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Photo Mechanic 6.1 Crack with License Key Free Download Latest Version

Photo Mechanic 6.1 Crack is an advanced application that can help professional photography. You can also manage to browse their albums or edit image/picture metadata. To do this, the application lets you compare similar photos in side-by-side windows.

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The bottom line is that the Photo Mechanic License key is an advanced tool. That can help you sort through the numerous collections of pictures. Furthermore, information about the camera used to take the photograph can be viewed. First, you download the trial version of the software. Start a free 30-day trial. Finally, deliver those images to the world with powerful export features. Photo Mechanic Key speeds up your workflow, and you take all the credit. You read more.

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Photo Mechanic Cracks are the most productive photographers in the world. Use the powerful features of Photo Mechanic to make managing your photos faster and easier. You can quickly ingest images from your memory cards and pick winners without waiting. Use tools originally created for photographers of the world’s deadlines to add information like captions, keywords, and copyright to your photos as quickly as possible. Finally, send those images to the world with powerful export features. Photo Mechanic Crack speeds up your workflow and you’ll get all the credit.

Plug in your memory cards, start picking winners, and eliminate rejections almost instantly. Transition from image to image without annoying playback delay. Add dynamic comments, copyright, and background information individually or in batches. Upload photos to online galleries or photo services in a jiffy.

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Quickly ingest photos from your memory cards and pick your winners without having to wait. A picture is worth a thousand words, but only the embedded metadata counts. Photo Mechanic Torrent is a fast and powerful photo viewer, tag editor, and photo browser. So, that allows you quickly ingest, edit, and export your photo quickly.

Photo Mechanic Crack is also equipped with basic photo editing features like rotate, Crop, etc. And also lets you directly upload and share your photo to the cloud. This site provides the direct link to download its full Crack.

Photo Mechanic Crack makes the process of selecting, organizing, and adding metadata to your images so much easier. Here are some of the key features that help you get things done more quickly and accurately.

It offers many options to personalize and organize your photos from the camera, categorize pictures, and often is used to tag each photo with IPTC metadata. Photo Mechanic Registration Code is also equipped with basic photo editing features like rotate, Crop, etc; and also comes with photo sharing features (FTP uploader) that let you directly upload and share your photo to the cloud.

Photo Mechanic Crack

Key Features:

  • Start Editing Immediately
  • Browse Files Faster
  • Copy Files From Several Memory Cards Simultaneously
  • Live Ingest
  • Create Galleries
  • Upload To The Web
  • Add IPTC metadata to photos simultaneously
  • Copy multiple files simultaneously
  • Copy, view, and compare images side-by-side
  • Create galleries and print contact sheets
  • Edit, tag, watermark, rename, resize, etc.
  • Innovative variables and code replacements
  • Personalize and organize your images
  • Speed-up your copying process (Ingest)
  • Upload images to popular online services
  • View your images quickly and conveniently
  • And much more.

What’s New?

  • Fixed a problem with rendering 32-bit PNG files with alpha channel information.
  • Copy/Paste/Cut/Select All contextual menu functionality returned to text fields.
  • The preview window no longer loses focus after deleting a photo.
  • Startup issue where a dialog stating that “One of PM’s subsystems failed to initialize.
  • This may indicate an installation issue.” should no longer appear.
  • Shutdown issue where a dialog stating that “The Dynamic UI system is taking a while to stop. Continue waiting?” should no longer appear.

System Requirement

  • MAC: OS X 10.11.6 OR later.
  • Processor: Dual-core processor.
  • RAM: Minimum 2 GB.
  • Internal space: 10 GB.
  • Windows: 2007/8/10/2003/Vista/XP/2k or later.
  • Windows server: 2000/2012.
  • Operating system: 32/64 bit operating system for data flow rate or later.
  • RAM: 4 GB minimum required.
  • Hard Disk: 2 GB.
  • You can also download it for your mobile phone.

License Key:

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Photo Mechanic 6.0 Build 6097 Crack & Latest License Key Download 2022

Photo Mechanic 6.0 (build 3437) Crack

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Photo Mechanic 6.0 (build 3437) Crack

Key Features:

Fast Viewing / Culling

Go from your memory card to working on your best images faster than ever before. Ingest, cull, rate, and organize for a quicker, more efficient workflow.

Work How You Want

Let’s work together. Photo Mechanic is built to play nice with your other post-processing and creative tools so that you’re in control.

Captions, Keywords, and Copyright

A picture is worth a thousand words, but only the embedded metadata counts. Get your images tagged faster with crucial info like credit and copyright to protect your business.

Contact Sheet

The Contact Sheet is the heart of your workflow. See your image thumbnails, edit and organize quickly and efficiently. The app puts you in control.

Preview Raw Files Fast

Flip from one image to the next without any render delay. With thousands of images, the savings really add up.

Keywords

Sometimes you need more than one keyword to describe (and find) an image. It helps you add keywords in many ways. Structured Keyword lists allow you to add related keywords fast.

Variables

Automatically add EXIF camera data to your images like focal length, serial number, or ISO to metadata fields like captions or keywords.

Batch Editing

Work faster when you copy, delete, tag, watermark, rename, resize, and add IPTC metadata to lots of photos at once.

Move, Copy, & Rename

Add capture time to filenames. Create dated folders on the fly. Copy files to multiple destinations at once. PhotoMechanic’s file-management tools are incredibly powerful.

Code Replacements

Save time typing long complex text with Code Replacements. A few keystrokes can add entire sentences to your captions.

GPS Coordinates

Geotag your photos by easily applying your saved GPS tracking logs to your photos with the program. Now, in Mechanic 6: Use GPS data to automatically add the city, state, and country names to your metadata!

Adjust Capture Dates And Times

Take photos from multiple cameras and get them synchronized to the correct date and time. This is great for wedding photographers with second shooters.

Pick The Best Of The Bunch

View and compare images side by side, horizontally or vertically. Spot differences between images that are too subtle to see when viewing one at a time, or simply pick between two top choices.

What’s New In 2022?

  • Improved the look of the user interface to a more professional dark background.
  • Added support for numerous IPTC Extension and licensing fields.
  • Movie files can now be captioned with IPTC using an XMP sidecar file.
  • The IPTC dialogs can now be customized to show only the fields of concern, their order in the dialog, and the field headers.

Operating System:

  • Microsoft Windows 10 (64-bit only), 8.1 (32-bit & 64-bit), or 7 SP1 (32-bit & 64-bit)
  • 1 GHz or faster processor
  • RAM, 32-bit: 2 GB, 64-bit: 4 GB
  • Disk space: 4.0 GB
  • 1360 x 768 display resolution with True Color

Photo Mechanic Serial Key:

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Camera Bits Photo Mechanic 6.0 Build 6097 Crack 2022

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Camera Bits Photo Mechanic 6.0 Build 6097 Crack 2022 is a professional digital photo management software program that helps you quickly view, rotate, preview, copy, delete, add tags, and more. Support a variety of browsing modes, support batch renaming, and batch add titles to photos, the program also has advanced Image Variable technology, you can easily manage thousands of image files!

Photo Mechanic FULL Torrent is a standalone image viewer for quick and easy viewing of digital photos. It can display “thumbnails” in digital memory cards or folders in the “contact sheet” window. You can quickly rotate, preview, copy, delete, label, rename, and add keywords, and you can batch deal with. It can help you find the best from a few photos in the preview mode, you can also make the selected photos into a slideshow, ICC color management of the displayed thumbnails and previews, and several Nikon and Canon’s professional cameras monitor and insert Adobe RGB colors

Camera Bits Photo Mechanic 6.0 Build 6097 Crack 2022 Is A Fast Media Browser That Helps You View, Organizes, Manage, And Export Digital Photos. Photo Mechanic Is The Fastest, Most Useful Photo Browser Available. Speed up your workflow with a tool that’s logical in operation, intuitive in use, and as fast as possible.

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Key Features:

Streamline and speed up your copying process with Photo Mechanic’s many options to manage your images.
Ingest is the process of copying files from a memory card to your hard drive. Photo Mechanic supercharges this step by automating other tasks at the same time, making your life much easier.

Start Editing Immediately
Don’t wait around. See the thumbnails of your images while they’re being copied from your memory card. Cull, rate, and tag them as you go. Photo Mechanic is fast!

Browse Files Faster
Go from image to image quickly. Find your keepers faster. Bring only the files you want to keep into your post-processing workflow.

Copy Files From Several Memory Cards Simultaneously
Rename files and folders dynamically, add IPTC credit and keyword information, and make a mirrored backup folder — all in one step!

Live Ingest
If you are shooting tethered, bring in photos with all the features of Ingest on the fly.

Edit:

Edit your photos in Photo Mechanic in a flash!
View all of your images, identify your keepers, tag your alternates, and add crucial metadata and never slow down. Photo Mechanic helps you do it fast!
Editing your photos can be a lot of work. Photo Mechanic makes the process of selecting, organizing, and adding metadata to your images so much easier. Here are some of the key features that help you get things done more quickly and accurately.

Contact Sheet
The Contact Sheet is the heart of your workflow. See your image thumbnails, edit and organize quickly and efficiently. Photo Mechanic puts you in control.

Move And Rename Files Efficiently
Add capture time to filenames. Create dated folders on the fly. Copy files to multiple destinations at once. Photo Mechanic’s file-management tools are incredibly powerful.

View Photos At Full Size
Zoom up to 800% to check for critical sharpness. Quickly toggle between viewing the JPEG preview or the Raw file.

Variables
Automatically add EXIF camera data to your images like focal length, serial number, or ISO to metadata fields like captions or keywords.

Keywords
Sometimes you need more than one keyword to describe (and find) an image. Photo Mechanic helps you add keywords in many ways. Structured Keyword lists allow you to add related keywords fast.

Code Replacements
Save time typing long complex text with Code Replacements. A few keystrokes can add entire sentences to your captions.

GPS Coordinates
Geotag your photos by easily applying your saved GPS tracking logs to your photos with Photo Mechanic.

Batch Editing
Work faster when you copy, delete, tag, watermark, rename, resize, and add IPTC metadata to lots of photos at once.

Adjust Capture Dates And Times
Take photos from multiple cameras and get them synchronized to the correct date and time. This is great for wedding photographers with second shooters.

Pick The Best Of The Bunch
View and compare images side by side, horizontally or vertically. Spot differences between images that are too subtle to see when viewing one at a time, or simply pick between two top choices.

Export:

Easily export photos your way with Photo Mechanic.
When you’re done processing your images, you want to share them with clients, fans, and the world. See all the ways Photo Mechanic can speed that up for you.
Get your photos where they need to be, fast. Create web galleries, print contact sheets, send photos to your clients via email. Upload your images directly to popular online services without having to save multiple copies.

Create Galleries
Show off your images by creating web galleries. Choose from a wide variety of dynamic, pre-made gallery templates to make your images pop!

Send Files Fast
Photo Mechanic works with your default e-mail app to send files as attachments. Perfect for getting images to clients fast.

Archive
Archive your images by burning them to CDs or DVDs straight from Photo Mechanic without having to go into Finder or Explorer.

Upload To The Web
Use Photo Mechanic to directly and quickly upload to sites like PhotoShelter, DF Studio, Amazon S3, ExposureManager, Flickr, Gallery 2, PhotoDeck, and SmugMug. Add watermarks and copyright info without saving separate images.

Fast Workflow — Work with Batches Of Photos to:

Import
Photo Mechanic’s powerful Ingest utility lets you copy images from several flash cards simultaneously, flatten the directory structure, apply IPTC metadata (City, State, Photographer’s name, Copyright, etc.), create a backup on a separate hard drive, and rename your files — all in one step! The ability to open a Contact Sheet during ingest allows you to start editing your files immediately, no more having to wait until the copy process is complete.

Edit
You can quickly rotate, preview, copy, delete, tag, watermark, rename, resize, and add IPTC meta-data to photos both individually and in batches. Adjust capture dates and times, change a file resolution, or embed an ICC profile into your JPEGs. Lock previews and pan them around together to compare details efficiently. Manually arrange photos in an arbitrary order, including across multiple folders.

Annotate
Photo Mechanic makes it easy to add common “IPTC” (or meta-data) information (like city, state, keywords, and caption) to groups of photos at once. Reduce time and improve accuracy when captioning files by using the Code Replacement feature.

Output
Create web galleries, print contact sheets, transfer photos to an FTP server or upload them to an online service such as PhotoShelter. Send photos to your clients via email, or archive your keepers by burning them to CDs or DVDs.

Configure it your way – Put image meta-data to work to customize your results. Do you want to include shutter speed, aperture, and caption information with your prints or web page (and sometimes the date and city, but never the time)? Rename files by photographer & state? Sort photos by city or date? Automatically convert the color profile for web photos so they look their best and stay small? Configure your own preferences or stay with the friendly defaults.

Additional Features:

  • Rotate your JPEG files without loss of quality.
  • Display file Exif information.
  • Tag your files during a slideshow presentation.
  • The Structured Keywords feature uses a hierarchically arranged controlled vocabulary (CV).
  • Use the Show Map command to plot a photo with embedded GPS coordinates in a window using Google maps.
  • Sharpen thumbnails for display.
  • Full support for IPTC4XMP core specifications — UTF-8 character support.
  • Assign a Color Class or 5-star rating.
  • Inline spell checking helps you create accurate IPTC captions.
  • Write IPTC captions in your choice of language.
  • New customizable multi-line thumbnail labels

System Requirements:

– Windows Vista / 7 / 7 64 bit / 8 / 8 64 bit

Activation Key:

  • JKI3-DVKP-ZCN7-WRY
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More Information About

  • OS: Windows Vista / 7 / 8 / 8.1 / 10 (x86-x64)
  • Language: ENG
  • Medicine: Activator
  • Size: 1,80 MB

How To Install?

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Photo Mechanic 6.0 Build 5560 Crack Plus License Key Downlaod [Full Version] 2021

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Photo Mechanic Crack are the most productive photographers in the world. Use the powerful features of Photo Mechanic to make managing your photos faster and easier. Quickly absorb photos from your memory cards and pick winners without waiting.

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Plug in your memory cards, start picking winners, and eliminate rejections almost instantly. Switch from image to image without annoying display lag. Add keyword, copyright, and dynamic caption information individually or in batches. Upload photos to online galleries or photo services in an instant. And much more! Photo Mechanic Serial Key is the ultimate tool for managing files and metadata. Editing your photos can be a lot of work. It makes the process of selecting, organizing, and adding metadata to your photos much easier. Here are some of the key features to help you get things done faster and more accurately.

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The Photo Mechanic license key provides many options for customizing and organizing your photos from the camera, categorizing photos, and is often used to tag each photo with IPTC metadata. Photo Mechanic Full Crack is also equipped with basic photo editing functions like rotating, cropping, etc. It also comes with image sharing functions (FTP Uploader) that allow you to upload and share your image directly to the cloud.

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Photo Mechanic Patch 2021 offers many options to customize and organize your photos from the camera, categorize images, and is often used to tag each photo with IPTC metadata. The full version of Photo Mechanic is also equipped with basic photo editing functions like rotating, cropping, etc. and it also comes with photo sharing functions (FTP uploader) that allows you to directly upload and share your photo to the cloud.

Plug in your memory cards and start picking winners and eliminating rejections almost instantly. Move from one image to another without that annoying rendering lag. Add a dynamic title, copyright, and keyword information individually or in batches. Upload images to online galleries or image services in an instant. And much more! Photo Mechanic Registration Key Full Version is the ultimate file and metadata management tool.

The moment you leave the camera, your post-processing workflow begins. The world’s most productive photographers use the powerful features of Photo Mechanic to make photo management faster and easier. Quickly ingest photos from your memory cards and choose your winners without waiting.

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Show / Quick Selection

  • Go from memory card to taking your best photos faster than ever. You can understand, delete, classify and organize them for a faster and more efficient workflow.

Work the way you want

  • Let’s work together. Photo Mechanic is designed to work well with your other creative and post-processing tools so you’re in control.

Translation, keywords and copyright

  • A picture is worth a thousand words, but only embedded metadata matters. Tag your photos faster with important information like credit and copyright to protect your work.

Contact paper

  • The contact sheet is the heart of your workflow. View, edit and organize thumbnails of your photos quickly and efficiently. The app puts you in control.

Quick preview of RAW files

  • Go from one image to another with no delay in shipping. With thousands of photos, the savings really add up.

Keywords

  • It helps you add keywords in many ways. Organized keyword lists allow you to quickly add relevant keywords.

Variables

  • Automatically add EXIF ​​camera data to your photos like focal length, serial number or ISO to metadata fields like titles or keywords.

Batch edit

  • Work faster when you copy, delete, mark, watermark, rename, resize, and add IPTC metadata to multiple images simultaneously.

Move, copy and rename

  • Add capture time to file names. Create dated folders on the fly. Copy files to multiple destinations simultaneously. PhotoMechanic’s file management tools are incredibly powerful.

Code overrides

  • Save time writing long and complex texts by using code alternatives. A few keystrokes can add complete sentences to your captions.

GPS coordinates

  • Geotag your photos by easily applying saved GPS tracking records to your photos with the software. Now in Mechanic 6: Use GPS data to automatically add city, state and country names to your metadata.

Set pickup dates and times

  • Take photos from multiple cameras and sync them with the correct date and time. This is ideal for wedding photographers with second shooters.

Choose the best of the group

  • View and compare photos side by side, horizontally or vertically. Determine the differences between images that are too subtle to see when viewed one by one, or just choose between two main options.

Photo Mechanic 6.0 Build 5560 Crack Serial Key

Photo Mechanic Key Features:

  • Add IPTC metadata to photos simultaneously
  • Edit, label, watermark, rename, resize, etc.
  • Copy, view and compare images side by side
  • Copy multiple files simultaneously
  • Create galleries and print contact sheets
  • Innovative variables and code replacements
  • View your images quickly and conveniently
  • Speed ​​up your copy process (Ingestion)
  • Customize and organize your images
  • Upload images to popular online services
  • And much more.

Alternative software to Photo Mechanic for Windows and Mac

ACDSee

  • Between creating the world’s first digital asset manager and, more recently, the world’s first digital asset manager and RAW editor with layers, ACDSee has been leading the innovation of creative software solutions since 1994. Extending beyond the realms of visualization of images, digital asset management and relational databases. , format conversion and cataloging, ACDSee has expanded to image editing, online functionality, plugins, image manipulation, RAW image support, layered editing, video and much more, growing and changing every year since then. Lately, for example, ACDSee has branched out into mobile image editing apps on Android and iOS.

Adobe Photoshop Lightroom Classic

  • Adobe Lightroom Classic gives you one-click tools and advanced controls to make your photos look amazing and easily organize all your photos on your desktop and share them in various ways.

Photos

  • All your photos. Always with you and with a perfect image.

Google photos

  • All your photos, organized and easy to find

Shot proof

  • Professional sales tools and impressive client galleries for photographers.

Flickr

  • Amazing photos and stories, event announcements, the latest news and much more from the Flickr community.

Corel AfterShot Pro

  • Welcome to Corel! Tweets about technology, graphics, digital art, photography, video, and general productivity.

Magix Photo Manager

  • MAGIX, the market leading provider of high quality multimedia software.

Imgur

  • The most impressive images on the Internet.

Shutter current

  • Shutter Stream offers businesses a solution that helps manage common tasks in business photography applications.

Photobucket

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Gihosoft Free Photo Recovery

  • Gihosoft Free Photo Recovery helps to recover deleted / formatted / lost photos, videos and audios from computer hard drive, USB drive, SD card, memory card, digital camera, etc.

PhotoShelter for photographers

  • Exceptional tools that simplify the way you do business, from loading to sales.

What’s new in Photo Mechanic 6.0 Crack?

  • Highlight your files during a slide show.
  • Control of structured vocabulary keywords (CV).
  • Use the Show Map command to draw an image with the built-in GPS
  • Sharpen your thumbnails to display them.
  • Full support for IPTC 4 XMP key specification
  • Assign a color category or 5-star rating.
  • Online dictation helps generate accurate IPTC translations.
  • Enter IPTC translations in the language of your choice.
  • New customizable small tabs with multiple fonts

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  • 1 GHz or faster processor
  • RAM, 32-bit: 2 GB, 64-bit: 4 GB
  • Disk space: 4.0 GB
  • 1360 x 768 resolution display with true color

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Engineering discipline and economic branch

NamesMechanical Engineer

Activity sectors

applied mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, production technology, and others
Competenciestechnical knowledge, management skills, design (see also glossary of mechanical engineering)

Education required

See professional requirements below

Fields of
employment

technology, science, exploration, military

Mechanical engineering is an engineering branch that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with materials science to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.[1] It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering branches.

The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery.[2][3]

Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements; today mechanical engineers are pursuing developments in such areas as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. It also overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology, and modelling of biological systems.

History[edit]

Main article: History of mechanical engineering

The application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. The six classic simple machines were known in the ancient Near East. The wedge and the inclined plane (ramp) were known since prehistoric times.[4] The wheel, along with the wheel and axle mechanism, was invented in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) during the 5th millennium BC.[5] The lever mechanism first appeared around 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where it was used in a simple balance scale,[6] and to move large objects in ancient Egyptian technology.[7] The lever was also used in the shadoof water-lifting device, the first crane machine, which appeared in Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC.[6] The earliest evidence of pulleys date back to Mesopotamia in the early 2nd millennium BC.[8]

The Sakia was developed in the Kingdom of Kush during the 4th century BC. It relied on animal power reducing the tow on the requirement of human energy.[9]Reservoirs in the form of Hafirs were developed in Kush to store water and boost irrigation.[10]Bloomeries and blast furnaces were developed during the seventh century BC in Meroe.[11][12][13][14] Kushite sundials applied mathematics in the form of advanced trigonometry.[15][16]

The earliest practical water-powered machines, the water wheel and watermill, first appeared in the Persian Empire, in what are now Iraq and Iran, by the early 4th century BC.[17] In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287–212 BC) influenced mechanics in the Western tradition. In Roman Egypt, Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) created the first steam-powered device (Aeolipile).[18] In China, Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, and Ma Jun (200–265 AD) invented a chariot with differential gears. The medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song (1020–1101 AD) incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomicalclock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks. He also invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive.[19]

During the Islamic Golden Age (7th to 15th century), Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his famous Book of Ingenious Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is also the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms.[20]

In the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England and the Continent. The Dutch mathematician and physicist Christiaan Huygens invented the pendulum clock in 1657, which was the first reliable timekeeper for almost 300 years, and published a work dedicated to clock designs and the theory behind them.[21][22] In England, Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed the calculus, which would become the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was finally persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Edmond Halley. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is also credited with developing the calculus during this time period.[23]

During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England, Germany, and Scotland. This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them.[24] The first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers.[25] On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann (1820–1901) founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848.

In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers (1852) and the American Institute of Mining Engineers (1871).[26] The first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.[27]

Education[edit]

Archimedes' screwwas operated by hand and could efficiently raise water, as the animated red ball demonstrates.

Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs typically take four to five years of study depending on the place and university and result in a Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng. or B.E.), Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. or B.S.), Bachelor of Science Engineering (B.Sc.Eng.), Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.), Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (B.M.E.), or Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain, Portugal and most of South America, where neither B.S. nor B.Tech. programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", and the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, and training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a 'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a 'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B.Sc.[28]

In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) to ensure similar course requirements and standards among universities. The ABET web site lists 302 accredited mechanical engineering programs as of 11 March 2014.[29] Mechanical engineering programs in Canada are accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB),[30] and most other countries offering engineering degrees have similar accreditation societies.

In Australia, mechanical engineering degrees are awarded as Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical) or similar nomenclature, although there are an increasing number of specialisations. The degree takes four years of full-time study to achieve. To ensure quality in engineering degrees, Engineers Australia accredits engineering degrees awarded by Australian universities in accordance with the global Washington Accord. Before the degree can be awarded, the student must complete at least 3 months of on the job work experience in an engineering firm.[31] Similar systems are also present in South Africa and are overseen by the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA).

In India, to become an engineer, one needs to have an engineering degree like a B.Tech or B.E, have a diploma in engineering, or by completing a course in an engineering trade like fitter from the Industrial Training Institute (ITIs) to receive a "ITI Trade Certificate" and also pass the All India Trade Test (AITT) with an engineering trade conducted by the National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT) by which one is awarded a "National Trade Certificate". A similar system is used in Nepal.[32]

Some mechanical engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Technology, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Management (M.Eng.Mgt. or M.E.M.), a Doctor of Philosophy in engineering (Eng.D. or Ph.D.) or an engineer's degree. The master's and engineer's degrees may or may not include research. The Doctor of Philosophy includes a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia.[33] The Engineer's degree exists at a few institutions at an intermediate level between the master's degree and the doctorate.

Coursework[edit]

Standards set by each country's accreditation society are intended to provide uniformity in fundamental subject material, promote competence among graduating engineers, and to maintain confidence in the engineering profession as a whole. Engineering programs in the U.S., for example, are required by ABET to show that their students can "work professionally in both thermal and mechanical systems areas."[34] The specific courses required to graduate, however, may differ from program to program. Universities and Institutes of technology will often combine multiple subjects into a single class or split a subject into multiple classes, depending on the faculty available and the university's major area(s) of research.

The fundamental subjects required for mechanical engineering usually include:

  • Mathematics (in particular, calculus, differential equations, and linear algebra)
  • Basic physical sciences (including physics and chemistry)
  • Statics and dynamics
  • Strength of materials and solid mechanics
  • Materials engineering, Composites
  • Thermodynamics, heat transfer, energy conversion, and HVAC
  • Fuels, combustion, Internal combustion engine
  • Fluid mechanics (including fluid statics and fluid dynamics)
  • Mechanism and Machine design (including kinematics and dynamics)
  • Instrumentation and measurement
  • Manufacturing engineering, technology, or processes
  • Vibration, control theory and control engineering
  • Hydraulics and Pneumatics
  • Mechatronics and robotics
  • Engineering design and product design
  • Drafting, computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)[35][36]

Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to apply basic concepts from chemistry, physics, tribology, chemical engineering, civil engineering, and electrical engineering. All mechanical engineering programs include multiple semesters of mathematical classes including calculus, and advanced mathematical concepts including differential equations, partial differential equations, linear algebra, abstract algebra, and differential geometry, among others.

In addition to the core mechanical engineering curriculum, many mechanical engineering programs offer more specialized programs and classes, such as control systems, robotics, transport and logistics, cryogenics, fuel technology, automotive engineering, biomechanics, vibration, optics and others, if a separate department does not exist for these subjects.[37]

Most mechanical engineering programs also require varying amounts of research or community projects to gain practical problem-solving experience. In the United States it is common for mechanical engineering students to complete one or more internships while studying, though this is not typically mandated by the university. Cooperative education is another option. Future work skills[38] research puts demand on study components that feed student's creativity and innovation.[39]

Job duties[edit]

Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, build, and test mechanical and thermal devices, including tools, engines, and machines.

Mechanical engineers typically do the following:

  • Analyze problems to see how mechanical and thermal devices might help solve the problem.
  • Design or redesign mechanical and thermal devices using analysis and computer-aided design.
  • Develop and test prototypes of devices they design.
  • Analyze the test results and change the design as needed.
  • Oversee the manufacturing process for the device.
  • Manage a team of professionals in specialized fields like mechanical drafting and designing, prototyping, 3D printing or/and CNC Machines specialists.

Mechanical engineers design and oversee the manufacturing of many products ranging from medical devices to new batteries. They also design power-producing machines such as electric generators, internal combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines as well as power-using machines, such as refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.

Like other engineers, mechanical engineers use computers to help create and analyze designs, run simulations and test how a machine is likely to work.

License and regulation[edit]

Engineers may seek license by a state, provincial, or national government. The purpose of this process is to ensure that engineers possess the necessary technical knowledge, real-world experience, and knowledge of the local legal system to practice engineering at a professional level. Once certified, the engineer is given the title of Professional Engineer (United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Bangladesh and South Africa), Chartered Engineer (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (much of the European Union).

In the U.S., to become a licensed Professional Engineer (PE), an engineer must pass the comprehensive FE (Fundamentals of Engineering) exam, work a minimum of 4 years as an Engineering Intern (EI) or Engineer-in-Training (EIT), and pass the "Principles and Practice" or PE (Practicing Engineer or Professional Engineer) exams. The requirements and steps of this process are set forth by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES), a composed of engineering and land surveying licensing boards representing all U.S. states and territories.

In the UK, current graduates require a BEng plus an appropriate master's degree or an integrated MEng degree, a minimum of 4 years post graduate on the job competency development and a peer reviewed project report to become a Chartered Mechanical Engineer (CEng, MIMechE) through the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. CEng MIMechE can also be obtained via an examination route administered by the City and Guilds of London Institute.[40]

In most developed countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a professional engineer or a chartered engineer. "Only a licensed engineer, for instance, may prepare, sign, seal and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or to seal engineering work for public and private clients."[41] This requirement can be written into state and provincial legislation, such as in the Canadian provinces, for example the Ontario or Quebec's Engineer Act.[42]

In other countries, such as Australia, and the UK, no such legislation exists; however, practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics independent of legislation, that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.[43]

Further information: FE Exam, Professional Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Washington Accord, and Regulation and licensure in engineering

Salaries and workforce statistics[edit]

The total number of engineers employed in the U.S. in 2015 was roughly 1.6 million. Of these, 278,340 were mechanical engineers (17.28%), the largest discipline by size.[44] In 2012, the median annual income of mechanical engineers in the U.S. workforce was $80,580. The median income was highest when working for the government ($92,030), and lowest in education ($57,090).[45] In 2014, the total number of mechanical engineering jobs was projected to grow 5% over the next decade.[46] As of 2009, the average starting salary was $58,800 with a bachelor's degree.[47]

Subdisciplines[edit]

The field of mechanical engineering can be thought of as a collection of many mechanical engineering science disciplines. Several of these subdisciplines which are typically taught at the undergraduate level are listed below, with a brief explanation and the most common application of each. Some of these subdisciplines are unique to mechanical engineering, while others are a combination of mechanical engineering and one or more other disciplines. Most work that a mechanical engineer does uses skills and techniques from several of these subdisciplines, as well as specialized subdisciplines. Specialized subdisciplines, as used in this article, are more likely to be the subject of graduate studies or on-the-job training than undergraduate research. Several specialized subdisciplines are discussed in this section.

Mechanics[edit]

Main article: Mechanics

Mechanics is, in the most general sense, the study of forces and their effect upon matter. Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation (both elastic and plastic) of objects under known forces (also called loads) or stresses. Subdisciplines of mechanics include

  • Statics, the study of non-moving bodies under known loads, how forces affect static bodies
  • Dynamics the study of how forces affect moving bodies. Dynamics includes kinematics (about movement, velocity, and acceleration) and kinetics (about forces and resulting accelerations).
  • Mechanics of materials, the study of how different materials deform under various types of stress
  • Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids react to forces[48]
  • Kinematics, the study of the motion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of objects), while ignoring the forces that cause the motion. Kinematics is often used in the design and analysis of mechanisms.
  • Continuum mechanics, a method of applying mechanics that assumes that objects are continuous (rather than discrete)

Mechanical engineers typically use mechanics in the design or analysis phases of engineering. If the engineering project were the design of a vehicle, statics might be employed to design the frame of the vehicle, in order to evaluate where the stresses will be most intense. Dynamics might be used when designing the car's engine, to evaluate the forces in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles. Mechanics of materials might be used to choose appropriate materials for the frame and engine. Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle (see HVAC), or to design the intake system for the engine.

Mechatronics and robotics[edit]

Training FMS with learning robot SCORBOT-ER 4u, workbench CNC Mill and CNC Lathe

Main articles: Mechatronics and Robotics

Mechatronics is a combination of mechanics and electronics. It is an interdisciplinary branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and software engineering that is concerned with integrating electrical and mechanical engineering to create hybrid automation systems. In this way, machines can be automated through the use of electric motors, servo-mechanisms, and other electrical systems in conjunction with special software. A common example of a mechatronics system is a CD-ROM drive. Mechanical systems open and close the drive, spin the CD and move the laser, while an optical system reads the data on the CD and converts it to bits. Integrated software controls the process and communicates the contents of the CD to the computer.

Robotics is the application of mechatronics to create robots, which are often used in industry to perform tasks that are dangerous, unpleasant, or repetitive. These robots may be of any shape and size, but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. To create a robot, an engineer typically employs kinematics (to determine the robot's range of motion) and mechanics (to determine the stresses within the robot).

Robots are used extensively in industrial automation engineering. They allow businesses to save money on labor, perform tasks that are either too dangerous or too precise for humans to perform them economically, and to ensure better quality. Many companies employ assembly lines of robots, especially in Automotive Industries and some factories are so robotized that they can run by themselves. Outside the factory, robots have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration, and many other fields. Robots are also sold for various residential applications, from recreation to domestic applications.[49]

Structural analysis[edit]

Main articles: Structural analysis and Failure analysis

Structural analysis is the branch of mechanical engineering (and also civil engineering) devoted to examining why and how objects fail and to fix the objects and their performance. Structural failures occur in two general modes: static failure, and fatigue failure. Static structural failure occurs when, upon being loaded (having a force applied) the object being analyzed either breaks or is deformed plastically, depending on the criterion for failure. Fatigue failure occurs when an object fails after a number of repeated loading and unloading cycles. Fatigue failure occurs because of imperfections in the object: a microscopic crack on the surface of the object, for instance, will grow slightly with each cycle (propagation) until the crack is large enough to cause ultimate failure.[50]

Failure is not simply defined as when a part breaks, however; it is defined as when a part does not operate as intended. Some systems, such as the perforated top sections of some plastic bags, are designed to break. If these systems do not break, failure analysis might be employed to determine the cause.

Structural analysis is often used by mechanical engineers after a failure has occurred, or when designing to prevent failure. Engineers often use online documents and books such as those published by ASM[51] to aid them in determining the type of failure and possible causes.

Once theory is applied to a mechanical design, physical testing is often performed to verify calculated results. Structural analysis may be used in an office when designing parts, in the field to analyze failed parts, or in laboratories where parts might undergo controlled failure tests.

Thermodynamics and thermo-science[edit]

Main article: Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is an applied science used in several branches of engineering, including mechanical and chemical engineering. At its simplest, thermodynamics is the study of energy, its use and transformation through a system.[52] Typically, engineering thermodynamics is concerned with changing energy from one form to another. As an example, automotive engines convert chemical energy (enthalpy) from the fuel into heat, and then into mechanical work that eventually turns the wheels.

Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the fields of heat transfer, thermofluids, and energy conversion. Mechanical engineers use thermo-science to design engines and power plants, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, heat exchangers, heat sinks, radiators, refrigeration, insulation, and others.[53]

Design and drafting[edit]

Main articles: Technical drawing and CNC

Drafting or technical drawing is the means by which mechanical engineers design products and create instructions for manufacturing parts. A technical drawing can be a computer model or hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information.[54] A U.S. mechanical engineer or skilled worker who creates technical drawings may be referred to as a drafter or draftsman. Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process, but computer-aided design (CAD) programs now allow the designer to create in three dimensions.

Instructions for manufacturing a part must be fed to the necessary machinery, either manually, through programmed instructions, or through the use of a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) or combined CAD/CAM program. Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings. However, with the advent of computer numerically controlled (CNC) manufacturing, parts can now be fabricated without the need for constant technician input. Manually manufactured parts generally consist of spray coatings, surface finishes, and other processes that cannot economically or practically be done by a machine.

Drafting is used in nearly every subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, and by many other branches of engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional models created using CAD software are also commonly used in finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

Modern tools[edit]

An oblique view of a four-cylinder inline crankshaft with pistons

Many mechanical engineering companies, especially those in industrialized nations, have begun to incorporate computer-aided engineering (CAE) programs into their existing design and analysis processes, including 2D and 3D solid modelingcomputer-aided design (CAD). This method has many benefits, including easier and more exhaustive visualization of products, the ability to create virtual assemblies of parts, and the ease of use in designing mating interfaces and tolerances.

Other CAE programs commonly used by mechanical engineers include product lifecycle management (PLM) tools and analysis tools used to perform complex simulations. Analysis tools may be used to predict product response to expected loads, including fatigue life and manufacturability. These tools include finite element analysis (FEA), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM).

Using CAE programs, a mechanical design team can quickly and cheaply iterate the design process to develop a product that better meets cost, performance, and other constraints. No physical prototype need be created until the design nears completion, allowing hundreds or thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of a relative few. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows.

As mechanical engineering begins to merge with other disciplines, as seen in mechatronics, multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is being used with other CAE programs to automate and improve the iterative design process. MDO tools wrap around existing CAE processes, allowing product evaluation to continue even after the analyst goes home for the day. They also utilize sophisticated optimization algorithms to more intelligently explore possible designs, often finding better, innovative solutions to difficult multidisciplinary design problems.

Areas of research[edit]

Mechanical engineers are constantly pushing the boundaries of what is physically possible in order to produce safer, cheaper, and more efficient machines and mechanical systems. Some technologies at the cutting edge of mechanical engineering are listed below (see also exploratory engineering).

Micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)[edit]

Micron-scale mechanical components such as springs, gears, fluidic and heat transfer devices are fabricated from a variety of substrate materials such as silicon, glass and polymers like SU8. Examples of MEMS components are the accelerometers that are used as car airbag sensors, modern cell phones, gyroscopes for precise positioning and microfluidic devices used in biomedical applications.

Friction stir welding (FSW)[edit]

Main article: Friction stir welding

Friction stir welding, a new type of welding, was discovered in 1991 by The Welding Institute (TWI). The innovative steady state (non-fusion) welding technique joins materials previously un-weldable, including several aluminumalloys. It plays an important role in the future construction of airplanes, potentially replacing rivets. Current uses of this technology to date include welding the seams of the aluminum main Space Shuttle external tank, Orion Crew Vehicle, Boeing Delta II and Delta IV Expendable Launch Vehicles and the SpaceX Falcon 1 rocket, armor plating for amphibious assault ships, and welding the wings and fuselage panels of the new Eclipse 500 aircraft from Eclipse Aviation among an increasingly growing pool of uses.[55][56][57]

Composites[edit]

Composite cloth consisting of woven carbon fiber

Main article: Composite material

Composites or composite materials are a combination of materials which provide different physical characteristics than either material separately. Composite material research within mechanical engineering typically focuses on designing (and, subsequently, finding applications for) stronger or more rigid materials while attempting to reduce weight, susceptibility to corrosion, and other undesirable factors. Carbon fiber reinforced composites, for instance, have been used in such diverse applications as spacecraft and fishing rods.

Mechatronics[edit]

Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, and software engineering. The discipline of mechatronics began as a way to combine mechanical principles with electrical engineering. Mechatronic concepts are used in the majority of electro-mechanical systems.[58] Typical electro-mechanical sensors used in mechatronics are strain gauges, thermocouples, and pressure transducers.

Nanotechnology[edit]

Main article: Nanotechnology

At the smallest scales, mechanical engineering becomes nanotechnology—one speculative goal of which is to create a molecular assembler to build molecules and materials via mechanosynthesis. For now that goal remains within exploratory engineering. Areas of current mechanical engineering research in nanotechnology include nanofilters,[59] nanofilms,[60] and nanostructures,[61] among others.

See also: Picotechnology

Finite element analysis[edit]

Main article: Finite element analysis

Finite Element Analysis is a computational tool used to estimate stress, strain, and deflection of solid bodies. It uses a mesh setup with user-defined sizes to measure physical quantities at a node. The more nodes there are, the higher the precision.[62] This field is not new, as the basis of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or Finite Element Method (FEM) dates back to 1941. But the evolution of computers has made FEA/FEM a viable option for analysis of structural problems. Many commercial codes such as NASTRAN, ANSYS, and ABAQUS are widely used in industry for research and the design of components. Some 3D modeling and CAD software packages have added FEA modules. In the recent times, cloud simulation platforms like SimScale are becoming more common.

Other techniques such as finite difference method (FDM) and finite-volume method (FVM) are employed to solve problems relating heat and mass transfer, fluid flows, fluid surface interaction, etc.

Biomechanics[edit]

Main article: Biomechanics

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles to biological systems, such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells.[63] Biomechanics also aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for humans. Biomechanics is closely related to engineering, because it often uses traditional engineering sciences to analyze biological systems. Some simple applications of Newtonian mechanics and/or materials sciences can supply correct approximations to the mechanics of many biological systems.

In the past decade, reverse engineering of materials found in nature such as bone matter has gained funding in academia. The structure of bone matter is optimized for its purpose of bearing a large amount of compressive stress per unit weight.[64] The goal is to replace crude steel with bio-material for structural design.

Over the past decade the Finite element method (FEM) has also entered the Biomedical sector highlighting further engineering aspects of Biomechanics. FEM has since then established itself as an alternative to in vivo surgical assessment and gained the wide acceptance of academia. The main advantage of Computational Biomechanics lies in its ability to determine the endo-anatomical response of an anatomy, without being subject to ethical restrictions.[65] This has led FE modelling to the point of becoming ubiquitous in several fields of Biomechanics while several projects have even adopted an open source philosophy (e.g. BioSpine).

Computational fluid dynamics[edit]

Main article: Computational fluid dynamics

Computational fluid dynamics, usually abbreviated as CFD, is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions.[66] With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing research yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as turbulent flows. Initial validation of such software is performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation coming in full-scale testing, e.g. flight tests.

Acoustical engineering[edit]

Main article: Acoustical engineering

Acoustical engineering is one of many other sub-disciplines of mechanical engineering and is the application of acoustics. Acoustical engineering is the study of Sound and Vibration. These engineers work effectively to reduce noise pollution in mechanical devices and in buildings by soundproofing or removing sources of unwanted noise. The study of acoustics can range from designing a more efficient hearing aid, microphone, headphone, or recording studio to enhancing the sound quality of an orchestra hall. Acoustical engineering also deals with the vibration of different mechanical systems.[67]

Related fields[edit]

Manufacturing engineering, aerospace engineering and automotive engineering are grouped with mechanical engineering at times. A bachelor's degree in these areas will typically have a difference of a few specialized classes.

See also[edit]

Lists
Associations
Wikibooks

References[edit]

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  21. ^Marconell, M. H. (1996). Christiaan Huygens: a foreign inventor in the Court of Louis XIV, his role as a forerunner of mechanical engineering (Ph.D. thesis). The Open University.
  22. ^Yoder, J. G. (1996). "Following in the footsteps of geometry: The mathematical world of Christiaan Huygens". DBNL. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  23. ^Sayeed, Ahmed (24 September 2019). You Could Be the Winner (Volume - II). Sankalp Publication. ISBN .
  24. ^Engineering – Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 6 May 2008
  25. ^R.A. Buchanan. The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Feb. 1985), pp. 42–60.
  26. ^ASME historyArchived 23 February 2011 at Wikiwix, accessed 6 May 2008.
  27. ^The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001, engineering, accessed 6 May 2008
  28. ^Sayeed, Ahmed (24 September 2019). You Could Be the Winner (Volume - II). Sankalp Publication. ISBN .
  29. ^ABET searchable database of accredited engineering programs, Accessed 11 March 2014.
  30. ^Accredited engineering programs in Canada by the Canadian Council of Professional EngineersArchived 10 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Accessed 18 April 2007.
  31. ^"Mechanical Engineering". Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  32. ^Sayeed, Ahmed (24 September 2019). You Could Be the Winner (Volume - II). Sankalp Publication. ISBN .
  33. ^Types of post-graduate degrees offered at MITArchived 16 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine - Accessed 19 June 2006.
  34. ^2008-2009 ABET CriteriaArchived 28 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, p. 15.
  35. ^University of Tulsa Required ME Courses – Undergraduate Majors and MinorsArchived 4 August 2012 at archive.today. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tulsa, 2010. Accessed: 17 December 2010.
  36. ^Harvard Mechanical Engineering PageArchived 21 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Harvard.edu. Accessed: 19 June 2006.
  37. ^Mechanical Engineering courses, MIT. Accessed 14 June 2008.
  38. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Apollo Research Institute, Future Work Skills 2020, Accessed 5 November 2012.
  39. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Aalto University School of Engineering, Design Factory – Researchers Blog, Accessed 5 November 2012.
  40. ^Sayeed, Ahmed (24 September 2019). You Could Be the Winner (Volume - II). Sankalp Publication. ISBN .
  41. ^"Why Get Licensed?". National Society of Professional Engineers. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
  42. ^"Engineers Act". Quebec Statutes and Regulations (CanLII). Archived from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 24 July 2005.
  43. ^"Codes of Ethics and Conduct". Online Ethics Center. Archived from the original on 19 June 2005. Retrieved 24 July 2005.
  44. ^"May 2015 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates". U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  45. ^Occupational Employment and Wages, 17-2141 Mechanical Engineers. U.S. Bureau of Labor, May 2012. Accessed: 15 February 2014.
  46. ^Mechanical Engineers. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 17 December 2015. Accessed: 3 March 2017.
  47. ^"2010–11 Edition, Engineers". Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Accessed: 9 May 2010.
  48. ^Note: fluid mechanics can be further split into fluid statics and fluid dynamics, and is itself a subdiscipline of continuum mechanics. The application of fluid mechanics in engineering is called hydraulics and pneumatics.
  49. ^Bolton, W. Mechatronics. Pearson; 6th ed. edition, 2015. ISBN 9781292076683
  50. ^"Chapter 8. Failure". www.virginia.edu. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  51. ^ASM International's site many documents, such as the ASM Handbook seriesArchived 1 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ASM International.
  52. ^"Thermodynamics". www.grc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  53. ^"Applications of Thermodynamics Laws. Carnot, Stirling, Ericsson, Diesel cycles". Brighthub Engineering. 10 June 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  54. ^"SOLIDWORKS 3D CAD". SOLIDWORKS. 27 November 2017. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  55. ^"Advances in Friction Stir Welding for Aerospace Applications"(PDF). Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  56. ^Proposal Number: 08-1 A1.02-9322 – NASA 2008 SBIR
  57. ^"Military Applications". Archived from the original on 31 January 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  58. ^"What is Mechatronics Technology?". www.ecpi.edu. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  59. ^Nilsen, Kyle. (2011) "Development of Low Pressure Filter Testing Vessel and Analysis of Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Water Treatment"
  60. ^Mechanical Characterization of Aluminium Nanofilms, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 88, Issue 5, May 2011, pp. 844–847.
  61. ^"Columbia Nano Initiative".
  62. ^Xia, Ting (3 February 2003). "Introduction to Finite Element Analysis (FEA)"(PDF). UIOWA Engineering. Archived from the original(PDF) on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  63. ^Alexander, R. Mcneill (2005). "Mechanics of animal movement". Current Biology. 15 (16): R616–R619. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.08.016. PMID 16111929. S2CID 14032136.
  64. ^Dempster, Coleman (15 August 1960). "Tensile strength of bone along and across the grain". Journal of Applied Physiology. 16 (2): 355–360. doi:10.1152/jappl.1961.16.2.355. PMID 13721810.
  65. ^Tsouknidas, A., Savvakis, S., Asaniotis, Y., Anagnostidis, K., Lontos, A., Michailidis, N. (2013) The effect of kyphoplasty parameters on the dynamic load transfer within the lumbar spine considering the response of a bio-realistic spine segment. Clinical Biomechanics 28 (9–10), pp. 949–955.
  66. ^"What is CFD

    Wikipedia

    Multilingual free online encyclopedia

    This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

    "The Free Encyclopedia" redirects here. For the concept of a free encyclopedia, see Encyclopedia § Free encyclopedias.

    Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

    Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

    Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

    History

    Main article: History of Wikipedia

    Nupedia

    Main article: Nupedia

    Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
    Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

    Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

    Launch and early growth

    The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

    The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

    English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

    Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

    Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

    Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

    In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

    Milestones

    Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

    In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

    On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

    On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

    In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

    Current state

    On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

    By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

    Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

    Openness

    Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

    Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

    Restrictions

    Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

    In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

    Wikipedia's editing interface

    Review of changes

    Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

    In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

    Vandalism

    Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

    Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

    Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

    In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

    In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

    Edit warring

    Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

    Policies and laws

    Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

    Content policies and guidelines

    According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

    Governance

    Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

    Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

    Administrators

    Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

    By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

    Dispute resolution

    Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

    Arbitration Committee

    Main article: Arbitration Committee

    The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

    Main article: Wikipedia community

    Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

    Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

    Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

    Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community ... a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

    The English Wikipedia has 6,409,211 articles, 42,559,880 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

    Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

    Studies

    A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia ... are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users ... 524 people ... And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

    A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

    Diversity

    Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

    Language editions

    Main article: List of Wikipedias

    Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
    Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
    Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

    There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

    In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

    0.1 0.3 1 3

    English 6,409,211

    Cebuano 6,060,605

    Swedish 2,876,323

    German 2,632,800

    French 2,374,515

    Dutch 2,071,460

    Russian 1,770,848

    Spanish 1,731,290

    Italian 1,726,231

    Polish 1,496,695

    Egyptian Arabic 1,372,525

    Japanese 1,300,750

    Vietnamese 1,270,057

    Waray 1,265,573

    Chinese 1,241,305

    Arabic 1,143,069

    Ukrainian 1,122,940

    Portuguese 1,077,306

    Persian 846,511

    Catalan 689,573

    The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

    Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

    Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

    Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

    Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

    Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

    A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

    English Wikipedia editor numbers

    Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

    On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

    In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

    Reception

    See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

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    Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

    Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

    Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

    In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

    In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

    Accuracy of content

    Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

    Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

    As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

    Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

    Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

    Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

    A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

    Discouragement in education

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    Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

    In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

    In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

    Medical information

    See also: Health information on Wikipedia

    On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

    Quality of writing

    Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

    In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

    In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization ... his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice ... and ... his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians ... remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

    Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

    Coverage of topics and systemic bias

    See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

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    Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

    A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

    • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
    • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
    • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
    • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
    • History and events: 11% (143%)
    • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
    • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
    • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
    • Health: 2% (42%)
    • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
    • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

    These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

    A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

    Coverage of topics and selection bias

    Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

    An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

    Systemic biases

    When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

    Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

    Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

    Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

    Explicit content

    See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

    "Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

    Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

    The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

    The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

    In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

    Privacy

    One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

    In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

    Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

    Sexism

    Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

    Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

    The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

    Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

    A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

    Operation

    Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

    Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

    Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

    In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency ... We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

    Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority ... (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

    Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

    Software operations and support

    See also: MediaWiki

    The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

    Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

    In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

    In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

    Automated editing

    Main article: Wikipedia bots

    Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

    According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

    Hardware operations and support

    See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

    Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,

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    Mechanical engineering

    Engineering discipline and economic branch

    NamesMechanical Engineer

    Activity sectors

    applied mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, production technology, and others
    Competenciestechnical knowledge, management skills, design (see also glossary of mechanical engineering)

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    Mechanical engineering is an engineering Sony Catalyst Production Suite 2020.1 Crack + Keygen {Full Version} Free that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with materials science to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.[1] It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering branches.

    The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery.[2][3]

    Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements; today mechanical engineers are pursuing developments in such areas as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. It also overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology, and modelling of biological systems.

    History[edit]

    Main article: History of mechanical engineering

    The application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. The six classic simple machines were known in the ancient Near East. The wedge and the inclined plane (ramp) were known since prehistoric times.[4] The wheel, along with the wheel and axle mechanism, was invented in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) during the 5th millennium BC.[5] The lever mechanism first appeared around 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where it was used in a simple balance scale,[6] and to move large objects in ancient Egyptian technology.[7] The lever was also used in the shadoof water-lifting device, the first crane machine, which appeared in Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC.[6] The earliest evidence of pulleys date back to Mesopotamia in the early 2nd millennium BC.[8]

    The Sakia was developed in the Kingdom of Kush during the 4th century BC. It relied on animal power reducing the tow on the requirement of human energy.[9]Reservoirs in the form of Hafirs were developed in Kush to store water and boost irrigation.[10]Bloomeries and blast furnaces were developed during the seventh century BC in Meroe.[11][12][13][14] Kushite sundials applied mathematics in the form of advanced trigonometry.[15][16]

    The earliest practical water-powered machines, the water wheel and watermill, first appeared in the Persian Empire, in what are now Iraq and Iran, by the early 4th century BC.[17] In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287–212 BC) influenced mechanics in the Western tradition. In Roman Egypt, Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) created the first steam-powered device (Aeolipile).[18] In China, Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, and Ma Jun (200–265 AD) invented a chariot with differential gears. The medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song (1020–1101 AD) incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomicalclock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks. He also invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive.[19]

    During the Islamic Golden Age (7th to 15th century), Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his famous Book of Ingenious Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is also the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms.[20]

    In the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England and the Continent. The Dutch mathematician and physicist Christiaan Huygens invented the pendulum clock in 1657, which was the first reliable timekeeper for almost 300 years, and published a work dedicated to clock designs and the theory behind them.[21][22] In England, Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed the calculus, which would become the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was finally persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Edmond Halley. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is also credited with developing the calculus during this time period.[23]

    During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England, Germany, and Scotland. This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them.[24] The first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers.[25] On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann (1820–1901) founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848.

    In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers (1852) and the American Institute of Mining Engineers (1871).[26] The first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.[27]

    Education[edit]

    Archimedes' screwwas operated by hand and could efficiently raise water, as the animated red ball demonstrates.

    Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs typically take four to five years of study depending on the place and university and result in a Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng. or B.E.), Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. or B.S.), Bachelor of Science Engineering (B.Sc.Eng.), Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.), Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (B.M.E.), or Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain, Portugal and most of South America, where neither B.S. nor B.Tech. programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", and the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, and training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a 'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a 'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B.Sc.[28]

    In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) to ensure similar course requirements and standards among universities. The ABET web site lists 302 accredited mechanical engineering programs as of 11 March 2014.[29] Mechanical engineering programs in Canada are accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB),[30] and most other countries offering engineering degrees have similar accreditation societies.

    In Australia, mechanical engineering degrees are awarded as Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical) or similar nomenclature, although there are an increasing number of specialisations. The degree takes four years of full-time study to achieve. To ensure quality camtasia studio 32 bit full version free download - Free Activators engineering degrees, Engineers Australia accredits engineering degrees awarded by Australian universities in accordance with the global Washington Accord. Before the degree can be awarded, the student must complete at least 3 months of on the job work experience in an engineering firm.[31] Similar systems are also present in South Africa and are overseen by the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA).

    In India, to become an engineer, one needs to have an engineering degree like a B.Tech or B.E, have a diploma in engineering, or by completing a course in an engineering trade like fitter from the Industrial Training Institute (ITIs) to receive a "ITI Trade Certificate" and also pass the All India Trade Test (AITT) with an engineering trade conducted by the National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT) by which one is awarded a "National Trade Certificate". A similar system is used in Nepal.[32]

    Some mechanical engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Technology, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Management (M.Eng.Mgt. or M.E.M.), a Doctor of Philosophy in engineering (Eng.D. or Ph.D.) or an engineer's degree. The master's and engineer's degrees may or may not include research. The Doctor of Philosophy includes a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia.[33] The Engineer's degree exists at a few institutions at an intermediate level between the master's degree and the doctorate.

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    Standards set by each country's accreditation society are intended to provide uniformity in fundamental subject material, promote competence among graduating engineers, and to maintain confidence in the engineering profession as a whole. Engineering programs in the U.S., for example, are required by ABET to show that their students can "work professionally in both thermal and mechanical systems areas."[34] The specific courses required to graduate, however, may differ from program to program. Universities and Institutes of technology will often combine multiple subjects into a single class or split a subject into multiple classes, depending on the faculty available and the university's major area(s) of research.

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    • Fuels, combustion, Internal combustion engine
    • Fluid mechanics (including fluid statics and fluid dynamics)
    • Mechanism and Machine design (including kinematics and dynamics)
    • Instrumentation and measurement
    • Manufacturing engineering, technology, or processes
    • Vibration, control theory and control engineering
    • Hydraulics and Pneumatics
    • Mechatronics and robotics
    • Engineering design and product design
    • Drafting, computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)[35][36]

    Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to apply basic concepts from chemistry, physics, tribology, chemical engineering, civil engineering, and electrical engineering. All mechanical engineering programs include multiple semesters of mathematical classes including calculus, and advanced mathematical concepts including differential equations, partial differential equations, linear algebra, abstract algebra, and differential geometry, among others.

    In addition to the core mechanical engineering curriculum, many mechanical engineering programs offer more specialized programs and classes, such as control systems, robotics, transport and logistics, cryogenics, fuel technology, automotive engineering, biomechanics, vibration, optics and others, if a separate department does not exist for these subjects.[37]

    Most mechanical engineering programs also require varying amounts of research or community projects to gain practical problem-solving experience. In the United States it is common for mechanical engineering students to complete one or more internships while studying, though this is not typically mandated by the university. Cooperative education is another option. Future work skills[38] research puts demand on study components that feed student's creativity and innovation.[39]

    Job duties[edit]

    Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, build, and test mechanical and thermal devices, including tools, engines, and machines.

    Mechanical engineers typically do the following:

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    Mechanical engineers design and oversee the manufacturing of many products ranging from medical devices to new batteries. They also design power-producing machines such as electric generators, internal combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines as well as power-using machines, such as refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.

    Like other engineers, mechanical engineers use computers to help create and analyze designs, run simulations and test how a machine is likely to work.

    License and regulation[edit]

    Engineers may seek license by a state, provincial, or national government. The purpose of this process is to ensure that engineers possess the necessary technical knowledge, real-world experience, and knowledge of the local legal system to practice engineering at a professional level. Once certified, the engineer is given the title of Professional Engineer (United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Bangladesh and South Africa), Chartered Engineer (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (much of the European Union).

    In the U.S., to become a licensed Professional Engineer (PE), an engineer must pass the comprehensive FE (Fundamentals of Engineering) exam, work a minimum of 4 years as an Engineering Intern (EI) or Engineer-in-Training (EIT), and pass the "Principles and Practice" or PE (Practicing Engineer or Professional Engineer) exams. The requirements and steps of this process are set forth by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES), a composed of engineering and land surveying licensing boards representing all U.S. states and territories. camtasia studio 32 bit full version free download - Free Activators the UK, current graduates require a BEng plus an appropriate master's degree or an integrated MEng degree, a minimum of 4 years post graduate on the job competency development and a peer reviewed project report to become a Chartered Mechanical Engineer (CEng, MIMechE) through the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. CEng MIMechE can also be obtained via an examination route administered by the City and Guilds of London Institute.[40]

    In most developed countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a professional engineer or a chartered engineer. "Only a licensed engineer, for instance, may prepare, sign, seal and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or to seal engineering work for public and private clients."[41] This requirement can be written into state and provincial legislation, such as in the Canadian provinces, for example the Ontario or Quebec's Engineer Act.[42]

    In other countries, such as Australia, and the UK, no such legislation exists; however, practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics independent of legislation, that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.[43]

    Further information: FE Exam, Professional Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Washington Accord, and Regulation and licensure in engineering

    Salaries and workforce statistics[edit]

    The total number of engineers employed in the U.S. in 2015 was roughly 1.6 million. Of these, 278,340 were mechanical engineers (17.28%), the largest discipline by size.[44] In 2012, the median annual income of mechanical engineers in the U.S. workforce was $80,580. The median income was highest when working for the government ($92,030), and lowest in education ($57,090).[45] In 2014, the total number of mechanical engineering jobs was projected to grow 5% over the next decade.[46] As of 2009, the average starting salary was $58,800 with a bachelor's degree.[47]

    Subdisciplines[edit]

    The field of mechanical engineering can be thought of as a collection of many mechanical engineering science disciplines. Several of these subdisciplines which are typically taught at the undergraduate level are listed below, with a brief explanation and the most common application of each. Some of these subdisciplines are unique to mechanical engineering, while others are a combination of mechanical engineering and one or more other disciplines. Most work that a mechanical engineer does uses skills and techniques from several of these subdisciplines, as well as specialized subdisciplines. Specialized subdisciplines, as used in this article, are more likely to be the subject of graduate studies or on-the-job training than undergraduate research. Several specialized subdisciplines are discussed in this section.

    Mechanics[edit]

    Main article: Mechanics

    Mechanics is, in the most general sense, the study of forces and their effect upon matter. Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation (both elastic and plastic) of objects under known forces (also called loads) or stresses. Subdisciplines of mechanics include

    • Statics, the study of non-moving bodies under known loads, how forces affect static bodies
    • Dynamics the study of how forces affect moving bodies. Dynamics includes kinematics (about movement, velocity, and acceleration) and kinetics (about forces and resulting accelerations).
    • Mechanics of materials, the study of how different materials deform under various types of stress
    • Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids react to forces[48]
    • Kinematics, the study of the motion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of objects), while ignoring the forces that cause the motion. Kinematics is often used in the design and analysis of mechanisms.
    • Continuum mechanics, a method of applying mechanics that assumes that objects are continuous (rather than discrete)

    Mechanical engineers typically use mechanics in the design or analysis phases of engineering. If the engineering project were the design of a vehicle, statics might be employed to design the frame of the vehicle, in order to evaluate where the stresses will be most intense. Dynamics might be used when designing the car's engine, to evaluate the forces in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles. Mechanics of materials might be used to choose appropriate materials for the frame and engine. Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle (see HVAC), or to design the intake system for the engine.

    Mechatronics and robotics[edit]

    Training FMS with learning robot SCORBOT-ER 4u, workbench CNC Mill and CNC Lathe

    Main articles: Mechatronics and Robotics

    Mechatronics is a combination of mechanics and electronics. It is an interdisciplinary branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and software engineering that is concerned with integrating electrical and mechanical engineering to create hybrid automation systems. In this way, machines can be automated through the use of electric motors, servo-mechanisms, and other electrical systems in conjunction with special software. A common example of a mechatronics system is a CD-ROM drive. Mechanical systems open and close the drive, spin the CD and move the laser, while an optical system reads the data on the CD and converts it to bits. Integrated software controls the process and communicates the contents of the CD to photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U computer.

    Robotics is the application of mechatronics to create robots, which are often used in industry to perform tasks that are dangerous, unpleasant, or repetitive. These robots may be of any shape and size, but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. To create a robot, an engineer typically employs kinematics (to determine the robot's range of motion) and mechanics (to determine the stresses within the robot).

    Robots are used extensively in industrial automation engineering. They allow businesses to save money on labor, perform tasks that are either too dangerous or too precise for humans to perform them economically, and to ensure better quality. Many companies employ assembly lines of robots, especially in Automotive Industries and some factories are so robotized that they can run by themselves. Outside the factory, robots have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration, and many other fields. Robots are also sold for various residential applications, from recreation to domestic applications.[49]

    Structural analysis[edit]

    Main articles: Structural analysis and Failure analysis

    Structural analysis is the branch of mechanical engineering (and also civil engineering) devoted to examining why and how objects fail and to fix the objects and their performance. Structural failures occur in two general modes: static failure, and fatigue failure. Static structural failure occurs when, upon being loaded (having a force applied) the object being analyzed either breaks or is deformed plastically, depending on the criterion for failure. Fatigue failure occurs when an object fails after a number of repeated loading and unloading cycles. Fatigue failure occurs because of imperfections in the object: a microscopic crack on the surface of the object, for instance, will grow slightly with each cycle (propagation) until the crack is large enough to cause ultimate failure.[50]

    Failure is not simply defined as when a part breaks, however; it is defined as when a part does not operate as intended. Some systems, such as the perforated top sections of some plastic bags, are designed to break. If these systems do not break, failure analysis might be employed to determine the cause.

    Structural analysis is often used by mechanical engineers after a failure has occurred, or when designing to prevent failure. Engineers often use online documents and books such as those published by ASM[51] to aid them in determining the type of failure and possible causes.

    Once theory is applied to a mechanical design, physical testing is often performed to verify calculated results. Structural analysis may be used in an office when designing parts, in the field to analyze failed parts, or in laboratories where parts might undergo controlled failure tests.

    Thermodynamics and thermo-science[edit]

    Main article: Thermodynamics

    Thermodynamics is an applied science used in several branches of engineering, including mechanical and chemical engineering. At its simplest, thermodynamics is the study of energy, its use and transformation through a system.[52] Typically, engineering thermodynamics is concerned with changing energy from one form to another. As an example, automotive engines convert chemical energy (enthalpy) from the fuel into heat, and then into mechanical work that eventually turns the wheels.

    Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the fields of heat transfer, thermofluids, and energy conversion. Mechanical engineers use thermo-science to design engines and power plants, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, heat exchangers, heat sinks, radiators, refrigeration, insulation, and others.[53]

    Design and drafting[edit]

    Main articles: Technical drawing and CNC

    Drafting or technical drawing is the means by which mechanical engineers design products and create instructions for manufacturing parts. A technical drawing can be a computer Print Conductor License key or hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as well as photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information.[54] A U.S. mechanical engineer or skilled worker who creates technical drawings may be referred to as a drafter or draftsman. Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process, but computer-aided design (CAD) programs now allow the designer to create in three dimensions.

    Instructions for manufacturing a part must be fed to the necessary machinery, either manually, through programmed instructions, or through the use of a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) or combined CAD/CAM program. Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings. However, with the advent of computer numerically controlled (CNC) manufacturing, parts can now be fabricated without the need for constant technician input. Manually manufactured parts generally consist of spray coatings, surface finishes, and other processes that cannot economically or practically be done by a machine.

    Drafting is used in nearly every subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, and by many other branches of engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional models created using CAD software are also commonly used in finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

    Modern tools[edit]

    An oblique view of a four-cylinder inline crankshaft with pistons

    Many mechanical engineering companies, especially those in industrialized nations, have begun to incorporate computer-aided engineering (CAE) programs into their existing design and analysis processes, including 2D and 3D solid modelingcomputer-aided design (CAD). This method has many benefits, including easier and more exhaustive visualization of products, the ability to create virtual assemblies of parts, and the ease of use in designing mating interfaces and tolerances.

    Other CAE programs commonly used by mechanical engineers include product lifecycle management (PLM) tools and analysis tools used to perform complex simulations. Analysis tools may be used to predict product response to expected loads, including fatigue life and manufacturability. These tools include finite element analysis (FEA), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM).

    Using CAE programs, a mechanical design team can quickly and cheaply iterate the design process to develop a product that better meets cost, performance, and other constraints. No physical prototype need be created until the design nears completion, allowing hundreds or thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of a relative few. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows.

    As mechanical engineering begins to merge with other disciplines, as seen in mechatronics, multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is being used with other CAE programs to automate and improve the iterative design process. MDO tools wrap around existing CAE processes, allowing product evaluation to continue even after the analyst goes home for the day. They also utilize sophisticated optimization algorithms to more intelligently explore possible designs, often finding better, innovative solutions to difficult multidisciplinary design problems.

    Areas of research[edit]

    Mechanical engineers are constantly pushing the boundaries of what is physically possible in order to produce safer, cheaper, and more efficient machines and mechanical systems. Some technologies at the cutting edge of mechanical engineering are listed below (see also exploratory engineering).

    Micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)[edit]

    Micron-scale mechanical components such as springs, gears, fluidic and heat transfer devices are fabricated from a variety of substrate materials such as silicon, glass and polymers like SU8. Examples of MEMS components are the accelerometers that are used as car airbag sensors, modern cell phones, gyroscopes for precise positioning and microfluidic devices used in biomedical applications.

    Friction stir welding (FSW)[edit]

    Main article: Friction stir welding

    Friction stir welding, a new type of welding, was discovered in 1991 by The Welding Institute (TWI). The photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U steady state (non-fusion) welding technique joins materials previously un-weldable, including several aluminumalloys. It plays an important role in the future construction of airplanes, potentially replacing rivets. Current uses of this technology to date include welding the seams of the aluminum main Space Shuttle external tank, Orion Crew Vehicle, Boeing Delta II and Delta IV Expendable Launch Vehicles and the SpaceX Falcon 1 rocket, armor plating for amphibious assault ships, and photo mechanic student discount - Crack Key For U the wings and fuselage panels of the new Eclipse 500 aircraft from Eclipse Aviation among an increasingly growing pool of uses.[55][56][57]

    Composites[edit]

    Main article: Composite material

    Composites or composite materials are a combination of materials which provide different physical characteristics than either material separately. Composite material research within mechanical engineering typically focuses on designing (and, subsequently, finding applications for) stronger or more rigid materials while attempting to reduce weight, susceptibility to corrosion, and other undesirable factors. Carbon fiber reinforced composites, for instance, have been used in such diverse applications as spacecraft and fishing rods.

    Mechatronics[edit]

    Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, and software engineering. The discipline of mechatronics began as a way to combine mechanical principles with electrical engineering. Mechatronic concepts are used in the majority of electro-mechanical systems.[58] Typical electro-mechanical sensors used in mechatronics are strain gauges, thermocouples, and pressure transducers.

    Nanotechnology[edit]

    Main article: Nanotechnology

    At the smallest scales, mechanical engineering becomes nanotechnology—one speculative goal of which is to create a molecular assembler to build molecules and materials via mechanosynthesis. For now that goal remains within exploratory engineering. Areas of current mechanical engineering research in nanotechnology include nanofilters,[59] nanofilms,[60] and nanostructures,[61] among others.

    See also: Picotechnology

    Finite element analysis[edit]

    Main article: Finite element analysis

    Finite Element Analysis is a computational tool used to estimate stress, strain, and deflection of solid bodies. It uses a mesh setup with user-defined sizes to measure physical quantities at a node. The more nodes there are, the higher the precision.[62] This field is not new, as the basis of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or Finite Element Method (FEM) dates back to 1941. But the evolution of computers has made FEA/FEM a viable option for analysis of structural problems. Many commercial codes such as NASTRAN, ANSYS, and ABAQUS are widely used in industry for research and the design of components. Some 3D modeling and CAD software packages have added FEA modules. In the recent times, cloud simulation platforms like SimScale are becoming more common.

    Other techniques such as finite difference method (FDM) and finite-volume method (FVM) are pdf expert crack ipad to solve problems relating heat and mass transfer, fluid flows, fluid surface interaction, etc.

    Biomechanics[edit]

    Main article: Biomechanics

    Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles to biological systems, such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells.[63] Biomechanics also aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for humans. Biomechanics is closely related to engineering, because it often uses traditional engineering sciences to analyze biological systems. Some simple applications of Newtonian mechanics and/or materials sciences can supply correct approximations to the mechanics of many biological systems.

    In the past decade, reverse engineering of materials found in nature such as bone matter has gained funding in academia. The structure of bone matter is optimized for its purpose of bearing a large amount of compressive stress per unit weight.[64] The goal is to replace crude steel with bio-material for structural design.

    Over the past decade the Finite element method (FEM) has also entered the Biomedical sector highlighting further engineering aspects of Biomechanics. FEM has since then established itself as an alternative to in vivo surgical assessment and gained the wide acceptance of academia. The main advantage of Computational Biomechanics lies in its ability to determine the endo-anatomical response of an anatomy, without being subject to ethical restrictions.[65] This has led FE modelling to the point of becoming ubiquitous in several fields of Biomechanics while several projects have even adopted an open source philosophy (e.g. BioSpine).

    Computational fluid dynamics[edit]

    Main article: Computational fluid dynamics

    Computational fluid dynamics, Steampunk Tower 2 Crack + Activation Key 2021 - Free Activators abbreviated as CFD, is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions.[66] With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing research yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as turbulent flows. Initial validation of such software is performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation coming in full-scale testing, e.g. flight tests.

    Acoustical engineering[edit]

    Main article: Acoustical engineering

    Acoustical engineering is one of many other sub-disciplines of mechanical engineering and is the application of acoustics. Acoustical engineering is the study of Sound and Vibration. These engineers work effectively to reduce noise pollution in mechanical devices and in buildings by soundproofing or removing sources of unwanted noise. The study of acoustics can range from designing a more efficient hearing aid, microphone, headphone, or recording studio to enhancing the sound quality of an orchestra hall. Acoustical engineering also deals with the vibration of different mechanical systems.[67]

    Related fields[edit]

    Manufacturing engineering, aerospace engineering and automotive engineering are grouped with mechanical engineering at times. A bachelor's degree in these areas will typically have a difference of a few specialized classes.

    See also[edit]

    Lists
    Associations
    Wikibooks

    References[edit]

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