solution to help eligible families fill the gap.
“Every year, new and returning Liberty Tax customers choose the Easy Advance because it gives them quicker access to money they need, and the partial federal government shutdown expands this option to an even larger community,” Ossenfort said.
*An Easy Advance is a loan secured by and paid back with your tax refund and is offered by Republic Bank & Trust Company, member FDIC, to eligible taxpayers. Loan amount options are based on your expected Federal refund less authorized fees. If approved for an Easy Advance, a Finance Charge may apply republic bank liberty tax on your loan amount. Easy Advance proceeds are typically available within 24 hours of IRS acceptance of tax return or within 24 hours for those filing before the IRS start date however, if direct deposit is selected it may take additional time for your financial institution to post the funds to your account. Visit your Liberty Tax office to learn about the cost, timing and availability of all filing and product options. Valid at participating locations. Valid Jan. 21-Feb. 28, 2019.
**To qualify for an Easy Advance, expected 2018 Federal tax refund must be at least $1,001 after any authorized fees are deducted. Easy Advance amounts of $500 to $6,250 could be available, depending on the expected refund amount less authorized fees. If customer chooses to apply for a loan of $2,500 or more, a Finance Charge will apply republic bank liberty tax approved. Applicant must be over 18 years of age, have a physical address in the U.S., present acceptable collateral of a sufficient expected federal refund minus authorized fees, and Federal furlough or required work without current pay must be verifiable.
***Application for an Easy Advance not required to get discount on tax preparation fee.
About Liberty Tax, Inc.
Founded in 1997, Liberty Tax, Inc. (OTC PINK: TAXA) is the indirect parent company of Liberty Tax Service. In the U.S. and Canada, last year, Liberty Tax prepared approximately two million individual income tax returns in more than 3,100 offices and online. Liberty Tax's online services are available through eSmart Tax, Liberty Online and DIY Tax, and are all backed by the tax professionals at Liberty Tax locations and its nationwide network of seasonal tax preparers. Liberty Tax also supports local communities with fundraising endeavors and contributes as a national sponsor to many charitable causes. For a more in-depth look, visit Liberty Tax Service and interact with Liberty Tax on Twitter and Facebook.
View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190123005158/en/
Source: Liberty Tax, Inc.
KEYWORD: UNITED STATES NORTH AMERICA VIRGINIA
INDUSTRY KEYWORD: PUBLIC POLICY/GOVERNMENT PUBLIC POLICY WHITE HOUSE/FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PROFESSIONAL SERVICES ACCOUNTING BANKING FINANCE
Copyright Business Wire 2019.
PUB: 01/23/2019 06:30 AM/DISC: 01/23/2019 06:30 AM
Estimated reading time: 1 minute, 42 seconds
Republic Bank Plans RAL Price Increase
In providing the debt indicator, the IRS let preparers and lenders know if taxpayers had obligations such as unpaid child support or student loans which would be offset against any tax refund due. Most observers expect the move will generally raise loan fees, which had been declining over the past two years.
Concering the possible tool that could compete with electronic refund checks, also known as assisted refunds in other programs, that wouldn't come until the first quarter of 2012.Republic provided funding for the loan program at Liberty Tax and half of Jackson Hewitt's program, among others, during the last tax season
Bob Scott has provided information to the tax and accounting community since 1991, first as technology editor of Accounting Today, and from 1997 through 2009 as editor of its sister publication, Accounting Technology. He is known throughout the industry for his depth of knowledge and for his high journalistic standards. Scott has made frequent appearances as a speaker, moderator and panelist and events serving tax and accounting professionals. He has a strong background in computer journalism as an editor with two former trade publications, Computer+Software News and MIS Week and spent several years with weekly and daily newspapers in Morris County New Jersey prior to that. how can you find your student loan account number graduate of Indiana University with a degree in journalism, Bob is a native of Madison, Ind
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More in this category:« Audit Firms Face SEC Review in Fraud CaseIRS Removes Debt Indicator; Setback for RALs? »
jackson hewitt/republic bank holding up our stimulus checks has 266 members Can someone please tell me whats going to happen with my stimulus check? Its automated but now I know my check was sent to them and then returned back to the IRS. Comments. Everyone from mom-and-pop tax preparers to big chains like TurboTax, H&R Block and Jackson Hewitt have this option, Mathis said. If you have not filed your 2019 return, please do so. Jackson Hewitt, Republic Bank and TaxAct say that customers can expect to receive their stimulus payments starting Feb. 1. NOTE: Address changes can only be made for current year returns (2019). Celtic coach Gavin Strachan says club does not regret Dubai trip that led to 14 players self-isolating; India’s First Eco-Friendly Cow Dung Paint Launched Economic Impact Payment Distribution (also known as stimulus checks) If you are a taxpayer who elected to have your 2019 federal tax refund processed by Republic Bank Tax Refund Solutions when you filed your taxes in 2020, please visit www.republictaxpayer.com or call 1-866-581-1040 for additional information on the second round of EIPs. Jackson Hewitt and Republic Bank told customers theirs would be deposited by February 1. Petition update Republic Bank will not receive our stimulus checks it will go directly to your accounts. Politicians and rich CEOs shouldn't make all the decisions. It seems like H&R Block and Turbo Tax are trying to fix the issue. I filed my 2019 taxes with Jackson Hewitt. Mail Correspondence. Got my tax return and 1st stimulus check without any issues, but the 2nd one was sent to their Third Party bank. United States. We're here for you and want to offer you account access whenever you need it! For many Americans who used tax preparation services, the second stimulus payment was sent to an invalid bank account. Thanks JH for the delay, unlike i see Turbo tax actually taking a handle on things. According to the Jackson Hewitt faq section, stimulus funds should be direct deposited to the prepaid card account on your latest tax filing. The lady was 2 weeks out of training. 8K supporters. H&R Block, Jackson Hewitt … Stimulus check update "Jackson Hewitt, Republic Bank and TaxAct say that customers can expect to receive their stimulus payments starting Feb. 1. Apr 14, 2020 — I’ll will keep everyone updated. I got a refund advance through republic bank my stimulus got sent to a closed bank account at republic bank now whats going to happen? Some people who filed their 2018 or 2019 taxes with popular tax services like TurboTax, H&R Block, and Jackson Hewitt have still not received stimulus checks. Tweet; Email ; Keep fighting for people power! I also have “Payment Status 2 unavailable” on the Get My Payment tool. Loan is subject to underwriting and approval. Skip to main content. Look to the bottom-right of this page and locate the button titled Customer Request Forms. 0. It’s not clear how many people are affected, but the tax preparation company Jackson Hewitt said the Internal Revenue Service had sent payments to more than 13 million bank … My petitions. I filed with Jackson Hewitt the last 3 years. Impacted banks were required to send the affected payments back to the U.S. Treasury. 1. Box 2348 Louisville, KY 40201 Log in. Enroll; Taxpayer Information ; IRS.gov; Verify Check; What ERO's Are Saying. Kind of sad from JH. Jackson Hewitt Tax Services, Inc. has some great tips for … "The IRS has not announced how it will send the stimulus payment to taxpayers who selected [refund] bank products during their most recent tax filing," a Jackson Hewitt spokeswoman said. Jackson Hewitt/Amex Serve to release our stimulus. Republic Bank stimulus check someone please help. We have received reports of increased fraud attempts. Republic Bank provides access to our full suite of banking services through options like Mobile* & Online Banking, 24-hour ATMs, the Contact Center, and Interactive Teller Machines (ITMs). Ambria Washington. Hopefully (a very faint hope) we’ll get … Basically no info from Jackson Hewitt or the IRS regarding stimulus payments to those who got refund advances on the serve cards. An Easy Advance (EA) is a loan secured by and paid back with your tax refund and is offered by Republic Bank & Trust Company, member FDIC, to eligible taxpayers. Click below for information and updates on PPP and Economic Impact Payments (EIP-2, sometimes referred to as stimulus checks). Republic Bank Tax Refund Solutions by Republic Bank & Trust Company Meanwhile, the IRS was blasted by some tax companies over the mistake. Membership. Republic said it’s giving the money back to the IRS. Browse. Americans will soon be getting their federal stimulus checks based on past tax returns. Updates. Start a petition. Close. Shared on Facebook. With these major Tax Software companies Republic Bank gives you the freedom to choose whichever software best meets your business needs. Millions of stimulus payments that were erroneously sent by the IRS to closed bank accounts are being redirected and will be deposited into eligible recipients' accounts "in … In order to update your address with Republic Bank, you will need to provide proof of your identification as well as proof of your correct address. We test extensively with each and every company to ensure everything runs smoothly from the day you begin e-filing until the end of your tax season. Petition details. Learn More About Your Access Options # # Republic Bank is the Easy bank for Business. As many as 13 million people may experience a delay in receiving their money after the IRS sent the funds to closed or invalid bank accounts, according to tax-prep company Jackson Hewitt. Posted by 12 days ago. Republic Bank & Trust Company P.O. I'm about to lose my job because of NO car. The issue is that the account where the stimulus … [CORONAVIRUS IN THE CAROLINAS: HERE’S HOW TO STAY INFORMED] The IRS should get it to the right accounts “no later than Feb. 1.” Liberty Tax and Jackson Hewitt said the same thing. Have to go to irs website and enter bank info, Has anyone rec yheir stimulus through american exrpress, Dose some one know something about check with Jackson unit, You will have to enter in your bank info on irs website, I filed my daughter's taxes through Tax act and signed her up for a Serve.card. Share. I also am now living in a weekly hotel with my … The IRS has sent payments to more than 13 million bank accounts that were closed or no longer valid, tax preparation firm Jackson Hewitt said on … Helpful Links. yes but I no-longer have my American Express Serve card that they put my stimulus money on and have no idea how to get it put over onto my new 2019 card : (Jackson Hewitt is closed so not sure what to do Loan amount options are based on your expected Federal refund less authorized baptist health hospital fort smith arkansas. Jackson Hewitt says as many as 13 million checks may have been sent to closed or invalid bank accounts. COVID-19 Relief Information Page # Avoid Card Transaction Scams. Republic Bank stimulus check someone please help. Any word on if Jackson Hewitt will do the same? If approved for an EA, a Finance Charge may apply. This means that some people, including some Jackson Hewitt clients, may not have received their expected stimulus payment. Let’s get to 10,000! 0 have republic bank liberty tax. I finally found a number to contact to see if your stimulus was sent to their bank "Republic Bank" 1-866-581-1040. Jackson Hewitt and their partner American Express Serve are responsible for not being prepared for the release of our stimulus checks. The IRS is still advising those who have not received their stimulus payments to file their 2020 tax return electronically and claim the Recovery Rebate Credit. This isn’t a game this is life and many people need the money or answers now. Jackson Hewitt/Amex Serve to release our stimulus. 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Franchise Group, Inc. Sample Contracts
THIS SUPPLEMENT AND JOINDER AGREEMENT (this “Agreement”) is made this 3rd day of October, 2014, by and among LIBERTY TAX, INC., a Delaware corporation, formerly known as JTH HOLDING, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Borrower”), FIFTH THIRD BANK (“Fifth Third”), SYNOVUS BANK (“Synovus”) and U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION (“US Bank,” and together with Fifth Third and Synovus, collectively, the “Additional Lenders,” and each, an “Additional Lender”), and SUNTRUST BANK, a Georgia banking corporation (“SunTrust”), CITIZENS BANK OF PENNSYLVANIA (“Citizens”), BANK OF AMERICA, N.A., a national banking association (“Bank of America”), BRANCH BANKING AND TRUST COMPANY (“BB&T”), FIRST TENNESSEE BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, a national banking association (“FTB”), and BMO HARRIS FINANCING, INC. (“BMO,” and together with SunTrust, Citizens, Bank of America, BB&T and FTB, collectively, the “Increase Lenders,” and each, an “Increase Lender”) and SUNTRUST BANK, as administrative agent for the Lenders r
Acorn Protests Liberty Tax's Refund Loan Practices
Members of the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, or Acorn, announced plans to protest at Liberty Tax offices in more than 60 cities throughout the U.S. and Canada from Feb. 1 to Feb. 4 best places to buy bathing suits in store demand that the tax preparer change its refund anticipation loans practices.
As part of an agressive campaign aganst RALs -- short-term loans secured by the recipient's tax refund under which customers may be charged high interest rates to get their refunds faster -- Acorn said that members dressed as the Statue of Liberty and Uncle Sam will protest at Liberty Tax's storefront locations to warn potential customers about the high cost of refund loans and inform them about nearby Volunteer Income Tax Assistance sites that are run by community organizations, where lower-income families can get their taxes done for free.
Acorn said that it will also protest at the headquarters of the banks that work with Liberty Tax to make the refund loans: Republic First Bank in Philadelphia, First Bank of Delaware, and Republic Bank of Kentucky.
John Hewitt, founder and chief executive of Virginia Beach, Va.-based Liberty, said that a meeting with Acorn has been scheduled for Feb. 21. However, Hewitt told WebCPA, "We're sending them a threatening letter today, accusing them of slander and disparagement. We have the best bank disclosures in the business."
"We intend to attack their nonprofit status," Hewitt continued. "Last year they were picketing Block, then they crawled in bed with them and Block paid them a million dollars. They got their pound of flesh from Block, and now they're looking for an ounce from us."
"We have sat down with H&R Block and come to an agreement, and we are at the table with Jackson Hewitt," said Johnny Clark, Acorn's national treasurer. "Now we are targeting Liberty." In January, Acorn said that it announced a partnership with H&R Block, in which Block eliminated the administrative fee it charged to RAL customers and improved its disclosures. Acorn also said recently that Jackson Hewitt responded to its actions by entering into negotiations with the community group to change its practices related to RALs.
French Second Republic
Republican government of France between 1848 and 1852
The French Second Republic (French: Deuxième République Française or La IIe République), officially the French Republic (République française), was the republican government of France that existed between 1848 and 1852. It was established in February 1848, with the Revolution that overthrew the July Monarchy, and ended in December 1852, after the 1851 coup d'état and when president Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III and initiated the Second French Empire. It officially adopted the motto of the First Republic, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité.
Revolution of 1848
Main article: French Revolution of 1848
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution, was one of a wave of revolutions across Europe in that year. The events swept away the Orleans monarchy (1830–1848) and led to the creation of the nation's second republic.
The Revolution of 1830, part of a wave of similar regime changes across Europe, had put an end to the monarchy of the Bourbon Restoration and installed a more liberal constitutional monarchy under the Orleans dynasty and governed predominantly by Guizot's conservative-liberal centre-right and Thiers's progressive-liberal centre-left.
But to the left of the dynastic parties, the monarchy was criticised by Republicans (a mixture of Radicals and socialists) for being insufficiently democratic: its electoral system was based on a narrow, privileged electorate of property-owners and therefore excluded workers. During the 1840s several petitions requesting electoral reform (universal manhood suffrage) had been issued by the National Guard, but had been rejected by both of the main dynastic parties. Political meetings dedicated to this issue were banned by the government, and electoral reformers therefore bypassed the ban by holding a series of 'banquets' (1847–1848), events where political debate was disguised as dinner speeches. This movement began overseen by Odilon Barrot's moderate centre-left liberal critics of Guizot's conservative government, but took on a life of its own after 1846, when economic crisis encouraged ordinary workers to demand a say over government.
On 14 February 1848 Guizot's government decided to put an end to the banquets, on the grounds of constituting illegal political assembly. On 22 February, striking workers and republican students took to the streets, demanding an end to Guizot's government, and erected barricades. Odilon Barrot called a motion of no republic bank liberty tax in Guizot, hoping that this might satisfy the rioters, but the Chamber of Deputies sided with the premier. The government called a state of emergency, thinking it could rely on the troops of the National Guard, but instead on the morning of 23 February the Guardsmen sided with the revolutionaries, protecting them from the regular soldiers who by now had been called in.
The industrial population of the faubourgs was welcomed by the National Guard on their way towards the centre of Paris. Barricades were raised after the shooting of protestors outside the Guizot manor by soldiers.
On 23 February 1848 premierFrançois Guizot's cabinet resigned, abandoned by the petite bourgeoisie, on whose support they thought they could depend. The heads of the more left-leaning conservative-liberal monarchist parties, Louis-Mathieu Molé and Adolphe Thiers, declined to form a government. Odilon Barrot accepted, and Thomas Robert Bugeaud, commander-in-chief of the first military division, who had begun to attack the barricades, was recalled. In the face of the insurrection that had now taken possession of the whole capital, King Louis-Philippe abdicated in favour of his grandson, Prince Philippe, Count of Paris claimed by Alphonse de Lamartine in the name of the provisional government elected by the Chamber of Deputies under the pressure of the mob.
This provisional government with Dupont de l'Eure as its president, consisted of Lamartine for foreign affairs, Crémieux for justice, Ledru-Rollin for the interior, Carnot for public instruction, Goudchaux for finance, Arago for the navy, and Burdeau for war. Garnier-Pagès was mayor of Paris.
But, as in 1830, the republican-socialist party had set up a rival government at the Hôtel de Ville (city hall), including Louis Blanc, Armand Marrast, Ferdinand Flocon, and Alexandre Martin, known as Albert L'Ouvrier ("Albert the Worker"), which bid fair to involve discord and civil war. But this time the Palais Bourbon was not victorious over the Hôtel de Ville. It had to consent to a fusion of the two bodies, in which, however, the predominating elements were the moderate republicans. It was uncertain what the policy of the new government would be.
One party seeing that in spite of the changes in the last sixty years of all political institutions the position of the people had not been improved, demanded a reform of society itself, the abolition of the privileged position of property, which they viewed as the only obstacle to equality, and as an emblem hoisted the red flag (the 1791 red flag was, however, the symbol not merely of the French Revolution, but rather of martial law and of order). The other party wished to maintain society on the basis of its traditional institutions, and rallied round the tricolore. As a concession made by Lamartine to popular aspirations, and in exchange of the maintaining of the tricolor flag, he conceded the Republican triptych of Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, written on the flag, on which a red rosette was also to be added.
The first collision took place as to the form which the 1848 Revolution was to take. Lamartine wished for them to maintain their original principles, with the whole country as supreme, whereas the revolutionaries under Ledru-Rollin wished for the republic of Paris to hold a monopoly on political power. On 5 March the government, under the pressure of the Parisian clubs, decided in favour of an immediate reference to the people, and direct universal suffrage, and adjourned it until 26 April. This added the uneducated masses to the electorate and led to the election of the Constituent Assembly of 4 May 1848. The provisional government having resigned, the republican and anti-socialist majority on 9 May entrusted the supreme power to an Executive Commission consisting of five members: Arago, Pierre Marie de Saint-Georges, Garnier-Pagès, Lamartine and Ledru-Rollin.
The result of the general election, the return of a constituent assembly, predominantly moderate, if not monarchical, dashed the hopes of those who had looked for the establishment, by a peaceful revolution, of their ideal socialist state; but they were not prepared to yield without a struggle, and in Paris itself they commanded a formidable force. In spite of the preponderance of the "tri-colour" party in the provisional government, so long as the voice of France had not spoken, the socialists, supported by the Parisian proletariat, had exercised an influence on policy disproportionate to their relative numbers. By the decree of 24 February, the provisional government had solemnly accepted the principle of the "right to work," and decided to establish "National Workshops" for the unemployed; at the same time, a sort of industrial parliament was established at the Luxembourg Palace, under the presidency of Louis Blanc, with the object of preparing a scheme for the organization of labor; and, lastly, by the decree of 8 March, the property qualification for enrollment in the National Guard had been abolished and the workmen were supplied with arms. The socialists thus formed a sort of [[[]]], complete with a government and an armed force.
On 15 May, an armed mob, headed by Raspail, Blanqui and Barbès, and assisted by the proletariat-aligned Guard, attempted to overwhelm the Assembly, but were defeated by the bourgeois-aligned battalions of the National Guard. Meanwhile, the national workshops were unable to provide remunerative work for the genuine unemployed, and of the thousands who applied, the greater number were employed in aimless digging and refilling of trenches; soon even this expedient failed, republic bank liberty tax those for whom work could not be invented were given a half wage of 1 franc a day.
On 21 June, Alfred de Falloux decided in the name of the parliamentary commission on labour that the workmen should be discharged within three days and those who were able-bodied should be forced to enlist in the armed forces.
After this, the June Days Uprising broke out, over the course of 24–26 June, when the eastern industrial quarter of Paris, led by Pujol, fought the western quarter, led by Louis-Eugène Cavaignac, who had been appointed dictator. The socialist party was defeated and afterwards its members were deported. But the republic had been discredited and had already become unpopular with both the peasants, who were exasperated by the new land tax of 45 centimes imposed in order to fill the empty treasury, and with the bourgeoisie, who were intimidated by the power of the revolutionary clubs and disadvantaged by the economic stagnation. By the "massacres" of the June Days, the working classes were also alienated from it. The Duke of Wellington wrote at this time, "France needs a Napoleon! I cannot yet see him." The granting of universal suffrage to a society with Imperialist sympathies would benefit reactionaries, which culminated in the election of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte as president of the republic.
The new constitution, proclaiming a democratic republic, direct universal suffrage and the separation of powers, was promulgated on 4 November 1848. Under the new constitution, there was to be a single permanent Assembly of 750 members elected for a term of three years by the scrutin de liste. The Assembly would elect members of a Council of State to serve for six years. Laws would be proposed by the Council of State, to be voted on by the Assembly. The executive power was delegated to the President, who was elected for four years by direct universal suffrage, i.e. on a broader basis than that of the Assembly, and was not eligible for re-election. He was to choose his ministers, who, like him, would be responsible to the Assembly. Finally, revision of the constitution was made practically impossible: it involved obtaining three times in succession a majority of three-quarters of the deputies in a special assembly. It was in vain that Jules Grévy, in the name of those who perceived the obvious and inevitable risk of creating, under the name of a president, a monarch and more than a king, proposed that the head of the state should be no more than a removable president of the ministerial council. Lamartine, thinking that he was sure to be the choice of the electors under universal suffrage, won over the support of the Chamber, which did not even take the precaution of rendering ineligible the members of families which had reigned over France. It made the presidency an office dependent upon popular acclamation.
Further information: 1848 French presidential election
The election was keenly contested; the democratic republicans adopted as their candidate Ledru-Rollin, the "pure republicans" Cavaignac, and the recently reorganized Imperialist party Prince Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. Unknown in 1835, and forgotten or despised since 1840, Louis Napoleon had in the last eight years advanced sufficiently in the public estimation to be elected to the Constituent Assembly in 1848 by five departments. He owed this rapid increase of popularity partly to blunders of the government of July, which had unwisely aroused the memory of the country, filled as it was with recollections of the Empire, and partly to Louis Napoléon's campaign carried on from his prison at Ham by means of pamphlets of socialistic tendencies. Moreover, the monarchists, led by Thiers and the committee of the Rue de Poitiers, were no longer content even with the safe dictatorship of the upright Cavaignac, and joined forces with the Bonapartists. On 10 December the peasants gave over 5,000,000 votes to a name: Napoléon, which stood for order at all costs, against 1,400,000 for Cavaignac.
Henri Georges Boulay de la Meurthe was elected Vice President, a unique position in French history.
For three years, there was an indecisive struggle between the heterogeneous Assembly and the President, who was silently awaiting his opportunity. He chose as his ministers men with little inclination towards republicanism, with a preference for Orléanists, the chief of whom was Odilon Barrot. In order to strengthen his position, he endeavored to conciliate the reactionary parties, without committing himself to any of them. The chief instance of this was the expedition to Rome voted by the Catholics, to restore the temporal authority of the Pope Pius IX, who had fled Rome in fear of the nationalists and republicans. (Garibaldi and Mazzini had been elected to a Constitutional Assembly.) The Pope called for international intervention to restore him in his temporal power. The French President moved to establish the power and prestige of France against that of Austria, as beginning the work of European renovation and reconstruction which he already looked upon as his mission. French troops under Oudinot marched into Rome. This provoked a foolish insurrection in Paris in favor of the Roman Republic, that of the Château d'Eau, which was crushed on 13 June 1849. On the other hand, when the Pope, though only just restored, began to yield to the general movement of reaction, the President demanded that he should set up a Liberal government. The Pope's dilatory reply having been accepted by the French ministry, the President replaced it on 1 November, by the Fould-Rouher cabinet.
This looked like a declaration of war against the Catholic and monarchist majority in the Legislative Assembly, which had been elected on 28 May in a moment of panic. But the President again pretended to be playing the game of the Orléanists, as he had done in the case of the Constituent Assembly. The complementary elections of March and April 1850 resulted in an unexpected victory for the republicans which alarmed the conservative leaders, Thiers, Berryer and Montalembert. The President and the Assembly co-operated in the passage of the Loi Falloux of 15 March 1850, which again placed university instruction under the direction of the Church.
A conservative electoral law was passed on 31 May. It required each voter to prove three years' residence at his current address, by entries in the record of direct taxes. This effectively repealed universal suffrage: factory workers, who is walmart burlington open today fairly often, were thus disenfranchised. The law of 16 July aggravated the severity of the press restrictions by re-establishing the "caution money" (cautionnement) deposited by proprietors and editors of papers with the government as a guarantee of good behavior. Finally, a skillful interpretation of the law on clubs and political societies suppressed about this time all the republican societies. It was now their turn to be crushed like the socialists.
Coup d'état and end of the Second Republic
Main article: French coup d'état of 1851
However, the president had only joined in Montalembert's cry of "Down with the Republicans!" in the hope of effecting a revision of the constitution without having recourse to a coup d'état. His concessions only increased the boldness of the monarchists, while they had only accepted Louis-Napoléon as president in opposition to the Republic and as a step in the direction of the monarchy. A conflict was now inevitable between his personal policy and the majority of the Chamber, who were moreover divided into legitimists and Orléanists, in spite of the death of Louis-Philippe in August 1850.
Louis-Napoléon exploited their projects for a restoration of the monarchy, which he knew to be unpopular in the country, and which gave him the opportunity of furthering his own personal ambitions. From 8 August to 12 November 1850 he went about France stating the case for a revision of the constitution in speeches which he varied according to each place; he held reviews, at which cries of "Vive Napoléon!" showed that the army was with him; he superseded General Changarnier, on whose arms the parliament relied for the projected monarchical coup d'état; he replaced his Orléanist ministry by obscure men devoted to his own cause, such as Morny, Fleury and Persigny, and gathered round him officers of the African army, broken men like General Saint-Arnaud; in fact he practically declared open war.
His reply to the votes of censure passed by the Assembly, and their refusal to increase his civil list was to hint at a vast communistic plot in order to scare the bourgeoisie, and to denounce the electoral law of 31 May 1850, in order to gain the support of the mass of the people. The Assembly retaliated by throwing out the proposal for a partial reform of that article of the constitution which prohibited the re-election of the president and the re-establishment of universal suffrage (July). All hope of a peaceful issue was at an end. When the questors called upon the Chamber to have posted up in all barracks the decree of 6 May 1848 concerning the right of the Assembly to demand the support of the troops if attacked, the Mountain, dreading a restoration of the monarchy, voted with the Bonapartists against the measure, thus disarming the legislative power.
Louis-Napoléon saw his opportunity, and organised the French coup of 1851. On the night of 1/2 December 1851, the anniversary of his uncle Napoleon's coronation in 1804 and his victory at Austerlitz in 1805, he dissolved the Chamber, re-established universal suffrage, had all the party leaders arrested, and summoned a new assembly to prolong his term of office for ten years. The deputies who had met under Berryer at the Mairie of the 10th arrondissement to defend the constitution and proclaim the deposition of Louis Napoleon were scattered by the troops at Mazas and Mont Valérien. The resistance organized by the republicans within Paris under Victor Hugo was soon subdued by the intoxicated soldiers. The more serious resistance in the départements was crushed by declaring a state of siege and by the "mixed commissions." The plebiscite of 20 December, ratified by a huge majority the coup d'état in favour of the prince-president, who alone reaped the benefit of the excesses of the Republicans and the reactionary passions of the monarchists.
- ^"Les couleurs du drapeau de 1848". Revue d'Histoire du Xixe Siècle - 1848. 28 (139): 237–238. 1931.
- ^ abMona Ozouf, "Liberté, égalité, fraternité", in Lieux de Mémoire (dir. Pierre Nora), tome III, Quarto Gallimard, 1997, pp. 4353–4389 (in French) (abridged translation, Realms of Memory, Columbia University Press, 1996–1998 (in English))
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Coordinates: 48°49′N2°29′E / 48.817°N 2.483°E / 48.817; 2.483