Pdf expert crack ipad

  • 05.10.2021
  • Crack

pdf expert crack ipad

PDF Expert 2.4.11 Mac Crack + License Key Full Version [Latest] Use Apple Pencil with iPad Pro for ultimate experience on the go. PDF Expert Crack MAC Torrent License Key Free Download Touchbar supports compatibility with iPhone, iPad, and other touch screen devices. If an app accepts PDFs, PDF can get them there. Works throughout all of your units – Use PDF on any Apple system – Mac, iPad, and iPhone. Use.

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PDF ExpertPDF Expert 2021 IOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod) is a must-have app for anyone who reads, annotates or edits PDF documents on iPad or iPhone. It allows you to mark up documents with highlights and handwriting, insert text and stamps, sign and even merge PDFs. Moreover, PDF Expert  is the best choice for filling out PDF forms right on your iPad and iPhone.PDF Expert provides the best experience for filling out PDF forms.

You can open various file formats such as iWork, MS Office, PowerPoint, text files, images, even music and video files, etc. Get these files from desktop computers, email attachments, documents on Dropbox, OneDrive, GoogleDocs and “Open in” from other applications.Text fields, checkboxes, radio buttons and other form elements work as you expect and all the information you enter is saved within the form. Even complex interactive forms with Javascript work impressively well.

PDF Expert IOS Features:

  • Mark important things in books, journals or documents you want to review.
  • Work with static PDF forms created in Adobe Acrobat.
  • Add comments to the texts you read.
  • Use it to make handwritten notes or highlight text in scanned books.
  • Create table of contents for your document right on iPad and iPhone.
  • Mark up errors and place special emphasis on important sentences.
  • Use digital signatures to sign contracts and agreements on the go.
  • PDF Expert 5 has one of the best PDF viewers for iPad and iPhone. It opens large files, supports full text search, handles PDF links and outlines, opens password-protected documents and extracts text from PDFs.
  • Use iTunes file sharing to transfer files directly to your iPad or iPhone via USB cable. As an alternative connect your iOS device running PDF Expert 5 via Wi-Fi and operate it like a wireless flash drive. No additional software is required.
  • Open attachments directly from the Mail app. Also, you can open PDF files from any other application on the iPad or iPhone via “Open In…” dialogue.PDF Expert ios

 

  • PDF Expert 5 allows you to download and upload files from Dropbox, OneDrive, Google Drive and other services. If you use more than one cloud storage, PDF Expert 5 will handle all of them.
  • Email files directly from PDF Expert 5 with all annotations you made.
  • Restrict access to PDF Expert 5 with a password to protect your files from unauthorized reading. Enable iOS Data Protection to encrypt everything while your iPad or iPhone is not in use.
  • You can listen to e-books or audio files on the road or when you don’t feel like reading. PDF Expert 5 intelligently processes PDF books and uses iOS text- to-speech API to read them aloud.
  • The Review Mode allows you to mark up PDF documents in a very special way. Just tap anywhere on the text where you need changes and correct it in the text editor. The text that you delete is marked as removed while everything you add is shown as new text in different colors. Currently available only on iPad.

What’s New?

  • PDF Expert is fully compatible with iOS now.
  • We care about your productivity and worked very hard to make managing files on iPad and iPhone faster and more effective. Now it’s much easier to navigate between local files and cloud services.

Support Version History:

It application Support iPhone, iPad, and iPod.

  • iPhone OS 1, iPhone OS 2, iPhone OS 3.
  • iOS 4, iOS 5, iOS 6, iOS 7, iOS 8, iOS 9, iOS 9.3, iOS 10, iOS 11, iOS 12, iOS 13, iOS 14 And Latest release operating system.
  • iPad iOS 4.2.1, iOS 5.1, iOS 6.0, iOS 7.0.3, iOS 8.1, iOS 9.3.5, iOS 10.3, iOS 10.3.3, iOS 11.3, iOS 12, iOS 13.1, iOS 13.4, iOS 13.5, iOS 13.6, iOS 13.7, iOS 14, iOS 14.1, iOS 14.2, iOS 14.3, iOS 14.4 (All Series Like Mini/Pro) And Latest release operating system.
  • iPod Mac OS 9, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 11, 12, 13, 14 (All Generation) And Latest release operating system.


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PDF Expert 2 Crack FOR mac

Download and get FREE PDF Expert 2.5.16 Crack – A complete PDF handler to read PDF files, insert annotations, extract pages, merge multiple documents, fill out forms and add signatures on Mac.

Designed by Pdfexpert, PDF Expert 2 currently costs user $59.99 from Mac App Store , what a crazy price!

PDF Expert is a PDF reader for Mac users that supports inserting annotations, extracting pages, merging documents, filling in forms and adding signatures. The utility allows you to select and edit all documents at once with files of the same nature.

Adobe Acrobat Pro for Mac also includes the ability to create, view and edit PDF documents. In addition, Adobe Acrobat Pro for Mac also includes the ability to convert PDF files to Word, PowerPoint or Excel, or transfer them. Convert files from Word, Excel, PowerPoint to PDF.

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PDF Expert Crack + Serial Key



PDF Expert 2.2.18 Crack + Serial Key

PDF Expert 2.2.18 Crack + Serial Key

PDF Expert 2.2.18 Crack is an amazing application intended for the Mac operators to create the faultless knowledge with your all PDFs. This application covers characters that remained not here before. With a good performance, he will make promise to deal with each PDF in your system. The request works on high haste giving you additional productivity of effort than ever. From a single sheet document toward a large gathering of pages, PDF Expert 2 MAC Torrent will grip them easy effortlessly.

PDF Expert 2.2.18 Serial key Torrent determination let you like the amazing interpretation knowledge with advanced locations. Pick Day, Night before Sepia mode to satisfy your eyes. Discovery belongings promptly with search indexing. But relevant detection into search past to make them additional suitable to recall. Add annotations and minutes to documents. Use Apple Write with iPad Ace for final skill on the go.

PDF Expert 2.2.18 MAC Crack is the greatest PDF author for Mac. You container easily oversee text, images and links. It determination automatically notice the font, size, then opaqueness of the unique text, consequently you can brand edits easily. Effortlessly fill out PDF procedures such as applications before tax forms. Sign agreements with a personal, legally compulsory electric signature in a few clicks. Use PDF Expert 2.2.18 Keygen on slightly Apple device, iPhone, iPad, and Mac. Flawlessly transfer documents amid your devices.

PDF Expert 2.2.18 Key Features:

  • Read, annotate and edit PDFs, change text and images.
  • Fill forms and sign contracts
  • State of art PDF Search
  • Add annotations and notes to documents
  • Merge files
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  • Edit Text, Images, Links, Reduce file size

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Pdf Expert For Mac And Ipad

Fast, powerful and attractive PDF manager for your Mac, iPhone and iPad. Go through, annotate and édit PDFs like never ever just before.

PDF Specialist is usually the greatest way to modify PDF text, images, hyperlinks and facial lines. Repairing a typo or altering a logo design in a contract, or upgrading your Curriculum vitae is right now a matter of a several mere seconds. From the initial record, PDF Expert springs into actions with smooth scrolling and fast lookup. PDFs open immediately, whether they are usually just little accessories or 2000-page reports. When it's period to edit, all the great tools you need are easy to discover and simply a click aside. PDF Professional's fast annotations, simple form filling, and powerful file blending will chew on through your function in record time. Seamlessly edit PDF text message, adjust or substitute images, add links to text message and edit shapes.

An áward-winning, lightning-fást, and tabbed record audience will obtain you through several PDFs quicker than ever. Classic tools and distinctive innovations allow you to emphasize, note, and instruct with simply a click on. Combine multiple docs into a brand-new PDF, or borrow individual pages. Create multiple signatures for every circumstance and sign on the collection with a individual click on. Avoid your printing device with smart tools for filling up forms that save you both paper and period. You put on't function in a bubbIe, and neither will PDF Specialist. When it's time to send records to clients, coworkers, and éveryone in bétween, PDF Expert provides top-notch support for your Mac's system-wide talk about piece and various other apps.

If an app welcomes PDFs, PDF Specialist can get it right now there. You can furthermore password defend sensitive paperwork before posting them. Work across Macintosh, iPad, and iPhone. Make use of Readdle Move features to seamlessly switch devices in the center of a document. PDF Expert is generally there with you.

Full Specs What's fresh in version 2.2.1 PDF Professional 2.2.1 is a huge step towards a perfect PDF Editor. The update provides you state of artwork text editing and enhancing, 100x better research and a helpful toolbar design.

So what't under the hood?. Perfect PDF editor PDF Professional will be the greatest way to edit text, images and hyperlinks. It will instantly identify the font, dimension, and opacity of the authentic text message so you can edit PDFs like normal text papers. Amazing reading experience The toolbar layout provides your reading encounter to a brand-new level. Whether you compare contracts or study an write-up, choose the almost all relevant design to quickly accomplish your task. Quick and effective search You can immediately research through all opened papers at the same period and evaluate results. Remember all the items with search background for even better research convenience.

Talk about small PDF files Perhaps, your task contains graphs, images or blueprints. Its size with PDF Professional and deliver your small document to your professor or co-workers. General Publisher Publisher web site Discharge Date Drive 28, 2017 Date Added August 28, 2017 Edition 2.2.1 Category Category Subcategory Operating Systems Operating Systems Mac Operating-system Times 10.10/10.11 Additional Requirements None Download Information File Size 34.25MW File Title PDFExpert.dmg Popularity Total Downloads 1,137 Downloads Last Week 14 Prices License Model Purchase Limitations 7-day time full test. 1 license for 3 Macs Price $59.99.

PDFs are usually king for sending documents online, but modifying them isn't feasible with standard Mac software program. This will become difficult when you need to tweak a contract, electronically signal a form, or fill out those taxes documents you've been placing off until the last minute. Expands your gadget's modifying potential, and it'beds on selling today for nearly 60% away. An Apple Editors' Selection winner, PDF Specialist allows your Macintosh to modify text, pictures, links, and sets out in PDFs. You can quickly fill up out types like taxes, programs, and orders, and seamlessly sign and combine PDFs.

PDF Expert enables you talk about your PDFs acróss iPhone, iPad, ánd Mac pc, or with various other customers, and you can even password defend your documents to assure just the right users see them. PDF Expert for Macintosh usually retails for $59.99, but it's, almost 60% off the usual price.

PDF Expert is usually the greatest solution for all your PDF needs. It enables you study and annotate PDF paperwork, highlight text, make notes, draw with your ring finger and save these adjustments being suitable with Survey and Adobe Acrobat! PDF Professional can obtain docs from any place you may need. PDF files from desktop computer computers, e-mail attachments, documents on the Drópbox, MobileMe iDisk, GoogIeDocs and even in some other iPad programs could become reached with PDF Expert.

Annotations made with PDF Specialist are saved within the record in accordance with PDF format specification. Thus PDF Expert can edit highlights, text notes.

PDF Specialist can be the supreme alternative for all your PDF requirements. It allows you read and annotate PDF papers, highlight text, make records, pull with your ring finger and conserve these adjustments being compatible with Critique and Adobe Acrobat! PDF Professional can obtain records from any location you may need. PDF documents from desktop computers, e-mail attachments, records on the Drópbox, MobileMe iDisk, GoogIeDocs and also in some other iPad applications could end up being accessed with PDF Professional.

Annotations produced with PDF Professional are kept within the document in accordance with PDF format standards. Therefore PDF Professional can modify highlights, text notes and various other annotations created in Apple company Survey or Adobe Acrobat Readers and vise vérsa. At the same time this allows you reveal annotated files with close friends and co-workérs. With PDF Professional you can: ★ Showcase text Mark important issues in textbooks, magazines or paperwork you desire to critique. ★ Create records Add feedback to the text you examine.

Pdf expert for mac free

★ Draw with your hand Use it to make handwritten information or highlight text message in scanned books. ★ Save Book marks Create desk of material for your record best on the iPád.

★ Underline and Striké-Through words and phrases Mark-up errors and point out important content. ✚ Even more to arrive Additional types of PDF annotations are arriving in the improvements. What else PDF Expert lets you do: ✓ Study PDFs with simple PDF Professional provides one of the greatest PDF viewers on the iPad. It opens large documents, supports complete text research, handles PDF links and facial lines, opens password protected files and components text message from the PDFs. ✓ Duplicate Data files From Macintosh or PC via Wi fi and USB Make use of iTunes file expressing to move files directly to your iPád via USB cable. As an alternate you can link to the iPad running PDF Specialist via Wi fi and run it like a cellular flash drive. No extra software can be required.

✓ Conserve Email Accessories Open accessories directly from the Email app. Furthermore, you can ahead email with attachment to your distinctive Readdle Storage space mail-in tackle and conserve it to your device making use of PDF Professional.

✓ Edit Files on iDisk, Drópbox, GoogleDocs and Various other Storages PDF Professional enables you to downIoad and upload data files from MobileMe iDisk, Dropbox, GoogleDocs and other services. If you make use of even more than one online storage space, PDF Specialist will deal with all of them. ✓ Share Data files With Your Friends Email documents directly from PDF Professional with all annotations preserved.

✓ Protect Program with Security password Restrict accessibility to PDF Professional with the security password to protect your data files from unauthorised reading. We can not interact you in comments. If you have got any feedback or issues, please get in touch with us directly at http://readdIe.com/contact.

We slogged through seventeen various PDF apps to try and find the oné PDF app thát would modify your lifetime - properly, at minimum alter your iPad utilization - and the greatest PDF app for managing, editing and enhancing, and reading through PDFs on your iPad is certainly by Readdle. PDF Expert is fantastically easy to use, offers the fastest PDF app reading experience, functions with several syncing solutions, and provides the nearly all powerful toolset available on the iPad. For almost any contract-based company, PDFs are a way of life. PDFs also happen to be one of the greatest and nearly all universal methods to deliver a record to another person. Nearly any processing gadget can watch them, and they will almost always display as intended - with format and design intact - across all way of platforms and devices.

The Paperless Cheatsheet Get your copy of this free quick-start manual to heading paperless. From apps to scanners, discover everything you need to go paperless at home or the workplace. This will be a boon for design-minded individuals who would like to make sure invoices, contracts, proposals, and brochures arrive across looking perfect, irrespective of what gadget they're seen on. PDFs are usually the almost all reliable way to perform this, and are usually an essential part of any severe iPad consumer's workfIow. Which PDF ápps we tested, and how we tested them For our testing, we included both paid and free of charge apps that had been popular or recommended. The apps we examined were:.

Our testing for each PDF app involved functioning with three PDF documents: a rental application PDF type, one annotatéd PDF app, ánd one 8.2mt 30-web page legal-sized scanned rent that got OCR used to it on scanning service. We brought in all three files into éach PDF app ánd ran the following tests:. Transfer speed. Rate at object rendering pages on swipe. CompatibiIity with the various annotations and forms.

Filling up out types. Redacting, showing, adding text, and nóting PDFs. Exporting. Ré-ordering pages. Merging records. Organizing documents.

Syncing PDF files between gadgets/services Just one PDF app, could do all of those duties. In almost every job, PDF Professional performed faster and/or even more reliably than the some other pdf app we tested. There had been several apps that could perform almost every task, but usually fell brief in one or more lab tests - most notably in the blending and form-filling lab tests.

Pdf Expert App

The Best PDF app: In the previous release of this review (published Mar 21scapital t, 2017), PDF Specialist 5 was released in the center of our tests and carried out with apIomb in all óf our jobs, even including a brand-new metric to our criteria because it was the just “full-féatured” PDF app thát could blend PDF paperwork together. With of, it offers only further cemented itself as our best go with. In speaking with several iPad PDF customers, a common style ran throughout: The nearly all important functions of a PDF administration app are usually organization, annotation, and reading.

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PDF Professional 6 provides the best of class in all thrée of those types, and adds yet another: editing. Handling and reading through docs in PDF Specialist The business offered in PDF Specialist is very easily the greatest of any of the various other full-féatured PDF ápps. With PDF Professional you can include favorite documents to the sidebar, label and brand your documents, view files as a checklist or as thumbnails, kind by time/size/name, and quickly view recently accessed papers. Many PDF apps wear't offer you this robust set of filing options, however PDF Expert ups the ante with folder assistance, making it an ápp well-equipped fór managing several PDF files while not experience like overkill for somebody with several PDFs. PDF Professional also provides built-in common research for rapidly acquiring the file you stashed away, even enabling file kind modifiers like as.doctor,.xls,.mp3, étc - a lifesaver whén you're suddenly put on the place in a meeting.

When you first open PDF Expert, you put on't see that much of a different organizational see than you get with other apps, and it'h not really until you begin diving into the ápp that you start to enjoy its sturdy options. Numerous of the additional apps we tested hide common user tasks with actions and faucet areas the consumer must somehow find out and keep in mind. For example, in PDFpen yóu rename a record by double-tapping the document name, yet - also as a long-time user of the app - I frequently overlook that shortcut every period I need to rename a record.

Corporation PDF Specialist tries to prevent taps and control keys where it can by obviously labeling points where required and tailoring the gestures intuitively centered on the view the user has chosen in the app. In list watch, swiping on a document will uncover icons to delete or rename the file - a regular iOS gesture that's easy to keep in mind. In icon look at, tapping a file name enables for editing and enhancing; pulling the icon (or icons, if you have multiple records selected) shows a “Delete” zone at the bottom of the sidébar where you cán drop the files to delete them. In either look at, tapping the button for any document brings up the full pane of actions that can be carried out on that document. PDF Expert makes it simple to tap-hoId-and-drag á document to carry out actions on it - no need to discover the Go for key (formerly “Edit”). Liké everything eIse in PDF Specialist, moving files around is definitely extremely fast and simple.

Side take note: Pulling a PDF file on best of another creates a folder, which is usually proven via the files modifying into a folder image (great contact), but we would appreciate to become capable to toggle this actions into a blending action. Hauling one PDF document onto another to mix the two collectively would become a better use for this activity; after all, folders can generally be produced by tapping the fresh folder icon. When you do find yourself tapping the Select key, be ready to smile if operating with PDFs can be a large component of your lifetime, as it can be for me. As anticipated, tapping this key allows you to select multiple data files to behave on. Nevertheless, it furthermore starts up a brand-new set of choices in the sidébar, including:. Merge files - Touch Select, check all thé PDFs yóu'd like tó mix, and touch Merge. The documents will combine into a brand-new document and prompt you for a fresh name, or it will use the name of the 1st selected document and after that append a “(Merged)” label.

The unique files are held in location, which can be great, but wé'd like án option for them to end up being removed after merging. Zip files - Would like to send out a collection of data files to a client? You can squat them up in PDF Expert for sending. Superstars and Colour Labels - Simply as they appear, you can color-code document brands and celebrity docs within PDF Expert, if that assists you stay arranged.

Upload - In addition to the regular sharing choices (i.e. E-mail, “share/open in”), you can furthermore choose to publish a PDF tó any of thé internet solutions you have arranged up in PDF expert, like Drópbox. This is exceptional for keeping documents supported up. Not really all of these functions are exclusive to PDF Specialist, but it was the just app we examined with all of the functions jointly in one app.

The nearly all difficult to other apps are usually the tagging, zipping, and blending features. Also at that, many some other apps simply did not really carry out these actions as effortlessly as PDF Specialist will. (Not really to mention, some of these tasks are also easier in PDF Professional on the iPád than they are usually in some desktop computer applications for the Mac pc). PDF Professional can furthermore shop and edit files saved in iCloud Drive, indicating PDF Specialist files can easily be discussed between iOS apps and Apple company devices. Blending Documents As described, PDF Expert is certainly the only app of those examined that could.

Though specific apps perform exist for this specific task, we are usually attempting to find a great all-in-one PDF solution. You can perform this in oné of two wáys:. As mentioned above, you can tap Select from the file picker look at and select any PDFs you want to mix, after that you simply touch Merge. There's another technique that's much less apparent but furthermore gives you more control over specifically what you blend and where it gets merged.

Proceed into a document and get into the thumbnail critique mode for that record - it's the switch that appears like a fóur-bóx grid - which shows you the pages in the record. From presently there, choose one or more pages, copy them, and then shift to the same look at in another record and insert those webpages in. The advantage to this path is that you're not forced to blend every page, and in fact, you can place an entire record into the middle of another. I tried both blending methods on a 28-web page OCR PDF, affixing it to the end of a twó-page PDF record.

In both instances, PDF Professional taken care of the task rapidly and withóut hiccups. Annotating ánd Editing Documents PDF Expert 6 comes with two major settings for when you want to perform things with PDFs: Annotaté and Edit (thé second option of which is definitely only usable if you've bought the $10 in-app upgrade to open all PDF editing and enhancing features).

While seeing a record, tap either one fróm the top-hánd toolbar to select that mode. Annotations When it arrives to annotations, PDF Expert has constantly experienced the most feature-rich highlighting motor in our screening. Offering extremely opaque colors and dark colors can make it one of the few apps tested that permit you to easily redact ranges of text using a dark spotlight, but perform notice that you require to flatten thé PDF if yóu need it to remain redacted when provided. This will be something the NSA should probably look into. Annotations are usually also completed very properly when moved from system to platform, but “idea cloud” annotations from the Macintosh's Preview app do not make correctly within PDF Specialist.

(The text message is usually shown outside the “bubble.”) Luckily, such annotations are usually rare. The much more common regular PDF opinion is managed with aplomb in PDF Professional. Creation of those annotations is usually furthermore a easy job. The greatest difficulty we've run into with commenting had been related to setting. The small nature of the note bubble can create for rather tricky placement with a hand. If you're also one to obsess about obtaining positioning simply right, you may turn out to be disappointed when manipulating the take note.

(On the in addition aspect, the notice text is usually rendered in Helvetica and not really Marker Thought.) PDF Specialist also features solid personal assistance, but we desire that we could place a personal without the tap to hold gesture, which is usually hard, if not really difficult, to perform while keeping the device with one hand. It is usually odd that clicking the signature image in the toolbar is certainly not really how you put a signature bank, but instead how you generate signatures, making it a confusing image to possess prolonged in the tooIbar. When you táp-and-hold fór placing a personal, you will discover there is usually also support for “customer signatures,” whereby permitting somebody else to signal without conserving their trademark to your device. It used to be that you could just put one signature bank in PDF Expert. If you wished to conserve both your complete trademark and your initials, the just way to do it has been “hack” a alternative jointly by preserving one of thém as a “stámp” by nipping an image of it.

We're content to state that it's i9000 now feasible to conserve several signatures; from the new signature screen, touch the top-hand key that appears like overlaid windows with a scribble on the front side, tap “Add new signature,” write it out, and hit save. Right now you can put any signature bank you like, whenever you like. A few other niceties óf PDF Expert:. 0f the apps wé examined, it provides the fastest web page reordering and removing capabilities, often operating effortlessly and quickly. Solid assistance for types on par with the likes of Adobe Acrobat, which many other apps we examined sorely lacked.

While we don't know the complete degree of PDF Professional's support for exterior keyboard cutting corners, we perform know that CMD+Z . at least wórks for undoing annótations so you dón't have tó tap the ón-screen toolbar buttón, which is nicé. (We appeared in the app's i9000 support section and on Readdle's site for any documents about key pad assistance, but couldn't find anything.

Pdf Expert For Mac And Ipad

We also tried holding down the CMD key in the app to find if it would provide up a list of cutting corners, but that didn't work possibly.) PDF Editing Yes, you read through that best: PDF Professional 6 allows you to actually modify the content material within PDF files - presuming, of program, that you've bought that $10 IAP upgrade we talked about earlier. Carrying out therefore unlocks the following functions:. Switch text message in PDFs - Ever wished to modify a one phrase or quantity in a record? How about an entire paragraph or even more? With this function, you can perform exactly that. It't even sensible enough to immediately detect the font, dimension and opacity of the first text message. Edit images and hyperlinks - Let us you put images within PDF text, and convert images and text message into links to web or PDF web pages.

Black out or remove sensitive content - This isn'capital t simply a black highlighter like the annotation tool we described over; this is usually real redaction for completely removing sensitive text message and/or pictures from papers you reveal. One great touch will be being capable to research for and redact all situations of a word, character, or phrase throughout an entire record. Overall, PDF Specialist gifts a powerful editing and enhancing and markup device for PDF customers.

Reading PDFs PDF Professional allows you to change between top to bottom and horizontal scrolling modes, both óf which perform admirabIy. To change modes, tap the “ᴀA” key in the toolbar and choose whichever one particular you including. Prior to the 6.0 update, the top to bottom scrolling setting needed an extra pull to get to the next page, which has been both frustrating and disruptive when reading through long records. Fortunately, that issue has since ended up solved and up and down scrolling now performs precisely the method you desire it to. Another encouraged update is certainly the capability to move out past the thickness of the web page in scenery setting. It utilized to end up being that in landscaping, the record would simply fill the breadth of your device, with no choice to zoom out and look at the whole web page.

It'beds excellent to observe such an odd usability -wrinkle rectified. As in previous variations, PDF Expert 6 gives Time/Night/Sepia reading modes that create for a great reading knowledge in any light circumstance - as does the app-specific lighting handle - and a nice clutter-free reading interface. Overall, the reading experience is certainly solid, offering one of thé fastest renderings óf large PDF files we examined.

To The Cloud One of the almost all important elements when selecting a PDF app is definitely: How do you deal with your data files? As with simply about every other PDF app, you can make use of the iOS standard share key to send out PDFs from Safari, Mail, and others straight to the app. However, PDF Professional also offers built-in support for the following providers: iCloud (which furthermore functions with Readdle's own ), Dropbox, Search engines Drive, Package, OneDrive, WebDAV, FTP, SFTP, Windows SMB, Workplace 365, and Yandex.Disc. In some other phrases, no matter what your workplace utilizes, you can probably synchronize your documents in the app. PDF Specialist works very nicely with Dropbox distributed folders. If you have got several various people you collaborate with on particular PDFs, you can all talk about a foIder in Dropbox ánd that folder cán end up being included to your Papers tab in PDF Professional.

Then, any modifications, up-dates, or various other annotations you make to PDFs are synced to everyone else, just like you'm expect. If you are concerned about this opening up a safety pin in your document storage space, PDF Professional also allows a consumer to set an app passcodé that will fasten instantly (Configurations → Safety → Passkey Lock). The app furthermore allows you to allow iOS Information Defense file-encryption system. These are great options that help keep accessibility to your cloud storage secure but easily obtainable to you.

PDF Professional will be the greatest Of all thé PDF apps wé tested, PDF expert was much better in nearly every way because of its modern design, quick PDF assistance, and the almost all powerful PDF toolset available on the iPad. In many cases, working with PDFs in PDF Expert on the iPad is usually better than working with them on a Mac pc. And can be the best PDF app fór the iPád. PDF app Runnér-Up: PDFpen 2 can be the staple ápp for PDF users on the desktop, so it's just natural for the to also end up being a popular choice in the iOS world. The iCIoud syncing between yóur Mac and iPad only can make it a precious tool, though one could simply as conveniently use services like Dropbox to attain a very similar option with PDF Expert. However, in our screening, PDFpen fell brief of PDF Expert in the right after two areas:. WebDAV support didn't function in our testing.

Making use of the same server tested on PDF Professional, we were incapable to connect to a regular Mac-based WebDAV server. (This will vary from machine to server as constructions vary significantly; our machine worked with no adjustments with PDF Specialist and some other apps, but not PDFpen.). PDFpen can be also missing major features that PDF Professional offers that we notice as quite essential for serious PDF customers. It offers very restricted organization choices, in that you can just order files by title or time. While you can create files, there is definitely no list view, offerings, or recents. This can make PDFpen much better appropriate for smaller choices of PDFs.

Furthermore, there is usually no common search for PDFs, nor will be there a tabs pub for rapidly switching between several different currently-opén PDFs in thé app. But dón't obtain us wrong, not all will be poor with PDFpen. It offers strong move options and import resources, and our favorite feature can be the media library.

Mac

Whereas most apps use “stamps” to include images and symbolism to PDFs ón the iPad (thus allowing you accessibility to your device camera move), the media library in PDFpen is definitely strong and complete of clip-árt-like vector symbolism that you can drag-and-drop into your document. There is certainly a regular set of items like those found in various other apps: comments, text message, arrows, containers, lines, and surveillance camera roll. There is definitely furthermore a substantial place of proofing márkup icons for proofréading files. However, unlike the stamping tools in various other apps tested, PDFpen can use iCloud to sync over media from its Macintosh equal.

This can be a fantastic ability that we've utilized to sync over signatures kept in our Mac pc (allowing for both signaturés and initials tó end up being ended up saving) and letterhead pictures, which we can rapidly use to PDF papers made on the iPad to add our own letterhead without requiring to clutter with web templates. The mass media library alone is usually a solid enough reason to choose PDFpen if yóur use-case nécessitates such actions, but PDFpen doesn't quit there. Grin has also included assistance for a, providing PDFpen a nice edge for those that would including a more “realistic” annotation user interface. Unlike PDF Expert, PDFpen provides Mac users with the familiar PDF thumbnails on the still left advantage and page look at on the correct side look at choice, mimicking Survey on the Mac pc. Additionally, PDFpen arrives with a library of proofing markup equipment that are usually sure to become a advantage to serious reviewers. PDFpen is a strong, well-designed supplying, and we have no doubt that with long term updates it could hit PDF Expert out of the best spot.

However, it'beds obtained a little bit of an uphill climb up ahead if it ever wants to arrive out on top. It's i9000 Conclusion is much better in almost every way than every additional iPad PDF app we attempted. It has a modern iOS design, it's fast, and it provides the nearly all strong and easy-tó-use toolset accessible on the iPad. The editing features on your own are killer, if you choose to uncover them. In many cases, operating with PDFs in PDF Expert on the iPad will be much better than working with them on a Macintosh. And is certainly, without a doubt, the best app for handling PDFs on the iPad.

Pdf Expert For Mac And Ipad
Источник: https://friendsdlsfree.tistory.com/2

Note: This article talks about an app for Apple's iPad.
Note 2: I would like to express a big thank you to Readdle for providing me with a review copy of PDF expert.
Note 3: I have no intention of expressing any kind of gratitude to Apple as I am yet to get anything from them for free or even low cost.

Once upon a time, as a medical student and a future aspiring physician you had to read numerous books. And then some more. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (2 volumes, 4012 pages, 13.4 lbs!), Guyton's Physiology (1120 pages, 6.1 lbs), The CPS (2960 pages, 8.8lbs), Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (1464 pages, 7 lbs), etc... The list is endless, but it has one thing in common: each of these books could easily become a deadly weapon or a weightlifters dream. Whichever one of the two options you will find more attractive, you will certainly hate carrying those books around to school, library or your favourite coffee shop. I can guarantee you will just as much hate reading them because of how difficult it is to keep one open and how blue and sore your hands or legs will become after having to the hold the book on your lap. As if the weight wasn't enough of a hurdle, you will very soon realize that the most frequent way you will read these books is by looking things up, not systematically combing from start to finish. But the whole process will take you hours and will be about 50% successful. You will soon stop counting the number of times you had a question; attempted to find the answer in the book; failed miserably; tried to throw the book in frustration; dislocated your shoulder during the attempt; fired up your browser and read the article on Wikipedia.

As most of you have probably heard, several universities, hospitals and government organizations, even the military, are starting to implement content management systems based on the iPad. And that is very good for Apple's stock, indeed. However, how can we, as medical students, residents and budding staff take advantage of the digital revolution?

In this review I'd like to go over my personal favourite and only application I use to read PDF's on my iPad (if you'd like to read about the Digital Age Setup for the Prepared Medical Student, click here), Readdle's PDF Expert.

If you fire up the App Store on your iPad, with the search for "pdf reader", this is what you get:

App Store listing for PDF reader, 406! titles

As you can see, you have 406 choices. Although some of them are free, even the first page gives you a good idea of the price range, which goes up to a steep 9.99$. Depending on personal preference, you can try out several apps. However, I feel that without trial versions I had to rely on reviews of these apps on the internet, not wanting to throw away money at 10$ chunks for an electronic test drive. The problem I experienced with all the reviews is that none of them actually addressed in detail my needs: details about the reading experience for large PDFs, annotating them in the context of medical education, and using the online storage synchronization features. Another interesting thing you will notice is the App I am touting as the best is not even in the top search list (it is on the 2nd page, though)

I don't pretend to have done an extensive review of all the apps to provide you with EBAS (Evidence Based App Selection), but most people would agree that there are only a handful of apps that have been reviewed and are considered to be the alternatives for PDF Expert. You can read the article on iMedicalApps (Part 1, Part 2). In my article I am not even mentioning names of other Apps, because all I want to do is to show you why I found PDF Expert to do exactly what I wanted it to do. I will not go over every bell and whistle (of which there are many) in the app.

Now, to the screenshot intensive part of the review.

Main screen aka Welcome Simplicity

PDF Expert main screen
I like the default screen because it is simple to use. The most important for me is to see the files inside the folder. With a very nice icon, most of the titles above are easily readable, with the most important info like size and date also readily apparent. You can also notice that longer names are cut off and unfortunately do not scroll. Maybe next update? (This view is of network storage from my Dropbox folder, however it is no different from viewing files stored locally on the iPad - an advantage in its own)
File edit screen
File edit screen with non-contiguous selection

Clicking the edit button in the top right corner will change the screen to the one pictured above. From within this screen I can easily perform typical file operations like select, move, delete and add folder. The second screenshot above depicts three non-contiguous files selected.

File edit dialog allowing you to rename, delete, share or view revisions

Clicking on the arrow to the right of the file in the edit mode brings up the pop-up menu above which allows you to rename the file, email it to a friend and surprisingly, pull out revisions of the file from Dropbox.

Connecting to Dropbox and keeping your docs UpToDate

Although I advocate for using the Dropbox sync method, simply because it has been working for me for several years without a hitch, as you can see from the screenshot below you can use a variety of services to satisfy your taste or space requirements. Even the most recent contender, Google Drive is already there.

Sync options available natively

After adding your favorite online storage, you have the option of either browsing it like a normal folder structure from within the network tab on left of the main screen or choosing to sync a whole folder to your iPad.

Sync folder screen

Choosing to sync the folder will add it to your home screen and mark the files inside with a little green sign indicating the files are being synced, not dissimilar to the one used by Dropbox on your computer. This makes for a consistent and simple workflow that doesn't require you to learn new things to start using PDF Expert. 

The other option you have is while browsing your Dropbox folder to simply tap a file you want to read and the following screen pops up.

Loading file progress bar

As the progress bar runs down to the end, the file you tapped opens up. One minor annoyance I have with this method is that the whole folder structure from you main Dropbox folder is recreated just for this one file. Eg. if your file is located in Dropbox -> Medical -> Useful articles -> To Read, then the folder Medical will appear on you main screen, inside will be Useful articles. You will have to click through to To Read in order to find the one PDF file you downloaded. I would have preferred to set a predefined folder to dump the downloads or simply store them on the main screen and let me reorganize it. 

Reading documents like a big boy

The most important part of the review, or the function this App was built for, is where it shines the most . With an easy tap, you remove all unnecessary elements, leaving only the text (Screen 1 below). As you flick pages, a brief reminder with the current/total page number appears and then fades so as not to interfere with your document (Screen 2 below).

The reading experience
Current/Total page reminder briefly appears at top left when you flip pages

 As I read multiple articles and books on my iPad, having essentially forgone getting physical medical textbooks, I realized that although it is doable to read without zooming, I feel like I am squinting. Depending on your sight and annoyance by not seeing well, you will either not care or love the simple but essential feature I am going to mention: persistent zoom. This means that the zoom level is maintained between pages as you are reading the article. Moreover, switching from bottom right corner brings you right into top left for continuous and coherent flow. Also, navigation is intuitive as well - all you have to do is tap the right or left part of the screen and zoom will scroll past the visible segment. Again, this means that in the typical two column article:

  • I zoom on the left most one
  • Scroll down it as if I was reading a webpage
  • When I reach the bottom, I tap the right side of screen and tap the top of screen to scroll back up (this last bit could have been automated by PDF Expert, unless you drag around the page)
  • I find myself at the top of the right column at the perfect zoom level, ready to scroll down
  • When I'm at the bottom of the right column, I tap right side again and find myself at the same zoom level on the next page over the left most column.

Another feature I greatly enjoy when reading lengthy documents is the support for bookmarks, you can click on the open book icon (see below) to show all the bookmarks and annotations in the document.

Annotation - Colour me Highlight

Depending on your learning style, you will rarely highlight a keyword in an article, or highlight everything that has ink in it. Well, digital can be a blessing to both groups. And the implementation of highlighting in PDF Expert is the reason why I decided to use it. It seems natural to me to be reading a book with the highlighter in my hand or nearby on the desk, ready to be used as I come across an important passage. What I've found with all other Apps is that you could only do one or the other - read or annotate, which did not make sense to me. When turning on highlighting in PDF Expert, you choose the highlighter and a color and then read your document. Holding your finger over text for a little bit longer than a simple drag will start the highlighter, brief taps, on the other hand, allow you to navigate and flip pages. Also worth mentioning, highlighting will snap to text, so if you are suffering from alcohol withdrawal while reading the article on PE management, your secret will be safe with PDF Expert. Also worth mentioning is your annotations will show up once you open up the file on your computer in Adobe or other PDF readers. Das is good! 

Let me reiterate, the simplicity of the highlighting feature in PDF Expert not only made me use it as my main PDF reader, but actually started me on annotating PDFs electronically. This allows me to open up a previously annotated PDF and flip through my highlights to quickly recall the gist of the article.

I obviously skipped many of the other annotation features, however, as I said, this is a practical review and not a user manual. Of some value is the note function that allows you to add those cute postet icons arbitrarily on the page with your text that appears in a popup when the icon is clicked.

The editing toolbar

Highlight colors rainbow

Add a note with a popup text


You can alternatively select the text in normal reading mode and then choose the edit you want to apply
Searching inside and outside

Searching is actually a twofold function. You can:

  • Search within a document
  • Search within your PDF Expert library. This search allows you to search either file names or file contents. 

Search and find within a file

Search all the files stored in PDF Expert
Editing documents

Once again, simplicity is the name of the game. All you have to do is open a document, and click on the 4 squares in the top menu bar. And boom! You can delete and rearrange pages as you like.


Bird's eye view on your document

Edit toolbar allows you to rearrange and delete individual pages
Security

This option will finds its admirers among researchers who store patient sensitive information on their iPad. Although PDF Expert does not seem to allow you to encrypt or protect files on an individual basis, it allows you to set a password to open up the app, which should prevent Curious George from snooping around your 20 year old healthy single DD+ breast implant patient database. 

Presenting your PDFs with a projector


This is a feature I am yet to use. Nevertheless, I feel like it has great potential. If you don't feel like paying Apple for Keynote just to avoid bringing your laptop to presentations (Please don't tell me you make presentations on your iPad - it has about the same level of sophistication as a two year old with a couple of crayons) then saving your presentations to PDF and loading them up to PDF Expert could actually also save you some change (no pun intended).

Forms

Again, I haven't used this feature, but it seems about borderline relevant to mention at the end. As you figured out from the subtitle, you can fill out forms. Now if you have a school/hospital/organization that fancies electronic PDF forms AND you have set up your iPad to print on your home printer (unless your employers also accept electronic forms, which is much rarer than just distributing them) then you are set to go for another feature adventure with the PDF Expert.

Closing remarks

In the tradition of this site, this review is biased, non-inclusive and very graphical. Despite that, I feel the utility of this program justifies the cost for any medical professional using an iPad. Although I would like some minor improvements in the App, like the reading flow automation when zoomed in and drag and drop support for moving files, the features one would buy the app for are simple and efficient. The best qualifier of the usefulness of this app is the fact I use it everyday for my articles, books and references.

I will update the review as I discover new features.


Источник: http://premedc.blogspot.com/2012/09/pdf-expert-review-for-medical-students-residents-doctors.html

Twitter

American social networking service

"Tweeting" and "Tweeted" redirect here. For the animal behavior, see bird vocalization. For other uses, see Tweet (disambiguation).

Twitter Logo as of 2021.svg

Screenshot

Twitter Home Page (Moments version, countries without dedicated feed).png

The default page shown to logged-out users

Type of businessPublic

Type of site

News, social networking service
Available inMultilingual
Traded as
FoundedMarch 21, 2006; 15 years ago (2006-03-21)
HeadquartersSan Francisco, California, U.S.
Area servedWorldwide
Founder(s)
Key people
IndustryInternet
RevenueIncreaseUS$ 3.72 billion (2020)
Operating incomeIncreaseUS$ 27 million (2020)
Net incomeDecreaseUS$-1.14 billion (2020)
Total assetsIncreaseUS$ 13.37 billion (2020)
Total equityIncreaseUS$ 7.97 billion (2020)
Employees5,500+ (December 2020)[2]
Subsidiaries
URLtwitter.comEdit this at Wikidata
RegistrationRequired
Users
  • 330 million monthly active users
  • (Q1 2019)
LaunchedJuly 15, 2006; 15 years ago (2006-07-15)
Current statusActive
Native client(s) oniOS, Android, Windows Phone, Microsoft Windows, MacOS, Web
Written in
[3][4][5][6][7][9][11][12]

Twitter (initially called Twttr) is an American microblogging and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read those that are publicly available. Users interact with Twitter through browser or mobile frontend software, or programmatically via its APIs. Prior to April 2020 services were accessible via SMS.[13] The service is provided by Twitter, Inc., a corporation based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world.[14] Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but the limit was doubled to 280 for non-CJK languages in November 2017.[15] Audio and video tweets remain limited to 140 seconds for most accounts.

Twitter was created by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in March 2006 and launched in July of that year. By 2012[update], more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day,[16] and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day.[18][19] In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet".[20] As of Q1 2019[update], Twitter had more than 330 million monthly active users. Twitter is a some-to-many microblogging service, given that the vast majority of tweets are written by a small minority of users.[21][22]

An October 21, 2021 report found that Twitter's deep learningrecommender system, an algorithm intended to personalize the user's Home timeline—introduced in 2016—favored "right-leaning politics".[23][24]

History

Further information: Timeline of Twitter

2006–2007: Creation and initial reaction

Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey, then an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group.[25][26] The original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams later ascribed to Noah Glass,[27] inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was also partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was already in use, and it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.[28] The developers initially considered "10958" as a short code, but later changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. PST (UTC−08:00): "just setting up my twttr".[3] Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:[30]

...we came across the word "twitter", and it was just perfect. The definition was "a short burst of inconsequential information", and "chirps from birds". And that's exactly what the product was.

The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees.[31] The full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006.[11] In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets—including Odeo.com and Twitter.com—from the investors and shareholders.[32] Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011.[33] Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.[34] Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview:[35]

With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter actually changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility. It is that, in part, but the insight we eventually came to was Twitter was really more of an information network than it is a social network.

2007–2010

The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive (SXSWi) conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.[36] "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it."[37] Reaction at the conference was highly positive. Blogger Scott Beale said that Twitter was "absolutely ruling" SXSWi. Social software researcher Danah Boyd said Twitter was "owning" the conference.[38] Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less. And we just did!"[39]

The company experienced rapid initial growth. It had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day.[40] By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications.[41] As of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter.[42] As of March 2011, that was about 140 million tweets posted daily.[43] As noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site in January 2009 from its previous rank of twenty-second.[44]

Twitter's usage spikes during prominent events. For example, a record was set during the 2010 FIFA World Cup when fans wrote 2,940 tweets per second in the thirty-second period after Japan scored against Cameroon on June 14, 2010. The record was broken again when 3,085 tweets per second were posted after the Los Angeles Lakers' victory in the 2010 NBA Finals on June 17, 2010,[45] and then again at the close of Japan's victory over Denmark in the World Cup when users published 3,283 tweets per second.[46] The record was set again during the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup Final between Japan and the United States, when 7,196 tweets per second were published.[47] When American singer Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, Twitter servers crashed after users were updating their status to include the words "Michael Jackson" at a rate of 100,000 tweets per hour.[48] The current record as of August 3, 2013, was set in Japan, with 143,199 tweets per second during a television screening of the movie Castle in the Sky[49] (beating the previous record of 33,388, also set by Japan for the television screening of the same movie).[50]

The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASAastronautT. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010.[51] By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has also hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue.[52][relevant? – discuss]

Twitter acquired application developer Atebits on April 11, 2010. Atebits had developed the Apple Design Award-winning Twitter client Tweetie for the Mac and iPhone. The application, now called "Twitter" and distributed free of charge, is the official Twitter client for the iPhone, iPad and Mac.[53]

2010–2014

From September through October 2010, the company began rolling out "New Twitter", an entirely revamped edition of twitter.com. Changes included the ability to see pictures and videos without leaving Twitter itself by clicking on individual tweets which contain links to images and clips from a variety of supported websites including YouTube and Flickr, and a complete overhaul of the interface, which shifted links such as '@mentions' and 'Retweets' above the Twitter stream, while 'Messages' and 'Log Out' became accessible via a black bar at the very top of twitter.com. As of November 1, 2010, the company confirmed that the "New Twitter experience" had been rolled out to all users. In 2019, Twitter was announced to be the 10th most downloaded mobile app of the decade, from 2010 to 2019.[54]

On April 5, 2011, Twitter tested a new homepage and phased out the "Old Twitter".[55] However, a glitch came about after the page was launched, so the previous "retro" homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved; the new homepage was reintroduced on April 20.[56][57] On December 8, 2011, Twitter overhauled its website once more to feature the "Fly" design, which the service says is easier for new users to follow and promotes advertising. In addition to the Home tab, the Connect and Discover tabs were introduced along with a redesigned profile and timeline of Tweets. The site's layout has been compared to that of Facebook.[58][59] On February 21, 2012, it was announced that Twitter and Yandex agreed to a partnership. Yandex, a Russian search engine, finds value within the partnership due to Twitter's real time news feeds. Twitter's director of business development explained that it is important to have Twitter content where Twitter users go.[60] On March 21, 2012, Twitter celebrated its sixth birthday while also announcing that it had 140 million users and 340 million tweets per day. The number of users was up 40% from their September 2011 number, which was said to have been at 100 million at the time.[61]

In April 2012, Twitter announced that it was opening an office in Detroit, with the aim of working with automotive brands and advertising agencies.[62] Twitter also expanded its office in Dublin.[63] On June 5, 2012, a modified logo was unveiled through the company blog, removing the text to showcase the slightly redesigned bird as the sole symbol of Twitter.[64][65] On October 5, 2012, Twitter acquired a video clip company called Vine that launched in January 2013.[66][67] Twitter released Vine as a standalone app that allows users to create and share six-second looping video clips on January 24, 2013. Vine videos shared on Twitter are visible directly in users' Twitter feeds.[68] Due to an influx of inappropriate content, it is now rated 17+ in Apple's[69] app store.[70] On December 18, 2012, Twitter announced it had surpassed 200 million monthly active users. Twitter hit 100 million monthly active users in September 2011.[71]

On January 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Crashlytics in order to build out its mobile developer products.[72] On April 18, 2013, Twitter launched a music app called Twitter Music for the iPhone.[73] On August 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Trendrr,[74] followed by the acquisition of MoPub on September 9, 2013.[75] As of September 2013, the company's data showed that 200 million users sent over 400 million tweets daily, with nearly 60% of tweets sent from mobile devices.[76]

2014–2019

In April 2014, Twitter underwent a redesign that made the site resemble Facebook somewhat, with profile picture and biography in a column left to the timeline, and a full-width header image with parallax scrolling effect.[a] That layout was used as main for the desktop front end until July 2019, undergoing changes over time such as removal of shortcut buttons to jump to the previous or next tweet in early 2017, and rounded profile pictures since June 2017.[77][78][79]

On June 4, 2014, Twitter announced that it would acquire Namo Media, a technology firm specializing in "native advertising" for mobile devices.[80] On June 19, 2014, Twitter announced that it had reached an undisclosed deal to buy SnappyTV, a service that helps edit and share video from television broadcasts.[81][82] The company was helping broadcasters and rights holders to share video content both organically across social and via Twitter's Amplify program.[83] In July 2014, Twitter announced that it intended to buy a young company called CardSpring for an undisclosed sum. CardSpring enabled retailers to offer online shoppers coupons that they could automatically sync to their credit cards in order to receive discounts when they shopped in physical stores.[84] On July 31, 2014, Twitter announced that it had acquired a small password-security startup called Mitro.[85] On October 29, 2014, Twitter announced a new partnership with IBM. The partnership was intended to help businesses use Twitter data to understand their customers, businesses and other trends.[86]

On February 11, 2015, Twitter announced that it had acquired Niche, an advertising network for social media stars, founded by Rob Fishman and Darren Lachtman.[87] The acquisition price was reportedly $50 million.[88] On March 13, 2015, Twitter announced its acquisition of Periscope, an app that allows live streaming of video.[89] In April 2015, the Twitter.com desktop homepage changed.[90] Twitter announced that it had acquired TellApart, a commerce ads tech firm, with $532 million stock.[91][92] Later in the year it became apparent that growth had slowed, according to Fortune,[93] Business Insider,[94] Marketing Land[95] and other news websites including Quartz (in 2016).[96] In June 2016, Twitter acquired an artificial intelligence startup called Magic Pony for $150 million.[97][98]

Since May 2018, tweet replies deemed by an artificial intelligence to be detractive from conversation are initially hidden, and only loaded through actuating a button at the bottom.[99]

2019–present

In 2019, Twitter redesigned its user interface yet again. This newest "new Twitter" was deployed in "a gradual rollout".[100]

On July 15, 2019, Twitter ended support for TLS 1.0 and 1.1 connection.[101]

In October 2019, the tweet history of the Fortnite video game's account was resurrected after appearing deleted during a marketing campaign. This is the only documented occurrence of such resurrection.[102]

Twitter saw somewhat dramatic growth in 2020, possibly due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[103] During said pandemic, Twitter saw an increased use of the platform for misinformation related to the pandemic.[104] Twitter announced in March 2020 that it would start marking tweets which may contain misleading information, in some cases it will provide links to pages of fact-checking information.

A major hack of Twitter on July 15, 2020, affected 130 high-profile accounts, both verified and unverified ones such as Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Elon Musk; the hack allowed bitcoin scammers to send tweets via the compromised accounts that asked the followers to send bitcoin to a given public address, with the promise to double their money.[106] Within a few hours, Twitter disabled tweeting and reset passwords from all verified accounts.[106] Analysis of the event revealed that the scammers had used social engineering to obtain credentials from Twitter employees to access an administration tool used by Twitter to view and change these accounts' personal details as to gain access as part of a "smash and grab" attempt to make money quickly, with an estimated US$120,000 in bitcoin deposited in various accounts before Twitter intervened.[107] Several law enforcement entities including the FBI launched investigations into the attack to determine the perpetrators over concerns of broader implications of such a hack in the future.[108]

On June 1, 2020, Twitter deactivated the legacy desktop front end of their web site that had originally been introduced in 2014,[109][110] leaving the progressive web app version which was originally introduced in April 2017 as "Twitter Lite" for mobile phones[111] and used by default since July 2019[112] as the only option.

In November 2020, Twitter announced that it would develop a social audio feature on its platform.[113] Later, In December 2020, Twitter began beta testing its social audio feature known as Spaces with iOS users on their platform.[114]

Screen capture of "M2 Mobile Web" within ten days before shutdown

"M2 Mobile Web", the original mobile web front end of Twitter, later served as fallback legacy version to clients without JavaScript support and incompatible browsers such as game consoles with limited web browsing capability. It was shut down in December 2020.[115]

During the George Floyd protests and through the 2020 election, misinformation spread by Donald Trump led to Twitter expanding a policy where they added disclaimers to misinformation.[116][117] Twitter was among the platforms associated with the storming of the United States Capitol on January 6, 2021. According to the Associated Press, "federal law enforcement authorities said that there was activity on Twitter, but that they weren't expecting the level of violence they ultimately saw last Wednesday."[118] This led to Trump being suspended from Twitter for glorifying violence, among other reasons such as false allegations of election fraud. According to researcher Shannon McGregor, "Twitter's permanent suspension of Trump's Twitter account is long overdue."[119] However, among conservatives and some European leaders, a degree of controversy ensued over the power held by a private company over speech.[120] Nathan Akehurst of Jacobin Magazine suggested that "Twitter profited from Donald Trump's racist outbursts for years, only to delete his account a few days before his departure".[121]

On January 26, 2021, Twitter acquired Revue, an email newsletter service to compete with platforms like Substack.[122]

On February 25, 2021, Twitter announced Super Follows, a subscription service allowing content creators to receive payments for their content.[123][124]

In March 2021, Twitter started beta testing Spaces for Android users.[125] On March 5, it was announced that Twitter was working on a feature that would offer users a short window of time to rethink a tweet after they hit send. Twitter confirmed to CNN that it is testing an undo option that could potentially let users correct or even to retract a tweet before it is posted on the site. The feature was discovered by Jane Manchun Wong, an app developer who has a proven track record of uncovering new tools on social networks before they are officially released. Wong posted a GIF on the platform which show a blue "undo" bar that appears under the words "Your Tweet was sent."[126]

In 2021, Twitter is advancing an open source initiative that could be used by any social media platform and would make content moderation more transparent with a more robust appeals process. Called Bluesky, the use of such an open protocol would relieve companies of the sole responsibility for being centralized curators of content.[127] The Twitter research team that began work on this effort was set up in late 2019.[128]

In April 2021, Twitter announced that it was establishing its African headquarters in Ghana.[129][130]

On May 3, 2021, Twitter Spaces released globally.[131][132]

On June 5, the Nigerian government issued an indefinite ban on Twitter usage in the country after the platform removed tweets made by the Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari.[133] The company claimed the tweets violated its policies against "abusive behavior". Twitter called the ban "deeply concerning". Several human rights organizations, including Amnesty International[134] and the local Socio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project (SERAP),[135] spoke out against the ban as well. The Nigerian government stated that the ban was not based solely on the removal of the tweets and was a result of "a litany of problems with the social media platform in Nigeria, where misinformation and fake news spread through it have had real world violent consequences".[136]

In June 2021, Twitter announced the beta rollout of its Super Follows feature. A group of users will be allowed to charge followers monthly for access to extra content, not available in their regular feed. The company also launched the Ticketed Spaces program in beta, a premium version of its audio room feature Spaces, which makes access to certain audio rooms paid.[137]

Twitter rolled out changes in the interface on August 11, 2021. Among adjustments in color uses, the major change was converting to their new Chirp font, designed to allow left-alignment of most Western languages as to make browsing of tweets easier to follow.[138]

An October 21, 2021 report based on a "long-running, massive-scale randomized experiment" that analyzed "millions of tweets sent between 1 April and 15 August 2020", found that Twitter's machine learning algorithm amplified right-leaning politics on personalized user Home timelines.[23]: 1 [24] The report compared seven countries with active Twitter users where data was available—Germany, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, and Spain—and examined Tweets "from major political groups and politicians".[23]: 4  Researchers used the 2019 Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHESDATA) to position parties on political ideology within each country.[23]: 4  The "machine learning algorithms"—introduced by Twitter in 2016—personalized 99% of users' feeds by displaying Tweets—even older Tweets and Retweets from accounts the user had not directly followed—but that the algorithm had "deemed relevant" to the users' past preferences.[23]: 4  Twitter randomly chose 1% of users whose Home timelines displayed content in reverse-chronological order from users they directly followed.[23]: 2 

Leadership

As chief executive officer, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of capital funding by the venture capitalists who backed the company.[139] On October 16, 2008,[140] Williams took over the role of CEO, and Dorsey became chairman of the board.[141] On October 4, 2010, Williams announced that he was stepping down as CEO. Dick Costolo, formerly Twitter's chief operating officer, became CEO. On October 4, 2010, Williams made an announcement saying that he will stay with the company and "be completely focused on product strategy".[142][143]

According to The New York Times, "Mr. Dorsey and Mr. Costolo forged a close relationship" when Williams was away.[144] According to PC Magazine, Williams was "no longer involved in the day-to-day goings on at the company". He was focused on developing a new startup, and became a member of Twitter's board of directors, and promised to "help in any way [he could]". In 2011, Stone was still with Twitter but was working with AOL as an "advisor on volunteer efforts and philanthropy".[145] In January 2014, Stone announced the release of Jelly, a 'social Q&A network for mobile'.[146] Dorsey rejoined Twitter in March 2011, as executive chairman focusing on product development. At that time, he split his schedule with Square (where he is CEO), whose offices are within walking distance of Twitter's in San Francisco.[144]

In September 2011, board members and investors Fred Wilson and Bijan Sabet resigned from Twitter's board of directors.[147] In October 2012, Twitter announced it had hired former Google executive Matt Derella to become their new director of business agency development.[148] Twitter named former Goldman Sachs executive Anthony Noto as the company's CFO in July 2014, with an "annual salary of $250,000 and one-time restricted stock options of 1.5 million shares ... valued at $61.5 million".[149] On June 10, 2015, Twitter announced its CEO Dick Costolo would resign on July 1, 2015.[150] Noto was said to be considered a potential replacement for outgoing CEO Costolo.[151] On October 14, 2015, former Google chief business officer Omid Kordestani became executive chairman, replacing Dorsey who remains CEO.[152] On January 26, 2016, Leslie Berland, former executive vice president of global advertising, marketing, and digital partnerships at American Express, was named chief marketing officer.[153] In November 2016, COO Adam Bain announced his resignation and CFO Anthony Noto took over Bain's role.[154][155] A month later, on December 20, 2016, CTO Adam Messinger announced that he too was leaving.[156][157]

In February 2020, it was reported that Elliott Management Corporation had acquired a stake in Twitter, with activist shareholder and Republican Party supporter Paul Singer expected to seek the removal of Dorsey as CEO.[158] Twitter agreed to appoint a new independent director and two new board members, and to perform $2 billion in share buybacks.[159]

Appearance and features

The Twitter account page for Wikipedia, demonstrating the account-customized timeline view which shows tweets in reverse chronological order

Tweets are publicly visible by default, but senders can restrict message delivery to only their followers. Users can mute users they do not wish to interact with, block accounts from viewing their tweets and remove accounts from their followers list.[160][161][162] Users can tweet via the Twitter website, compatible external applications (such as for smartphones), or by Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries.[163] Users may subscribe to other users' tweets—this is known as "following" and subscribers are known as "followers"[164] or "tweeps", a portmanteau of Twitter and peeps.[165] Individual tweets can be forwarded by other users to their own feed, a process known as a "retweet". In 2015, Twitter launched "quote tweet" (originally called "retweet with comment"), a feature that allows users to add a comment to their retweet, nesting one tweet in the other.[167] Users can also "like" (formerly "favorite") individual tweets.[168]

The counters for "likes", "retweets", and replies appear next to the respective buttons in timelines such as on profile pages and search results. Counters for likes and retweets exist on a tweet's standalone page too. Since September 2020, quote tweets, formerly known as "retweet with comment", have an own counter on their tweet page. Until the legacy desktop front end that was discontinued in 2020, a row with miniature profile pictures of up to ten liking and/or retweeting users was displayed (earliest documented implementation in December 2011 overhaul), as well as a tweet reply counter next to the according button on a tweet's page.[169][170]

Twitter allows users to update their profile via their mobile phone either by text messaging or by apps released for certain smartphones and tablets.[171] Twitter has been compared to a web-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client.[172] In a 2009 Time magazine essay, technology author Steven Johnson described the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably simple":

As a social network, Twitter revolves around the principle of followers. When you choose to follow another Twitter user, that user's tweets appear in reverse chronological order on your main Twitter page. If you follow 20 people, you'll see a mix of tweets scrolling down the page: breakfast-cereal updates, interesting new links, music recommendations, even musings on the future of education.[173]

According to research published in April 2014, around 44% of user accounts have never tweeted.[174]

The first tweet was posted by Jack Dorsey (creator) at 12:50 PM PST on March 21, 2006, and read "just setting up my twttr".[175] In 2009, the first tweet was sent from space. US astronauts Nicola Stott and Jeff Williams took part in a live 'tweetup' from the International Space Station with around 35 members of the public at the NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C.[176]

In March 2021, Jack Dorsey listed his first tweet for sale. The highest bid for the tweet, $2.5 million, came from a Malaysian businessman, Sina Estavi. Along with the metadata of the original tweet, the buyer was to receive a certificate that was digitally signed and verified by Dorsey.[177]

Content

Content of tweets according to Pear Analytics

  News (3.6%)

  Spam (3.8%)

  Self-promotion (5.9%)

  Pointless babble (40.1%)

  Conversational (37.6%)

  Pass-along value (8.7%)

San Antonio-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the United States and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST) and separated them into six categories.[178]Pointless babble made up 40%, with 38% being conversational. Pass-along value had 9%, self-promotion 6% with spam and news each making 4%.

Despite Jack Dorsey's own open contention that a message on Twitter is "a short burst of inconsequential information", social networking researcher danah boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what the Pear researchers labeled "pointless babble" is better characterized as "social grooming" or "peripheral awareness" (which she justifies as persons "want[ing] to know what the people around them are thinking and doing and feeling, even when co-presence isn't viable").[179] Similarly, a survey of Twitter users found that a more specific social role of passing along messages that include a hyperlink is an expectation of reciprocal linking by followers.[180]

Format

Hashtags, usernames, retweets and replies

"Twitter hashtag" redirects here. For more about hashtags, see Hashtag.

Further information: Mention (blogging) § @ (At sign)

Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of hashtags – words or phrases prefixed with a "" sign. Similarly, the "" sign followed by a username is used for mentioning or replying to other users.[181]

In 2014, in anticipation for the FIFA World Cup, Twitter introduced hashflags, special hashtags that automatically generate a custom emoji next to them for a certain period of time, following the success of a similar campaign during the 2010 World Cup.[182] Hashflags may be generated by Twitter themselves (such as to raise awareness for social issues)[183] or be purchased by corporations (such as to promote products and events).[184]

To repost a message from another Twitter user and share it with one's own followers, a user can click the retweet button within the Tweet. Users can reply other accounts' replies. Since November 2019, users can hide replies to their messages. Since May 2020, users can select who can reply each of their tweets before sending them: anyone, accounts who follow the poster, specific accounts, and none. This ability was upgraded in July 2021 to make the feature retroactively applicable to tweets after they have been sent out.[185][186]

In late 2009, the "Twitter Lists" feature was added, making it possible for users to follow ad hoc lists of authors instead of individual authors.[164][187]

Using SMS

Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man-based number for international use. There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone, O2[188] and Orange[189] networks. In India, since Twitter only supports tweets from Bharti Airtel,[190] an alternative platform called smsTweet[191] was set up by a user to work on all networks.[192] A similar platform called GladlyCast exists for mobile phone users in Singapore and Malaysia.[193]

The tweets were set to a largely constrictive 140-character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging, introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. The 140-character limit also increased the usage of URL shortening services such as bit.ly, goo.gl, tinyurl.com, tr.im, and other content-hosting services such as TwitPic, memozu.com and NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text longer than 140 characters. Since June 2011, Twitter has used its own t.co domain for automatic shortening of all URLs posted on its site, making other link shorteners unnecessary for staying within Twitter's 140 character limit.[195]

In August 2019, Jack Dorsey's account was hacked by using Twitter's SMS to tweet feature to send crude messages. Days later, the ability to send a tweet via SMS was temporarily turned off.[196]

In April 2020, Twitter discontinued the ability to receive SMS messages containing the text of new tweets in most countries.[197][198]

Character limits

In 2016, Twitter announced that media such as photos, videos, and the person's handle, would not count against the already constrictive 140 character limit. A user photo post used to count for a large chunk of a Tweet, about 24 characters.[199] Attachments and links would also no longer be part of the character limit.

On March 29, 2016, Twitter introduced the ability to add a caption of up to 480 characters to each image attached to a tweet.[201][202] This caption can be accessed by screen reading software or by hovering the mouse above a picture inside TweetDeck.

Since March 30, 2017, the Twitter handles are outside the tweet itself, therefore they no longer count towards the character limit.[203] Only new Twitter handles added to the conversation count towards the limit.

In 2017, Twitter doubled their historical 140-character-limitation to 280.[204] Under the new limit, glyphs are counted as a variable number of characters, depending upon the script they are from: most European letters and punctuation forms count as one character, while each CJK glyph counts as two so that only 140 such glyphs can be used in a tweet.[204]

URL shortener

t.co is a URL shortening service created by Twitter. It is only available for links posted to Twitter and not available for general use. All links posted to Twitter use a t.co wrapper. Twitter hopes that the service will be able to protect users from malicious sites, and will use it to track clicks on links within tweets.[206]

Having used the services of third parties TinyURL and bit.ly,[207] Twitter began experimenting with its own URL shortening service for private messages in March 2010 using the twt.tl domain, before it purchased the t.co domain. The service was tested on the main site using the accounts @TwitterAPI, @rsarver and @raffi. On September 2, 2010, an email from Twitter to users said they would be expanding the roll-out of the service to users. On June 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it was rolling out the feature.[195]

Trending topics

Main article: Twitter trends

Countries and cities with local trending topicsin Twitter

A word, phrase, or topic that is mentioned at a greater rate than others is said to be a "trending topic". Trending topics become popular either through a concerted effort by users or because of an event that prompts people to talk about a specific topic.[208] These topics help Twitter and their users to understand what is happening in the world and what people's opinions are about it.[209]

Trending topics are sometimes the result of concerted efforts and manipulations by preteen and teenaged fans of certain celebrities or cultural phenomena, particularly musicians like Lady Gaga (known as Little Monsters), Justin Bieber (Beliebers), Rihanna (Rih Navy) and One Direction (Directioners), and novel series Twilight (Twihards) and Harry Potter (Potterheads). Twitter has altered the trend algorithm in the past to prevent manipulation of this type with limited success.[210]

The Twitter web interface displays a list of trending topics on a sidebar on the home page, along with sponsored content (see image).

Twitter often censors trending hashtags that are claimed to be abusive or offensive. Twitter censored the #Thatsafrican[211] and #thingsdarkiessay hashtags after users complained that they found the hashtags offensive.[212] There are allegations that Twitter removed #NaMOinHyd from the trending list and added an Indian National Congress-sponsored hashtag.[213] President Donald Trump prosteted trends calling them "unfair, disgusting, illegal, ridiculous" claiming the ones that are bad about him are blown up.[214][215][216]

Moments

In October 2015, Twitter introduced "Moments"—a feature that allows users to curate tweets from other users into a larger collection. Twitter initially intended the feature to be used by its in-house editorial team and other partners; they populated a dedicated tab in Twitter's apps, chronicling news headlines, sporting events, and other content.[217][218] In September 2016, creation of moments became available to all Twitter users.[219]

Adding and following content

There are numerous tools for adding content, monitoring content and conversations including Twitter's own TweetDeck, Salesforce.com, HootSuite, and Twitterfeed.com. As of 2009[update], fewer than half of tweets posted were posted using the web user interface with most users using third-party applications (based on an analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos).[220]

Verified accounts

Main article: Twitter verification

The official Twitter profile of Twitter, Inc. The blue check mark right of the profile name indicates that it is a verified account.

In June 2009, after being criticized by Kanye West and sued by Tony La Russa over unauthorized accounts run by impersonators, the company launched their "Verified Accounts" program.[221][222] Twitter stated that an account with a "blue tick" verification badge indicates "we've been in contact with the person or entity the account is representing and verified that it is approved".[223] In July 2016, Twitter announced a public application process to grant verified status to an account "if it is determined to be of public interest" and that verification "does not imply an endorsement".[224][225][226] Verified status allows access to some features unavailable to other users, such as only seeing mentions from other verified accounts.[227]

In November 2020, Twitter announced a relaunch of its verification system in 2021. According to the new policy, Twitter verifies six different types of accounts; for three of them (companies, brands, and influential individuals like activists), the existence of a Wikipedia page will be one criterion for showing that the account has "Off Twitter Notability".[228] Twitter states that it will re-open public verification applications at some point in "early 2021".[229]

Mobile

Twitter has mobile apps for iPhone, iPad, Android, Windows 10, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, and Nokia S40.[231] Users can also tweet by sending SMS.[232] In April 2017, Twitter introduced Twitter Lite, a progressive web app designed for regions with unreliable and slow Internet connections, with a size of less than one megabyte, designed for devices with limited storage capacity.[233][234]

This has been released in countries with slow internet connection such as the Philippines.[235]

Twitter Lite has evolved into the main Twitter web interface, see section "interface".[citation needed]

Third-party applications

For many years, Twitter has limited the use of third-party applications accessing the service by implementing a 100,000 user limit per application.[236] Since August 2010, third-party Twitter applications have been required to use OAuth, an authentication method that does not require users to enter their password into the authenticating application. This was done to increase security and improve the user experience.[237]

Related headlines feature

This feature adds websites to the bottom of a tweet's permalink page. If a website embedded a tweet onto one of their stories, the tweet will show the websites that mentioned the tweet. This feature was added onto Twitter so if the viewer doesn't understand what the tweet means, they can click on the sites to read more about what the person is talking about.[238]

Polls

In 2015, Twitter began to roll out the ability to attach poll questions to tweets. Polls are open for up to 7 days, and voters are not personally identified.[239]

Initially, polls could have only two options with a maximum of twenty characters per option. Later[when?], the ability to add four options with up to 25 characters per option, was added.

Integrated photo-sharing service

On June 1, 2011, Twitter announced its own integrated photo-sharing service that enables users to upload a photo and attach it to a Tweet right from Twitter.com.[240] Users now also have the ability to add pictures to Twitter's search by adding hashtags to the tweet.[241] Twitter also plans to provide photo galleries designed to gather and syndicate all photos that a user has uploaded on Twitter and third-party services such as TwitPic.[241]

Streaming video

In 2016, Twitter began to place a larger focus on live streaming video programming, hosting various events including streams of the Republican and Democratic conventions during the U.S. presidential campaign as part of a partnership with CBS News,[242]Dreamhack and ESLeSports events, and winning a bid for non-exclusive streaming rights to ten NFLThursday Night Football games in the 2016 season.

During an event in New York in May 2017, Twitter announced that it planned to construct a 24-hour streaming video channel hosted within the service, featuring content from various partners. CEO Jack Dorsey stated that the digital video strategy was part of a goal for Twitter to be "the first place that anyone hears of anything going on that matters to them"; as of the first quarter of 2017, Twitter had over 200 content partners, who streamed over 800 hours of video over 450 events.[246]

Twitter announced a number of new and expanded partnerships for its streaming video services at the event, including Bloomberg, BuzzFeed, Cheddar (Opening Bell and Closing Bell shows; the latter was introduced in October 2016) IMG Fashion (coverage of fashion events), Live Nation Entertainment (streaming concert events), Major League Baseball (weekly online game stream, plus a weekly program with live look-ins and coverage of trending stories), MTV and BET (red carpet coverage for their MTV Video Music Awards, MTV Movie & TV Awards, and BET Awards), NFL Network (the Monday-Thursday news program NFL Blitz Live, and Sunday Fantasy Gameday),[247] the PGA Tour (PGA Tour Live coverage of early tournament rounds preceding television coverage),The Players' Tribune, Ben Silverman and Howard T. Owens' Propagate (daily entertainment show #WhatsHappening), The Verge (weekly technology show Circuit Breaker: The Verge's Gadget Show), Stadium (a new digital sports network being formed by Silver Chalice and Sinclair Broadcast Group)[250][251][252] and the WNBA (weekly game).[246]

Account archival

Twitter has offered two different methods[clarify] of archiving one's own Twitter account data. Those methods have their individual benefits and disadvantages. As of September 2019, only the latter archival method is available.[citation needed]

In December 2012, Twitter introduced a "Tweet archival" feature, which created a ZIP file that contains an offline-browsable archive of all tweets.[253] Those exported tweets could be browsed and searched offline by using the bundled user-interface accessible through an Internet browser, which used client-side, JavaScript-powered pagination.[254] The user interface of the tweet archive browser had a design similar to Twitter's 2010–2014 desktop user interface, even until the feature's removal. The tweet text contents, ID's, time data and source labels are located in the file called "". It was possible to request at least one archive per day[verification needed]. The ability to export this type of tweet archive, which never existed on the new layout, has been removed entirely in August 2019[when exactly?], after co-existing with the new 2018 data archival method. Even when accessing the legacy Twitter desktop website layout using the user-agent of an older browser version, the option has disappeared from the account settings.

Spaces

A social audio feature that enables users to host or participate in a live-audio virtual environment called space for conversation. Spaces can accommodate a maximum of 13 people (1 host, 2 co-hosts and 10 speakers) onstage and an unlimited number of listeners. The feature was initially limited to users with at least 600 followers. Since October 21, 2021, any Twitter user can create a Space from the Android or iOS app.[255]

Fleets

In March 2020, Twitter began to test a stories feature known as "fleets" in some markets,[256][257] which officially launched on November 17, 2020.[258][259] Similarly to equivalent features, fleets can contain text and media, are only accessible for 24 hours after they are posted, and are accessed within the Twitter app via an area above the timeline.[256]

In June 2021, Twitter announced it would start implementing advertising into fleets, integrating full-screen ads among user-created content.[260] On July 14, 2021, Twitter stated that it would remove Fleets by August 3. Twitter had intended for fleets to encourage more users to tweet regularly, rather than simply consume other folks' tweets, but instead fleets were generally used by users who already tweeted a lot. The company stated that their spot at the top of the screen would now be occupied by currently active Spaces from the user's feed.[261]

On June 3, 2021, Twitter announced a service known as Twitter Blue, which provides features exclusive to those who are subscribers to the Twitter Blue service. They include:

  • Undo Tweet, which allows users to withdraw a tweet within a short time frame before it is posted.[262]
  • Bookmarks, which allows users to save individual tweets into folders.[262]
  • Reader mode, which converts threads of tweets into an article-like view.[262]
  • Color themes for the Twitter mobile app.[262]
  • Dedicated customer support.[262]

The service was initially released in Australia and Canada.[262] On November 9, 2021, Twitter Blue was launched for US customers.[263]

Tip Jar

In May 2021, Twitter began testing a Tip Jar feature on its iOS and Android clients. The feature allows users to send monetary tips to certain accounts, providing a financial incentive for content creators on the platform. The Tip Jar is optional and users can choose whether or not to enable tips for their account. The day the feature was launched, a user discovered that sending a tip through PayPal would reveal the sender's address to the recipient.[264]

On September 23, 2021, Twitter announced that it will allow users to tip users on the social network with bitcoin. The feature will be available for iOS users. Previously, users could tip with fiat currency using services such as Square'sCash app and PayPal'sVenmo. Twitter will integrate the Strike bitcoin lightning wallet service. It was noted that at this current time, Twitter will not take a cut of any money sent through the tips feature.[265]

The Shop Module

In July 2021, Twitter launched a test of The Shop Module, a shopping extension that directs customers to a brand's products from its official Twitter account. The feature initially launched for US-based users only and only on iOS.[266]

Safety Mode

On September 1, 2021, Twitter began to roll out Safety Mode, allowing users to reduce disruptive interactions. The rollout began with a small beta-feedback group on iOS, Android, and Twitter's web application.[267]

The functionality allows users to temporarily block accounts for seven days when potentially harmful language is detected. If a user has Safety Mode enabled, authors of tweets that are identified by Twitter's technology as being harmful or exercising uninvited behavior will be temporarily unable to follow the account, send direct messages, or see tweets from the user with the enabled functionality during the temporary block period. Jarrod Doherty, senior product manager at Twitter, stated that the technology in place within Safety mode assesses existing relationships to prevent blocking accounts that the user frequently interacts with.

Twitter first revealed Safety Mode in February 2021 within the Analyst Day slide deck.[268]

NFT Digital Assets

On September 23, 2021, Twitter revealed that it is experimenting with a feature that would allow users to authenticate and showcase their collections of NFT digital assets on the platform. The company did not provide specifics about the project but stated that it would be a way to support creators who make digital art.

Usage

Daily user estimates vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. A February 2009 Compete.com blog entry ranked Twitter as the third most used social network based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits.[44] In 2009, Twitter had a monthly user retention rate of forty percent.[269] Twitter had annual growth of 1,382 percent, increasing from 475,000 unique visitors in February 2008 to 7 million in February 2009. Twitter's annual growth rate decreased from 7.8 percent in 2015 to 3.4 percent in 2017.[270] An April 2017 a statista.com blog entry ranked Twitter as the tenth most used social network based on their count of 319 million monthly visitors.[271] Its global user base in 2017 was 328 million.[272] As per August 2018, Twitter light (data saving app) is available in 45 countries.[273]

Demographics

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(September 2019)

See also: Black Twitter

Twitter.com Top5 Global Markets by Reach (%)[274][275]
CountryFraction
IndonesiaJune 2010

  

20.8%
December 2010

  

19.0%
BrazilJune 2010

  

20.5%
December 2010

  

21.8%
VenezuelaJune 2010

  

19.0%
December 2010

  

21.1%
NetherlandsJune 2010

  

17.7%
December 2010

  

22.3%
JapanJune 2010

  

16.8%
December 2010

  

20.0%
Note: Visitor age >15, home and work locations. Excludes visitation from public computers such as Internet cafes or access from mobile phones or PDAs.

In 2009, Twitter was mainly used by older adults who might not have used other social sites before Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst studying social media. "Adults are just catching up to what teens have been doing for years", he said. According to comScore only 11% of Twitter's users are aged 12 to 17. comScore attributed this to Twitter's "early adopter period" when the social network first gained popularity in business settings and news outlets attracting primarily older users. However, comScore also stated in 2009 that Twitter had begun to "filter more into the mainstream", and "along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq, Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twitterati".[277]

According to a study by Sysomos in June 2009, women make up a slightly larger Twitter demographic than men—53% over 47%. It also stated that 5% of users accounted for 75% of all activity and that New York City has more Twitter users than other cities.[278]

According to Quancast, 27 million people in the US used Twitter as of September 3, 2009; 63% of Twitter users are under 35 years old; 60% of Twitter users are Caucasian, but a higher than average (compared to other Internet properties) are African American/black (16%) and Hispanic (11%); 58% of Twitter users have a total household income of at least US$60,000.[279] The prevalence of African American Twitter usage and in many popular hashtags has been the subject of research studies.[280][281]

On September 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it had 100 million active users logging in at least once a month and 50 million active users every day.[282]

In 2012, the country with the most active users on Twitter was the United States.[283] A 2016 Pew research poll found that Twitter is used by 24% of all online US adults. It was equally popular with men and women (24% and 25% of online Americans respectively), but more popular with younger (36% of 18–29 year olds) generations.[284]

In an article published on January 6, 2012, Twitter was confirmed to be the biggest social media network in Japan, with Facebook following closely in second. ComScore confirmed this, stating that Japan was the only country in the world where Twitter leads Facebook.[285]

On March 31, 2014, Twitter announced that there were 255 million monthly active users (MAUs) and 198 million mobile MAUs. In 2013, there were over 100 million users actively using Twitter daily and about 500 million Tweets every day,[287] with about 29% of users checking Twitter multiple times a day.[288] As of Q1 2019[update], Twitter had more than 330 million monthly active users. The majority of Twitter users skew to the American political left.[289][290]

A 2019 survey conducted by the Pew Foundation found that Twitter users are more likely than the general public to have both a college degree and higher income than the average U.S. adult. Users are also three times as likely to be younger than 50 years old, with the median age of adult U.S. users being 40 years old. The survey found that 10% of users who are most active on Twitter are responsible for 80% of all tweets, focusing mainly on the topics of politics and women.[291]

Levels of use

About 22% of Americans say they have ever used Twitter, according to a 2019 Pew Research Center survey.[292] Noting how demographics of Twitter users differ from the average Americans, commentators have cautioned against media narratives that treat Twitter as representative of the population,[293] adding that only 10% of users Tweet actively, and that 90% of Twitter users have Tweeted no more than twice. In 2016, shareholders sued Twitter, alleging it "artificially inflated its stock price by misleading them about user engagement." The company announced on September 20, 2021 that it would pay $809.5 million to settle this class-action lawsuit.[294]

Branding

The Twitter logo from September 14, 2010, to June 5, 2012, featuring the silhouette version of "Larry the Bird"

Twitter has become internationally identifiable by its signature bird logo, or the Twitter Bird. The original logo, which was simply the word "Twitter", was in use from its launch in March 2006. It was accompanied by an image of a bird which was later discovered to be a piece of clip art created by the British graphic designer Simon Oxley.[295] A new logo had to be redesigned by founder Biz Stone with help from designer Philip Pascuzzo, which resulted in a more cartoon-like bird in 2009. This version had been named "Larry the Bird", specifically after Larry Bird of the NBA's Boston Celtics fame.[296][297]

Within a year, the Larry the Bird logo underwent a redesign by Stone and Pascuzzo to eliminate the cartoon features, leaving a solid silhouette of Larry the Bird that was used from 2010 through 2012.[296] In 2012, Douglas Bowman created a further simplified version of Larry the Bird, keeping the solid silhouette but making it more similar to a mountain bluebird.[298] This new logo was called simply the "Twitter Bird" and has been used as the company's branding since.[296][299]

Finances

For the fiscal year 2017, Twitter reported losses of US$108 million, with an annual revenue of $2.443 billion, a decrease of 3.9% over the previous fiscal cycle. Twitter's shares traded at over $17 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$25.6 billion in October 2018.

Year Revenue
in mil. US$
Net income
in mil. US$
Total assets
in mil. US$
Employees
2010[300]28 −67 0 N/A
2011[300]106 −164 721 N/A
2012[300]317 −79 832 2,000
2013[300]665 −645 3,366 2,712
2014[301]1,403 −578 5,583 3,638
2015[302]2,218 −521 6,442 3,898
2016[303]2,530 −457 6,870 3,583
2017[304]2,443 −108 7,412 3,372
2018[305]3,042 1,206 10,163 3,900
2019[306]3,459 1,466 12,703 4,900
2020[2]3,716 1,136 13,379 over 5,500

Funding

Twitter's San Francisco headquarters located at 1355 Market Street

Twitter raised over US$57 million from venture capitalist growth funding, although exact figures are not publicly disclosed. Twitter's first A round of funding was for an undisclosed amount that is rumored to have been between US$1 million and US$5 million.[307] Its second B round of funding in 2008 was for US$22 million[308] and its third C round of funding in 2009 was for US$35 million from Institutional Venture Partners and Benchmark Capital along with an undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square Ventures, Spark Capital, and Insight Venture Partners.[307] Twitter is backed by Union Square Ventures, Digital Garage, Spark Capital, and Bezos Expeditions.[309]

In May 2008, The Industry Standard remarked that Twitter's long-term viability is limited by a lack of revenue.[310] Twitter board member Todd Chaffee forecast that the company could profit from e-commerce, noting that users may want to buy items directly from Twitter since it already provides product recommendations and promotions.[311]

By March 2009, communications consultant Bill Douglass predicted in an interview that Twitter would be worth $1 billion within six months,[312] which came to pass when the company closed a financing round valuing it at $1 billion in September of that year.[313]

The company raised US$200 million in new venture capital in December 2010, at a valuation of approximately US$3.7 billion.[314] In March 2011, 35,000 Twitter shares sold for US$34.50 each on Sharespost, an implied valuation of US$7.8 billion.[315] In August 2010 Twitter announced a "significant" investment led by Digital Sky Technologies that, at US$800 million, was reported to be the largest venture round in history.[316]

In December 2011, the Saudi prince Alwaleed bin Talal invested US$300 million in Twitter. The company was valued at US$8.4 billion at the time.[317] In 2016, Twitter was valued by Forbes at US$15.7 billion.[318]

Revenue sources

In July 2009, some of Twitter's revenue and user growth documents were published on TechCrunch after being illegally obtained by Hacker Croll. The documents projected 2009 revenues of US$400,000 in the third quarter and US$4 million in the fourth quarter along with 25 million users by the end of the year. The projections for the end of 2013 were US$1.54 billion in revenue, US$111 million in net earnings, and one billion users.[319] No information about how Twitter planned to achieve those numbers was published. In response, Twitter co-founder Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting the possibility of legal action against the hacker.[320]

On April 13, 2010, Twitter announced plans to offer paid advertising for companies that would be able to purchase "promoted tweets" to appear in selective search results on the Twitter website, similar to Google Adwords' advertising model. As of April 13, Twitter announced it had already signed up a number of companies wishing to advertise, including Sony Pictures, Red Bull, Best Buy, and Starbucks.[321][322]

The company generated US$45 million in annual revenue in 2010, after beginning sales midway through that year; the company operated at a loss through most of 2010.[314]

Users' photos can generate royalty-free revenue for Twitter, and an agreement with World Entertainment News Network (WENN) was announced in May 2011.[323] In June 2011, Twitter announced that it would offer small businesses a self-service advertising system.[324] Twitter generated US$139.5 million in advertising sales during 2011.

The self-service advertising platform was launched in March 2012 to American Express card members and merchants in the U.S. on an invite-only basis. Twitter later reported that numerous small businesses and people who used the self-service tool provided feedback that indicated they were impressed by the feature.[325] To continue their advertising campaign, Twitter announced on March 20, 2012, that promoted tweets would be introduced to mobile devices.[326] In April 2013, Twitter announced that its Twitter Ads self-service platform, consisting of promoted tweets and promoted accounts, was available to all U.S. users without an invite.[325]

Twitter's financial revenue statistics for the first quarter of 2014 was reported as US$250 million.

On August 3, 2016, Twitter launched Instant Unlock Card, a new feature that encourages people to tweet about a brand in order to earn rewards and utilize the social media network's conversational ads. The format itself consists of images or videos with call-to-action buttons and a customizable hashtag.[327]

Stock launch and tax issues

Twitter's San Francisco headquarters, as seen from a corner on Market Street

On September 12, 2013, Twitter announced that it had filed papers with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) ahead of a planned stock market listing.[328] It revealed its prospectus in an 800-page filing.[329] Twitter planned to raise US$1 billion as the basis for its stock market debut.[330] The initial public offering (IPO) filing states that "200,000,000+ monthly active users" access Twitter and "500,000,000+ tweets per day" are posted.[35][331] In an October 15, 2013, amendment to their SEC S-1 filing,[332] Twitter declared that they would list on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), quashing speculation that their stock would trade on the NASDAQ exchange. This decision was widely viewed to be a reaction to the botched initial public offering of Facebook.[333] On November 6, 2013, 70 million shares[334] were priced at US$26 and issued by lead underwriter Goldman Sachs.[335]

On November 7, 2013, the first day of trading on the NYSE, Twitter shares opened at $26.00 and closed at US$44.90, giving the company a valuation of around US$31 billion.[336] Consequently, executives and early investors marginally increased their capital, including co-founders Williams and Dorsey who received a sum of US$2.56 billion and US$1.05 billion respectively, while Costolo's payment was US$345 million.[337] On February 5, 2014, Twitter published its first results as a public company, showing a net loss of $511 million in the fourth quarter of 2013.[338] On January 5, 2016, CEO Jack Dorsey commented on a report that Twitter planned to expand its character limit to 10,000 (private messages already had the longer limit as of July), requiring users to click to see anything beyond 140 characters. He said while Twitter would "never lose that feeling" of speed, users could do more with the text.[339]

In September 2016, Twitter shares rose 20% after a report that it had received takeover approaches.[340] Potential buyers were Alphabet (the parent company of Google),[340]Microsoft,[341][342][343]Salesforce.com,[340][344]Verizon,[344] and The Walt Disney Company.[345][346] Twitter's board of directors were open to a deal, which could have come by the end of 2016.[340][347] However, no deal was made, with reports in October stating that all the potential buyers dropped out partly due to concerns over abuse and harassment on the service.[348][349][350] In June 2017, Twitter revamped its dashboard to improve the new user experience.[351][352]

In November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Twitter is among the corporations that avoided paying taxes by using offshore companies.[353] Later The New York Times reported that Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner had strong Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter.[354]

Contributions

In the 2018 US election cycle, 96.15% ($295,722) of donations of $200 or more from Twitter employees toward the category of "all federal candidates" went to Democrats, versus 3.85% ($11,850) to Republicans.[355]

Advertising bans

In October 2017, Twitter banned the Russian media outlets RT and Sputnik from advertising on their website following the conclusions of the U.S. national intelligence report the previous January that both Sputnik and RT had been used as vehicles for Russia's interference in the 2016 US presidential election.[356]Maria Zakharova for the Russian foreign ministry said the ban was a "gross violation" by the US of free speech.[357]

In October 2019, Twitter announced it would stop running political ads on its ad platform effective November 22. This resulted from several spurious claims made by political ads. Company CEO Dorsey clarified that internet advertising had great power and was extremely effective for commercial advertisers, the power brings significant risks to politics where crucial decisions impact millions of lives.[358]

User Monetization

In February 2021, Twitter began testing different methods of monetizing users. This is in response to social platforms like Instagram, TikTok, Medium, Facebook, and Clubhouse increasingly focusing on monetizing platform creators. In June 2021, the company opened applications for its premium subscription options called Super Follows. This lets eligible accounts charge $2.99, $4.99 or $9.99 per month to subscribe to the account.[359] The launch only generated about $6,000 in its first two weeks.[360]

On August 27, 2021, Twitter rolled out Ticketed Spaces, which let Twitter Spaces hosts charge between $1 and $999 for access to their rooms.[361]

Technology

Implementation

Twitter places great reliance on open-source software.[362] The Twitter Web interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework,[363] deployed on a performance enhanced Ruby Enterprise Edition implementation of Ruby.[364]

In the early days of Twitter, tweets were stored in MySQL databases that were temporally sharded (large databases were split based on time of posting). After the huge volume of tweets coming in caused problems reading from and writing to these databases, the company decided that the system needed re-engineering.[365]

From Spring 2007 to 2008, the messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling.[366] Since 2009, implementation has been gradually replaced with software written in Scala.[367] The switch from Ruby to Scala and the JVM has given Twitter a performance boost from 200–300 requests per second per host to around 10,000–20,000 requests per second per host. This boost was greater than the 10x improvement that Twitter's engineers envisioned when starting the switch. The continued development of Twitter has also involved a switch from monolithic development of a single app to an architecture where different services are built independently and joined through remote procedure calls.[365]

As of April 6, 2011, Twitter engineers confirmed that they had switched away from their Ruby on Rails search stack to a Java server they call Blender.

Individual tweets are registered under unique IDs called snowflakes, and geolocation data is added using 'Rockdove'. The URL shortener t.co then checks for a spam link and shortens the URL. Next, the tweets are stored in a MySQL database using Gizzard, and the user receives an acknowledgement that the tweets were sent. Tweets are then sent to search engines via the Firehose API. The process is managed by FlockDB and takes an average of 350 ms.[362]

On August 16, 2013, Raffi Krikorian, Twitter's vice president of platform engineering, shared in a blog post that the company's infrastructure handled almost 143,000 tweets per second during that week, setting a new record. Krikorian explained that Twitter achieved this record by blending its homegrown and open source technologies.[365][368]

The service's application programming interface (API) allows other web services and applications to integrate with Twitter.[369]

Interface

Twitter introduced the first major redesign of its user interface in September 2010, adopting a dual-pane layout with a navigation bar along the top of the screen, and an increased focus on the inline embedding of multimedia content. Critics considered the redesign an attempt to emulate features and experiences found in mobile apps and third-party Twitter clients.[370][371][372][373]

The new layout was revised in 2011 with a focus on continuity with the web and mobile versions, introducing "Connect" (interactions with other users such as replies) and "Discover" (further information regarding trending topics and news headlines) tabs, an updated profile design, and moving all content to the right pane (leaving the left pane dedicated to functions and the trending topics list).[374] In March 2012, Twitter became available in Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew and Urdu, the first right-to-left language versions of the site. About 13,000 volunteers helped with translating the menu options.[375] In August 2012, beta support for Basque, Czech and Greek was added, making the site available in 33 different languages.[376]

In September 2012, a new layout for profiles was introduced, with larger "covers" that could be customized with a custom header image, and a display of the user's recent photos posted.[377] The "Discover" tab was discontinued in April 2015,[378] and was succeeded on the mobile app by an "Explore" tab—which features trending topics and moments.[379]

In September 2018, Twitter began to migrate selected web users to its progressive web app (based on its Twitter Lite experience for mobile web), reducing the interface to two columns. Migrations to this iteration of Twitter increased in April 2019, with some users receiving it with a modified layout.[380][381]

In July 2019, Twitter officially released this redesign, with no further option to opt-out while logged in. It is designed to further-unify Twitter's user experience between the web and mobile application versions, adopting a three-column layout with a sidebar containing links to common areas (including "Explore" that has been merged with the search page) which previously appeared in a horizontal top bar, profile elements such as picture and header images and biography texts merged into the same column as the timeline, and features from the mobile version (such as multi-account support, and an opt-out for the "top tweets" mode on the timeline).[382][383]

Outages

During an outage, Twitter users were at one time shown the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying Lu,[384] illustrating eight orange birds using a net to hoist a whale from the ocean captioned "Too many tweets! Please wait a moment and try again."[385] Web designer and Twitter user Jen Simmons was the first to coin the term "fail whale" in a September 2007 tweet.[386][387] In a November 2013 WIRED interview Chris Fry, VP of Engineering at that time, noted that the company had taken the "fail whale" out of production as the platform was now more stable.[388]

Twitter had approximately ninety-eight percent uptime in 2007 (or about six full days of downtime).[389] The downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with the technology industry such as the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expokeynote address.[390][391]

User accounts

Privacy, security and harassment

Twitter messages are public, but users can also send private "direct messages".[392] Information about who has chosen to follow an account and who a user has chosen to follow is also public, though accounts can be changed to "protected" which limits this information (and all tweets) to approved followers.[393] Twitter collects personally identifiable information about its users and shares it with third parties as specified in its privacy policy. The service also reserves the right to sell this information as an asset if the company changes hands.[394] While Twitter displays no advertising, advertisers can target users based on their history of tweets and may quote tweets in ads[395] directed specifically to the user.

A security vulnerability was reported on April 7, 2007, by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. Since Twitter used the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication, malicious users could update someone else's status page by using SMS spoofing.[396] The vulnerability could be used if the spoofer knew the phone number registered to their victim's account. Within a few weeks of this discovery, Twitter introduced an optional personal identification number (PIN) that its users could use to authenticate their SMS-originating messages.[397]

On January 5, 2009, 33 high-profile Twitter accounts were compromised after a Twitter administrator's password was guessed by a dictionary attack.[398] Some of the compromised accounts sent falsified tweets, including drug-related messages.[399]

Twitter launched the beta version of their "Verified Accounts" service on June 11, 2009, allowing people with public profiles to announce their account name. The home pages of these accounts display a badge indicating their status.[400]

In May 2010, a bug was discovered by İnci Sözlük that could allow a Twitter user to force others to follow them without the other users' consent or knowledge. For example, comedian Conan O'Brien's account, which had been set to follow only one person, was changed to receive nearly 200 malicious subscriptions.[401]

In response to Twitter's security breaches, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) brought charges against the service; the charges were settled on June 24, 2010. This was the first time the FTC had taken action against a social network for security lapses. The settlement requires Twitter to take a number of steps to secure users' private information, including maintenance of a "comprehensive information security program" to be independently audited biannually.[402]

On December 14, 2010, the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks.[403] Twitter decided to notify its users and said in a statement, "... it's our policy to notify users about law enforcement and governmental requests for their information, unless we are prevented by law from doing so."[392]

A "MouseOver" exploit occurred on September 21, 2010, when an XSS Worm became active on Twitter. When a user held the mouse cursor over blacked-out parts of a tweet, the worm within the script would automatically open links and re-post itself on the reader's account.[404] The exploit was then re-used to post pop-up ads and links to pornographic sites. The origin of the worm is unclear, but Pearce H. Delphin (known on Twitter as @zzap) and a Scandinavian developer, Magnus Holm, both claim to have modified a related exploit found by another user (possibly Masato Kinugawa) who was using it to create colored Tweets.[405] Kinugawa, a Japanese developer, reported the XSS vulnerability to Twitter on August 14. Later, when he found it was exploitable again, he created the account 'RainbowTwtr' and used it to post colored messages.[405] Delphin says he exposed the security flaw by tweeting a JavaScript function for "onMouseOver",[405] and Holm later created and posted the XSS Worm that automatically re-tweeted itself.[404] Security firm Sophos reported that the virus was spread by people doing it for "fun and games", but noted it could be exploited by cybercriminals.[404] Twitter issued a statement on their status blog at 13:50 UTC that "The exploit is fully patched."[404][406] Twitter representative Carolyn Penner said no charges would be pressed.[407]

In May 2011, a claimant known as "CTB" in the case of CTB v Twitter Inc. took action against Twitter at the High Court of Justice of England and Wales,[408] requesting that the company release details of account holders. This followed gossip posted on Twitter about professional footballer Ryan Giggs's private life. This led to the 2011 British privacy injunctions controversy and the "super-injunction".[409] Tony Wang, the head of Twitter in Europe, said that people who do "bad things" on the site would need to defend themselves under the laws of their own jurisdiction in the event of controversy and that the site would hand over information about users to the authorities when it was legally required to do so.[410] He also suggested that Twitter would accede to a UK court order to divulge names of users responsible for "illegal activity" on the site.[411]

Twitter acquired Dasient, a startup that offers malware protection for businesses, in January 2012. Twitter announced plans to use Dasient to help remove hateful advertisers on the website.[412] Twitter also offered a feature which would allow tweets to be removed selectively by country, before deleted tweets used to be removed in all countries.[413][414] The first use of the policy was to block the account of German neo-Nazi group Besseres Hannover on October 18, 2012.[415] The policy was used again the following day to remove anti-Semitic French tweets with the hashtag #unbonjuif ("a good Jew").[416] In February 2012, a third-partypublic-key encryptionapp

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter

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PDF Professional 6 provides the best of class in all thrée of those types, and adds yet another: editing. Handling and reading through docs in PDF Specialist The business offered in PDF Specialist is very easily the greatest of any of the various other full-féatured PDF ápps. With PDF Professional you can include favorite documents to the sidebar, label and brand your documents, view files as a checklist or as thumbnails, kind by time/size/name, and quickly view recently accessed papers. Many PDF apps wear't offer you this robust set of filing options, however PDF Expert ups the ante with folder assistance, making it an ápp well-equipped fór managing several PDF files while not experience like overkill for somebody with several PDFs. PDF Professional also provides built-in common research for rapidly acquiring the file you stashed away, even enabling file kind modifiers like as.doctor.xls.mp3, étc - a lifesaver whén you're suddenly put on the place in a meeting.

When you first open PDF Expert, you put on't see that much of a different organizational see than you get with other apps, and it'h not really until you begin diving into the ápp that you start to enjoy its sturdy options. Numerous of the additional apps we tested hide common user tasks with actions and faucet areas the consumer must somehow find out and keep in mind. For example, in PDFpen yóu rename a record by double-tapping the document name, yet - also as a long-time user of the app - I frequently overlook that shortcut every period I need to rename a record.

Corporation PDF Specialist tries to prevent taps and control keys where it can by obviously labeling points where required and tailoring the gestures intuitively centered on the view the user has chosen in the app. In list watch, swiping on a document will uncover icons to delete or rename the file - a regular iOS gesture that's easy to keep in mind. In icon look at, tapping a file name enables for editing and enhancing; pulling the icon (or icons, if you have multiple records selected) shows a “Delete” zone at the bottom of the sidébar where you cán drop the files to delete them. In either look at, tapping the button for any document brings up the full pane of actions that can be carried out on that document. PDF Expert makes it simple to tap-hoId-and-drag á document to carry out actions on it - no need to discover the Go for key (formerly “Edit”). Liké everything eIse in PDF Specialist, moving files around is definitely extremely fast and simple.

Side take note: Pulling a PDF file on best of another creates a folder, which is usually proven via the files modifying into a folder image (great contact), but we would appreciate to become capable to toggle this actions into a blending action. Hauling one PDF document onto another to mix the two collectively would become a better use for this activity; after all, folders can generally be produced by tapping the fresh folder icon. When you do find yourself tapping the Select key, be ready to smile if operating with PDFs can be a large component of your lifetime, as it can be for me. As anticipated, tapping this key allows you to select multiple data pdf expert crack ipad to behave on. Nevertheless, it furthermore starts up a brand-new set of choices in the sidébar, including:. Merge files - Touch Select, check all thé PDFs yóu'd like tó mix, and touch Merge. The documents will combine into a brand-new document and prompt you for a fresh name, or it will use the name of the 1st selected document and after that append a “(Merged)” label.

The unique files are held in location, which can be great, but wé'd like án option for them to end up being removed after merging. Zip files - Would like to send out a collection of data files to a client? You can squat them up in PDF Expert for sending. Superstars and Colour Labels - Simply as they appear, you can color-code document brands and celebrity docs within PDF Expert, if that assists you stay arranged.

Upload - In addition to the regular sharing choices (i.e. E-mail, “share/open in”), you can furthermore choose to publish a PDF tó any of thé internet solutions you have arranged up in PDF expert, like Drópbox. This is exceptional for keeping documents supported up. Not really all of these functions are exclusive to PDF Specialist, but it was the just app we examined with all of the functions jointly in Avast Pro Antivirus 2020 Crack + License Key Free Download app.

The nearly all difficult to other apps are usually the tagging, zipping, and blending features. Also at that, many some other apps simply did not really carry out these actions as effortlessly as PDF Specialist will. (Not really to mention, some of these tasks are also easier in PDF Professional on the iPád than they are usually in some desktop computer applications for the Mac pc). PDF Professional can furthermore shop and edit files saved in iCloud Drive, indicating PDF Specialist files can easily be discussed between iOS apps and Apple company devices. Blending Documents As described, PDF Expert is certainly the only app of those examined that could.

Though specific apps perform exist for this specific task, we are usually attempting to find a great all-in-one PDF solution. You can perform this in oné of two wáys:. As mentioned above, you can tap Select from the file picker look at and select any PDFs you want to mix, after that you simply touch Merge. There's another technique that's much less apparent but furthermore gives you more control over specifically what you blend and where it gets merged.

Proceed into a document and get into the thumbnail critique mode for that record - it's the switch that appears like a fóur-bóx grid - which shows you the pages in the record. From presently there, choose one or more pages, copy them, and then shift to the same look at in another record and insert those webpages in. The advantage to this path is that you're not forced to blend every page, and in fact, you can place an entire record into the middle of another. I tried both blending methods on a 28-web page OCR PDF, affixing it to the end of a twó-page PDF record.

In both instances, PDF Professional taken care of the task rapidly and withóut hiccups. Annotating ánd Editing Documents PDF Expert 6 comes with two major settings for when you want to perform things with PDFs: Annotaté and Edit (thé second option of which is definitely only usable if you've bought the $10 in-app upgrade to open all PDF editing and enhancing features).

While seeing a record, tap either one fróm the top-hánd toolbar to select that mode. Annotations When it arrives to annotations, PDF Expert has constantly experienced the most feature-rich highlighting motor in our screening. Offering extremely opaque colors and dark colors can make it one of the few apps tested that permit you to easily redact ranges of text using a dark spotlight, but perform notice that you require to flatten thé PDF if yóu need it to remain redacted when provided. This will be something the NSA should probably look into. Annotations are usually also completed very properly when moved from system to platform, but “idea cloud” annotations from the Macintosh's Preview app do not make correctly within PDF Specialist.

(The text message is usually shown outside the “bubble.”) Luckily, such annotations are usually rare. The much more common regular PDF opinion is managed with aplomb in PDF Professional. Creation of those annotations is usually furthermore a easy job. The greatest difficulty we've run into with commenting had been related to setting. The small nature of the note bubble can create for rather tricky placement with a hand. If you're also one to obsess about obtaining positioning simply right, you may turn out to be disappointed when manipulating the take note.

(On the in addition aspect, the notice text is usually rendered in Helvetica and not really Marker Thought.) PDF Specialist also features solid personal assistance, but we desire that we could place a personal without the tap to hold gesture, which is usually hard, if not really difficult, to perform while keeping the device with one hand. It is usually odd that clicking the signature image in the toolbar is certainly not really how you put a signature bank, but instead how you generate signatures, making it a confusing image to possess prolonged in the tooIbar. When you táp-and-hold fór placing a personal, you will discover there is usually also support for “customer signatures,” whereby permitting somebody else to signal without conserving their trademark to your device. It used to be that you could just put one signature bank in PDF Expert. If you wished to conserve both your complete trademark and your initials, the just way to do it has been “hack” a alternative jointly by preserving one of thém as a “stámp” by nipping an image of it.

We're content to state that it's i9000 now feasible to conserve several signatures; from the new signature screen, touch the top-hand key that appears like overlaid windows with a scribble on the front side, tap “Add new signature,” write it out, and hit save. Right now you can put any signature bank you like, whenever you like. A few other niceties óf PDF Expert:. 0f the apps wé examined, it provides the fastest web page reordering and removing capabilities, often operating effortlessly and quickly. Solid assistance for types on par with the likes of Adobe Acrobat, which many other apps we examined sorely lacked.

While we don't know the complete degree of PDF Professional's support for exterior keyboard cutting corners, we perform know that CMD+Z. at least wórks for undoing annótations so you dón't have tó tap the ón-screen toolbar buttón, which is nicé. (We appeared in the app's i9000 support section pdf expert crack ipad on Readdle's site for any documents about key pad assistance, but couldn't find anything.

Pdf Expert For Mac And Ipad

We also tried holding down the CMD key in the app to find if it would provide up a list of cutting corners, but that didn't work possibly.) PDF Editing Yes, you read through that best: PDF Professional 6 allows you to actually modify the content material within PDF files - presuming, of program, that you've bought that $10 IAP upgrade we talked about earlier. Carrying out therefore unlocks the following functions:. Switch text message in PDFs - Ever wished to modify a one phrase or quantity in a record? How about an entire paragraph or even more? With this function, you can perform exactly that. It't even sensible enough to immediately detect the font, dimension and opacity of the first text message. Edit images and hyperlinks - Let us you put images within PDF text, and convert images and text message into links to web or PDF web pages.

Black out or remove sensitive content - This isn'capital t simply a black highlighter like the annotation tool we described over; this is usually real redaction for completely removing sensitive text message and/or pictures from papers you reveal. One great touch will be being capable to research for and redact all situations of a word, character, or phrase throughout an entire record. Overall, PDF Specialist gifts a powerful editing and enhancing and markup device for PDF customers.

Reading PDFs PDF Professional allows you to change between top to bottom and horizontal scrolling modes, both óf which perform admirabIy. To change modes, tap the “ᴀA” key in the toolbar and choose whichever one particular you including. Prior to the 6.0 update, the top to bottom scrolling setting needed an extra pull to get to the next page, which has been both frustrating and disruptive when reading through long records. Fortunately, that issue has since ended up solved and up and down scrolling now performs precisely the method you desire it to. Another encouraged update is certainly the capability to move out past the thickness of the web page in scenery setting. It utilized to end up being that in landscaping, the record would simply fill the breadth of your device, with no choice to zoom out and look at the whole web page.

It'beds excellent to observe such an odd usability -wrinkle rectified. As in previous variations, PDF Expert 6 gives Time/Night/Sepia reading modes that create for a great reading knowledge in any light circumstance - as does the app-specific lighting handle - and a nice clutter-free reading interface. Overall, the reading experience is certainly solid, offering one of thé fastest renderings óf large PDF files we examined.

To The Cloud One of the almost all important elements when selecting a PDF app is definitely: How do you deal with your data files? As with simply about every other PDF app, you can make use of the iOS standard share key to send out PDFs from Safari, Mail, and others straight to the app. However, PDF Professional also offers built-in support for the following providers: iCloud (which furthermore functions with Readdle's own ), Dropbox, Search engines Drive, Package, OneDrive, WebDAV, FTP, SFTP, Windows SMB, Workplace 365, and Yandex.Disc. In some other phrases, no matter what your workplace utilizes, you can probably synchronize your documents in the app. PDF Specialist works very nicely with Dropbox distributed folders. If you have got several various people you collaborate with on particular PDFs, you can all talk about a foIder in Dropbox ánd that folder cán end up being included to your Papers tab in PDF Professional.

Then, any modifications, up-dates, or various other annotations you make to PDFs are synced to everyone else, just like you'm expect. If you are concerned about this opening up a safety pin in your document storage space, PDF Professional also allows a consumer to set an app passcodé that will fasten instantly (Configurations → Safety → Passkey Lock). The app furthermore allows you to allow iOS Information Defense file-encryption system. These are great options that help keep accessibility to your cloud storage secure but easily obtainable to you.

PDF Professional will be the greatest Of all thé PDF apps wé tested, PDF expert was much better in nearly every way because of its modern design, quick PDF assistance, and the almost all powerful PDF toolset available on the iPad. In many cases, working with PDFs in PDF Expert on the iPad is usually better than working with them on a Mac pc. And can be the best PDF app fór the iPád. PDF app Runnér-Up: PDFpen 2 can be the staple ápp for PDF users on the desktop, so it's just natural for the to also end up being a popular choice in the iOS world. The iCIoud syncing between yóur Mac and iPad only can make it a precious tool, though one could simply as conveniently use services like Dropbox to attain a very similar option with PDF Expert. However, in our screening, PDFpen fell brief of PDF Expert in the right after two areas:. WebDAV support didn't function in our testing.

Making use of the same server tested on PDF Professional, we were incapable to connect to a regular Mac-based WebDAV server. (This will vary from machine to server as constructions vary significantly; our machine worked with no adjustments with PDF Specialist and some other apps, but not PDFpen.). PDFpen can be also missing major features that PDF Professional offers that we notice as quite essential for serious PDF customers. It offers very restricted organization choices, in that you can just order files by title or time. While you can create files, there is definitely no list view, offerings, or recents. This can make PDFpen much better appropriate for smaller choices of PDFs.

Furthermore, there is usually no common search for PDFs, nor will be there a tabs pub for rapidly switching between several different currently-opén PDFs in thé app. But dón't obtain us wrong, not all will be poor with PDFpen. It offers strong move options and import resources, and our favorite feature can be the media library.

Mac

Whereas most apps use “stamps” to include images and symbolism to PDFs ón the iPad (thus allowing you accessibility to your device camera move), the media library in PDFpen is definitely strong and complete of clip-árt-like vector symbolism that you can drag-and-drop into your document. There is certainly a regular set of items like those found in various other apps: comments, text message, arrows, containers, lines, and surveillance camera roll. There is definitely furthermore a substantial place of proofing márkup icons for proofréading files. However, unlike the stamping tools in various other apps tested, PDFpen can use iCloud to sync over media from its Macintosh equal.

This can be a fantastic ability that we've utilized to sync over signatures kept in our Mac pc (allowing for both signaturés and initials tó end up being ended up saving) and letterhead pictures, which we can rapidly use to PDF papers made on the iPad to add our own letterhead without requiring to clutter with web templates. The mass media library alone is usually a solid enough reason to choose PDFpen if yóur use-case nécessitates such actions, but PDFpen doesn't quit there. Grin has also included assistance for a, providing PDFpen a nice edge for those that would including a more “realistic” annotation user interface. Unlike PDF Expert, PDFpen provides Mac users with the familiar PDF thumbnails on the still left advantage and page look at on the correct side look at choice, mimicking Survey on the Mac pc. Additionally, PDFpen arrives with a library of proofing markup equipment that are usually sure to become a advantage to serious reviewers. PDFpen is a strong, well-designed supplying, and we have no doubt that with long term updates it could hit PDF Expert out of the best spot.

However, it'beds obtained a little bit of an uphill climb up ahead if it ever wants to arrive out on top. It's i9000 Conclusion is much better in almost every way than every additional iPad PDF app we attempted. It has a modern iOS design, it's fast, and it provides the nearly all strong and easy-tó-use toolset accessible on the iPad. The editing features on your own are killer, if you choose to uncover them. In many cases, operating with PDFs in PDF Expert on the iPad will be much better than working with them on a Macintosh. And is certainly, without a doubt, the best app for handling PDFs on the iPad.

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PDF ExpertPDF Expert 2021 IOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod) is a must-have app for anyone who reads, annotates or edits PDF documents on iPad or iPhone. It allows you to mark up documents with highlights and handwriting, insert text and stamps, sign and even merge PDFs. Moreover, PDF Expert  is the best choice for filling out PDF forms right on your iPad and iPhone.PDF Expert provides the best experience for filling out PDF forms.

You can open various file formats such as iWork, MS Office, PowerPoint, text files, images, even music and video files, etc. Get these files from desktop computers, email attachments, documents on Dropbox, OneDrive, GoogleDocs and “Open in” from other applications.Text fields, checkboxes, radio buttons and other form elements work as you expect and all the information you enter UVK Ultra Virus Killer 10.17.2.0 Crack saved within the form. Even complex interactive forms with Javascript work impressively well.

PDF Expert IOS Features:

  • Mark important things in books, journals or documents you want to review.
  • Work with static PDF forms created in Adobe Acrobat.
  • Add comments to the texts you read.
  • Use it to make handwritten notes or highlight text in scanned books.
  • Create table of contents for your document right on iPad and iPhone.
  • Mark up errors and place special emphasis on important sentences.
  • Use digital signatures to sign contracts and agreements on the go.
  • PDF Expert 5 has one of the best PDF viewers for iPad and iPhone. It opens large files, supports full text search, handles PDF links and outlines, opens password-protected documents and extracts text from PDFs.
  • Use iTunes file sharing to transfer files directly to your iPad or iPhone via USB cable. As an alternative connect your iOS device running PDF Expert 5 via Wi-Fi and operate it like a wireless flash drive. No additional software is required.
  • Open attachments directly from the Mail app. Also, you can open PDF files from any other application on the iPad or iPhone via “Open In…” dialogue.PDF Expert ios

 

  • PDF Expert 5 allows you to download and upload files from Dropbox, OneDrive, Google Drive and other services. If you use more than one cloud storage, PDF Expert 5 will handle all of them.
  • Email files directly from PDF Expert 5 with all annotations you made.
  • Restrict access to PDF Expert 5 with a password to protect your files from unauthorized reading. Enable iOS Data Protection to encrypt everything while your iPad or iPhone is not in use.
  • You can listen to e-books or audio files on the road or when you don’t feel like reading. PDF Expert 5 intelligently processes PDF books and uses iOS text- to-speech API to read them aloud.
  • The Review Mode allows you to mark up PDF documents in a very special way. Just tap anywhere on the text where you need changes and correct it in the text editor. The text that you delete is marked as removed while everything you add is shown as new text in different colors. Currently available only on iPad.

What’s New?

  • PDF Expert is fully compatible with iOS now.
  • We care about your productivity and worked very hard to make managing files on iPad and iPhone faster and more effective. Now it’s much easier to navigate between local files and cloud services.

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It application Support iPhone, iPad, and iPod.

  • iPhone OS 1, iPhone OS 2, iPhone OS 3.
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Twitter

American social networking service

"Tweeting" and "Tweeted" redirect here. For the animal behavior, see bird vocalization. For other uses, see Tweet (disambiguation).

Twitter Logo as of 2021.svg

Screenshot

Twitter Home Page (Moments version, countries without dedicated feed).png

The default page shown to logged-out users

Type of businessPublic

Type of site

News, social networking service
Available inMultilingual
Traded as
FoundedMarch 21, 2006; 15 years ago (2006-03-21)
HeadquartersSan Francisco, California, U.S.
Area servedWorldwide
Founder(s)
Key people
IndustryInternet
RevenueIncreaseUS$ 3.72 billion (2020)
Operating incomeIncreaseUS$ 27 million (2020)
Net incomeDecreaseUS$-1.14 billion (2020)
Total assetsIncreaseUS$ 13.37 billion (2020)
Total equityIncreaseUS$ 7.97 billion (2020)
Employees5,500+ (December 2020)[2]
Subsidiaries
URLtwitter.comEdit this at Wikidata
RegistrationRequired
Users
  • 330 million monthly active users
  • (Q1 2019)
LaunchedJuly 15, 2006; 15 years ago (2006-07-15)
Current statusActive
Native client(s) oniOS, Android, Windows Phone, Microsoft Windows, MacOS, Web
Written in
[3][4][5][6][7][9][11][12]

Twitter (initially called Twttr) is an American microblogging and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read those that are publicly available. Users interact with Twitter through browser or mobile frontend software, or programmatically via its APIs. Prior to April 2020 services were accessible via SMS.[13] The service is provided by Twitter, Inc., a corporation based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world.[14] Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but the limit was doubled to 280 for non-CJK languages in November 2017.[15] Audio and video tweets remain limited to 140 seconds for most accounts.

Twitter was created by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in March 2006 and launched in July of that year. By 2012[update], more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day,[16] and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day.[18][19] In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet".[20] As of Q1 2019[update], Twitter had more than 330 million monthly active users. Twitter is a some-to-many microblogging service, given that the vast majority of tweets are written by a small minority of users.[21][22]

An October 21, 2021 report found that Twitter's deep learningrecommender system, an algorithm intended to personalize the user's Home timeline—introduced in 2016—favored "right-leaning politics".[23][24]

History

Further information: Timeline of Twitter

2006–2007: Creation and initial reaction

Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey, then an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group.[25][26] The original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams later ascribed to Noah Glass,[27] inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was also partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was already in use, and it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.[28] The developers initially considered "10958" as a short code, but later changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. PST (UTC−08:00): "just setting up my twttr".[3] Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:[30]

.we came across the word "twitter", and it was just perfect. The definition was "a short burst of inconsequential information", and "chirps from birds". And that's exactly what the product was.

The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees.[31] The full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006.[11] In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets—including Odeo.com and Twitter.com—from the investors and shareholders.[32] Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011.[33] Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.[34] Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview:[35]

With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter actually changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility. It is that, in part, but the insight we eventually came to was Twitter was really more of an information network than it is a social network.

2007–2010

The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive (SXSWi) conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.[36] "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it."[37] Reaction at the conference was highly positive. Blogger Scott Beale said that Twitter was "absolutely ruling" SXSWi. Social software researcher Danah Boyd said Twitter was "owning" the conference.[38] Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less. And we just did!"[39]

The company experienced rapid initial growth. It had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day.[40] By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications.[41] As of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter.[42] As of March 2011, that was about 140 million tweets posted daily.[43] As noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site in January 2009 from its previous rank of twenty-second.[44]

Twitter's usage spikes during prominent events. For example, a record was set during the 2010 FIFA World Cup when fans wrote 2,940 tweets per second in the thirty-second period after Japan scored against Cameroon on June 14, 2010. The record was broken again when 3,085 tweets per second were posted after the Los Angeles Lakers' victory in the 2010 NBA Finals on June 17, 2010,[45] and then again at the close of Japan's victory over Denmark in the World Cup when users published 3,283 tweets per second.[46] The record was set again during the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup Final between Japan and the United States, when 7,196 tweets per second were published.[47] When American singer Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, Twitter servers crashed after users were updating their status to include the words "Michael Jackson" at a rate of 100,000 tweets per hour.[48] The current record as of August 3, 2013, was set in Japan, with 143,199 tweets per second during a television screening of the movie Castle in the Sky[49] (beating the previous record of 33,388, also set by Japan for the television screening of the same movie).[50]

The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASAastronautT. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010.[51] By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has also hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue.[52][relevant? – discuss]

Twitter acquired application developer Atebits on April 11, 2010. Atebits had developed the Apple Design Award-winning Twitter client Tweetie for the Mac and iPhone. The application, now called "Twitter" and distributed free of charge, is the official Twitter client for the iPhone, iPad and Mac.[53]

2010–2014

From September through October 2010, the company began rolling out "New Twitter", an entirely revamped edition of twitter.com. Changes included the ability to see pictures and videos without leaving Twitter itself by clicking on individual tweets which contain links to images and clips from a variety of supported websites including YouTube and Flickr, and a complete overhaul of the interface, which shifted links such as '@mentions' and 'Retweets' above the Twitter stream, while 'Messages' and 'Log Out' became accessible via a black bar at the very top of twitter.com. As of November 1, 2010, the company confirmed that the "New Twitter experience" had been rolled out to all users. In 2019, Twitter was announced to be the 10th most downloaded mobile app of the decade, from 2010 to 2019.[54]

On April 5, 2011, Twitter tested a new homepage and phased out the "Old Twitter".[55] However, a glitch came about after the page was launched, so the previous "retro" homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved; the new homepage was reintroduced on April 20.[56][57] On December 8, 2011, Twitter overhauled its website once more to feature the "Fly" design, which the service says is easier for new users to follow and promotes advertising. In addition to the Home tab, the Connect and Discover tabs were introduced along with a redesigned profile and timeline of Tweets. The site's layout has been compared to that of Facebook.[58][59] On February 21, 2012, it was announced that Twitter and Yandex agreed to a partnership. Yandex, a Russian search engine, finds value within the partnership due to Twitter's real time news feeds. Twitter's director of business development explained that it is important to have Twitter content where Twitter users go.[60] On March 21, 2012, Twitter celebrated its sixth birthday while also announcing that it had 140 million users and 340 million tweets per day. The number of users was up 40% from their September 2011 number, which was said to have been at 100 million at the time.[61]

In April 2012, Twitter announced that it was opening an office in Detroit, with the aim of working with automotive brands and advertising agencies.[62] Twitter also expanded its office in Dublin.[63] On June 5, 2012, a modified logo was unveiled through the company blog, removing the text to showcase the slightly redesigned bird as the sole symbol of Twitter.[64][65] On October 5, 2012, Twitter acquired a video clip company called Vine that launched in January 2013.[66][67] Twitter released Vine as a standalone app that allows users to create and share six-second looping video clips on January 24, 2013. Vine videos shared on Twitter are visible directly in users' Twitter feeds.[68] Due to an influx of inappropriate content, it is now rated 17+ in Apple's[69] app store.[70] On December 18, 2012, Twitter announced it had surpassed 200 million monthly active users. Twitter hit 100 million monthly active users in September 2011.[71]

On January 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Crashlytics in order to build out its mobile developer products.[72] On April 18, 2013, Twitter launched a music app called Twitter Music for the iPhone.[73] On August 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Trendrr,[74] followed by the acquisition of MoPub on September 9, 2013.[75] As of September 2013, the company's data showed that 200 million users sent over 400 million tweets daily, with nearly 60% of tweets sent from mobile devices.[76]

2014–2019

In April 2014, Twitter underwent a redesign that made the site resemble Facebook somewhat, with profile picture and biography in a column left to the timeline, and a full-width header image with parallax scrolling effect.[a] That layout was used as main for the desktop front end until July 2019, undergoing changes over time such as removal of shortcut buttons to jump to the previous or next tweet in early 2017, and rounded profile pictures since June 2017.[77][78][79]

On June 4, 2014, Twitter announced that it would acquire Namo Media, a technology firm specializing in "native advertising" for mobile devices.[80] On June 19, 2014, Twitter announced that it had reached an undisclosed deal to buy SnappyTV, a service that helps edit and share video from television broadcasts.[81][82] The company was helping broadcasters and rights holders to share video content both organically across social and via Twitter's Amplify program.[83] In July 2014, Twitter announced that it intended to buy a young company called CardSpring for an undisclosed sum. CardSpring enabled retailers to offer online shoppers coupons that they could automatically sync to their credit cards in order to receive discounts when they shopped in physical stores.[84] On July 31, 2014, Twitter announced that it had acquired a small password-security startup called Mitro.[85] On October 29, 2014, Twitter announced a new partnership with IBM. The partnership was intended to help businesses use Twitter data to understand their customers, businesses and other trends.[86]

On February 11, 2015, Twitter announced that it had acquired Niche, an advertising network for social media stars, founded by Rob Fishman and Darren Lachtman.[87] The acquisition price was reportedly $50 million.[88] On March 13, 2015, Twitter announced its acquisition of Periscope, an app that allows live streaming of video.[89] In April 2015, the Twitter.com desktop homepage changed.[90] Twitter announced that it had acquired TellApart, a commerce ads tech firm, with $532 million stock.[91][92] Later in the year it became apparent that growth had slowed, according to Fortune,[93] Business Insider,[94] Marketing Land[95] and other news websites including Quartz (in 2016).[96] In June 2016, Twitter acquired an artificial intelligence startup called Magic Pony for $150 million.[97][98]

Since May 2018, tweet replies deemed by an artificial intelligence to be detractive from conversation are initially hidden, and only loaded through actuating a button at the bottom.[99]

2019–present

In 2019, Twitter redesigned its user interface yet again. This newest "new Twitter" was deployed in "a gradual rollout".[100]

On July 15, 2019, Twitter ended support for TLS 1.0 and 1.1 connection.[101]

In October 2019, the tweet history of the Fortnite video game's account was resurrected after appearing deleted during a marketing campaign. This is the only documented occurrence of such resurrection.[102]

Twitter saw somewhat dramatic growth in 2020, possibly due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[103] During said pandemic, Twitter saw an increased use of the platform for misinformation related to the pandemic.[104] Twitter announced in March 2020 that it would start marking tweets which may contain misleading information, in some cases it will provide links to pages of fact-checking information.

A major hack of Twitter on July 15, 2020, affected 130 high-profile accounts, both verified and unverified ones such as Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Elon Musk; the hack allowed bitcoin scammers to send tweets via the compromised accounts that asked the followers to send bitcoin to a given public address, with the promise to double their money.[106] Within a few hours, Twitter disabled tweeting and reset passwords from all verified accounts.[106] Analysis of the event revealed that the scammers had used social engineering to obtain credentials from Twitter employees to access an administration tool used by Twitter to view and change these accounts' personal details as to gain access as part of a "smash and grab" attempt to make money quickly, with an estimated US$120,000 in bitcoin deposited in various accounts before Twitter intervened.[107] Several law enforcement entities including the FBI launched investigations into the attack to determine the perpetrators over concerns of broader implications of such a hack in the future.[108]

On June 1, 2020, Twitter deactivated the legacy desktop front end of their web site that had originally been introduced in 2014,[109][110] leaving the progressive web app version which was originally introduced in April 2017 as "Twitter Lite" for mobile phones[111] and used by default since July 2019[112] as the only option.

In November 2020, Twitter announced that it would develop a social audio feature on its platform.[113] Later, In December 2020, Twitter began beta testing its social audio feature known as Spaces with iOS users on their platform.[114]

Screen capture of "M2 Mobile Web" within ten days before shutdown

"M2 Mobile Web", the original mobile web front end of Twitter, later served as fallback legacy version to clients without JavaScript support and incompatible browsers such as game consoles with limited web browsing capability. It was shut down in December 2020.[115]

During the George Floyd protests and through the 2020 election, misinformation spread by Donald Trump led to Twitter expanding a policy where they added disclaimers to misinformation.[116][117] Twitter was among the platforms associated with the storming of the United States Capitol on January 6, 2021. According to the Associated Press, "federal law enforcement authorities said that there was activity on Twitter, but that they weren't expecting the level of violence they ultimately saw last Wednesday."[118] This led to Trump being suspended from Twitter for glorifying violence, among other reasons such as false allegations of election fraud. According to researcher Shannon McGregor, "Twitter's permanent suspension of Trump's Twitter account is long overdue."[119] However, among conservatives and some European leaders, a degree of controversy ensued over the power held by a private company over speech.[120] Nathan Akehurst of Jacobin Magazine suggested that "Twitter profited from Donald Trump's racist outbursts for years, only to delete his account a few days before his departure".[121]

On January 26, 2021, Twitter acquired Revue, an email newsletter service to compete with platforms like Substack.[122]

On February 25, 2021, Twitter announced Super Follows, a subscription service allowing content creators to receive payments for their content.[123][124]

In March 2021, Twitter started beta testing Spaces for Android users.[125] On March 5, it was announced that Twitter was working on a feature that would offer users a short window of time to rethink a tweet after they hit send. Twitter confirmed to CNN that it is testing an undo option that could potentially let users correct or even to retract a tweet before it is posted on the site. The feature was discovered by Jane Manchun Wong, an app developer who has a proven track record of uncovering new tools on social networks before they are officially released. Wong posted a GIF on the platform which show a blue "undo" bar that appears under the words "Your Tweet was sent."[126]

In 2021, Twitter is advancing an open source initiative that could be used by any social media platform and would make content moderation more transparent with a more robust appeals process. Called Bluesky, the use of such an open protocol would relieve companies of the sole responsibility for being centralized curators of content.[127] The Twitter research team that began work on this effort was set up in late 2019.[128]

In April 2021, Twitter announced that it was establishing its African headquarters in Ghana.[129][130]

On May 3, 2021, Twitter Spaces released globally.[131][132]

On June 5, the Nigerian government issued an indefinite ban on Twitter usage in the country after the platform removed tweets made by the Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari.[133] The company claimed the tweets violated its policies against "abusive behavior". Twitter called the ban "deeply concerning". Several human rights organizations, including Amnesty International[134] and the local Socio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project (SERAP),[135] spoke out against the ban as well. The Nigerian government stated that the ban was not based solely on the removal of the tweets and was a result of "a litany of problems with the social media platform in Nigeria, where misinformation and fake news spread through it have had real world violent consequences".[136]

In June 2021, Twitter announced the beta rollout of its Super Follows feature. A group of users will be allowed to charge followers monthly for access to extra content, Privacy Drive Free Download available in their regular feed. The company also launched the Ticketed Spaces program in beta, a premium version of its audio room feature Spaces, which makes access to certain audio rooms paid.[137]

Twitter rolled out changes in the interface on August 11, 2021. Among adjustments in color uses, the major change was converting to their new Chirp font, designed to allow left-alignment of most Western languages as to make browsing of tweets easier to follow.[138]

An October 21, 2021 report based on a "long-running, massive-scale randomized experiment" that analyzed "millions of tweets sent between 1 April and 15 August 2020", found that Twitter's machine learning algorithm amplified right-leaning politics on personalized user Home timelines.[23]: 1 [24] The report compared seven countries with active Twitter users where data was available—Germany, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, and Spain—and examined Tweets "from major political groups and politicians".[23]: 4  Researchers used the 2019 Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHESDATA) to position parties on political ideology within each country.[23]: 4  The "machine learning algorithms"—introduced by Twitter in 2016—personalized 99% of users' feeds by displaying Tweets—even older Tweets and Retweets from accounts the user had not directly followed—but that the algorithm had "deemed relevant" to the users' past preferences.[23]: 4  Twitter randomly chose 1% of users whose Home timelines displayed content in reverse-chronological order from users they directly followed.[23]: 2 

Leadership

As chief executive officer, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of capital funding by the venture capitalists who backed the company.[139] On October 16, 2008,[140] Williams took over the role of CEO, and Dorsey became chairman of the board.[141] On October 4, 2010, Williams announced that he was stepping down as CEO. Dick Costolo, formerly Twitter's chief operating officer, became CEO. On October 4, 2010, Williams made an announcement saying that he will stay with the company and "be completely focused on product strategy".[142][143]

According to The New York Times, "Mr. Dorsey and Mr. Costolo forged a close relationship" when Williams was away.[144] According to PC Magazine, Williams was "no longer involved in the day-to-day goings on at the company". He was focused on developing a new startup, and became a member of Twitter's board of directors, and promised to "help in any way [he could]". In 2011, Stone was still with Twitter but was working with AOL as an "advisor on volunteer efforts and philanthropy".[145] In January 2014, Stone announced the release of Jelly, a 'social Q&A network for mobile'.[146] Dorsey rejoined Twitter in March 2011, as executive chairman focusing on product development. At that time, he split his schedule with Square (where he Sony Catalyst Production Suite 2020.1 Crack + Keygen {Full Version} Free CEO), whose offices are within walking distance of Twitter's in San Francisco.[144]

In September 2011, board members and investors Fred Wilson and Bijan Sabet resigned from Twitter's board of directors.[147] In October 2012, Twitter announced it had hired former Google executive Matt Derella to become their new director of business agency development.[148] Twitter named former Goldman Sachs executive Anthony Noto as the company's CFO in July 2014, with an "annual salary of $250,000 and one-time restricted stock options of 1.5 million shares . valued at $61.5 million".[149] On June 10, 2015, Twitter announced its CEO Dick Costolo would resign on July 1, 2015.[150] Noto was said to be considered a potential replacement for outgoing CEO Costolo.[151] On October 14, 2015, former Google chief business officer Omid Kordestani became executive chairman, replacing Dorsey who remains CEO.[152] On January 26, 2016, Leslie Berland, former executive vice president of global advertising, marketing, and digital partnerships at American Express, was named chief marketing officer.[153] In November 2016, COO Adam Bain announced his resignation and CFO Anthony Noto took over Bain's role.[154][155] A month later, on December 20, 2016, CTO Adam Messinger announced that he too was leaving.[156][157]

In February 2020, it was reported that Elliott Management Corporation had acquired a stake in Twitter, with activist shareholder and Republican Party supporter Paul Singer expected to seek the removal of Dorsey as CEO.[158] Twitter agreed to appoint a new independent director and two new board members, and to perform $2 billion in share buybacks.[159]

Appearance and features

The Twitter account page for Wikipedia, demonstrating the account-customized timeline view which shows tweets in reverse chronological order

Tweets are publicly visible by default, but senders can restrict message delivery to only their followers. Users can mute users they do not wish to interact with, block accounts from viewing their tweets and remove accounts from their followers list.[160][161][162] Users can tweet via the Twitter website, compatible external applications (such as for smartphones), or by Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries.[163] Users may subscribe to other users' tweets—this is known as "following" and subscribers are known as "followers"[164] or "tweeps", a portmanteau of Twitter and peeps.[165] Individual tweets can be forwarded by other users to their own feed, a process known as a "retweet". In 2015, Twitter launched "quote tweet" (originally called "retweet with comment"), a feature that allows users to add a comment to their retweet, nesting one tweet in the other.[167] Users can also "like" (formerly "favorite") individual tweets.[168]

The counters for "likes", "retweets", and replies appear next to the respective buttons in timelines such as on profile pages and search results. Counters for likes and retweets exist on a tweet's standalone page too. Since September 2020, quote tweets, formerly known as "retweet with comment", have an own counter on their tweet page. Until the legacy desktop front end that was discontinued in 2020, a row with miniature profile pictures of up to ten liking and/or retweeting users was displayed (earliest documented implementation in December 2011 overhaul), as well as a tweet reply counter next to the according button on a tweet's page.[169][170]

Twitter allows users to update their profile via their mobile phone either by text messaging or by apps released for certain smartphones and tablets.[171] Twitter has been compared to a web-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client.[172] In a 2009 Time magazine essay, technology author Steven Johnson described the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably simple":

As a social network, Twitter revolves around the principle of followers. When you choose to follow another Twitter user, that user's tweets appear in reverse chronological order on your main Twitter page. If you follow 20 people, you'll see a mix of tweets scrolling down the page: breakfast-cereal updates, interesting new links, music recommendations, even musings on the future of education.[173]

According to research published in April 2014, around 44% of user accounts have never tweeted.[174]

The first tweet was posted by Jack Dorsey (creator) at 12:50 PM PST on March 21, 2006, and read "just setting up my twttr".[175] In 2009, the first tweet was sent from space. US astronauts Nicola Stott and Jeff Williams took part in a live 'tweetup' from the International Space Station with around 35 members of the public at the NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C.[176]

In March 2021, Jack Dorsey listed his first tweet for sale. The highest bid for the tweet, $2.5 million, came from a Malaysian businessman, Sina Estavi. Along with the metadata of the original tweet, the buyer was to receive a certificate that was digitally signed and verified by Dorsey.[177]

Content

Content of tweets according to Pear Analytics

  News (3.6%)

  Spam (3.8%)

  Self-promotion (5.9%)

  Pointless babble (40.1%)

  Conversational (37.6%)

  Pass-along value (8.7%)

San Antonio-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the United States and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST) and separated them into six categories.[178]Pointless babble made up 40%, with 38% being conversational. Pass-along value had 9%, self-promotion 6% with spam and news each making 4%.

Despite Jack Dorsey's own open contention that a message on Twitter is "a short burst of inconsequential information", social networking researcher danah boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what the Pear researchers labeled "pointless babble" is better characterized as "social grooming" or "peripheral awareness" (which she justifies as persons "want[ing] to know what the people around them are thinking and doing and feeling, even when co-presence isn't viable").[179] Similarly, a survey of Twitter users found that a more specific social role of passing along messages that include a hyperlink is an expectation of reciprocal linking by followers.[180]

Format

Hashtags, usernames, retweets and replies

"Twitter hashtag" redirects here. For more about hashtags, see Hashtag.

Further information: Mention (blogging) § @ (At sign)

Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of hashtags – words or phrases prefixed with a "" sign. Similarly, the "" sign followed by a username is used for mentioning or replying to other users.[181]

In 2014, in anticipation for the FIFA World Cup, Twitter introduced hashflags, special hashtags that automatically generate a custom emoji next to them for a certain period of time, following the success of a similar campaign during the 2010 World Cup.[182] Hashflags may be generated by Twitter themselves (such as to raise awareness for social issues)[183] or be purchased by corporations (such as to promote products and events).[184]

To repost a message from another Twitter user and share it with one's own followers, a user can click the retweet button within the Tweet. Users can reply other accounts' replies. Since November 2019, users can hide replies to their messages. Since May 2020, users can select who can reply each of their tweets before sending them: anyone, accounts who follow the poster, specific accounts, and none. This ability was upgraded in July 2021 to make the feature retroactively applicable to tweets after they have been sent out.[185][186]

In late 2009, the "Twitter Lists" feature was added, making it possible for users to follow ad hoc lists of authors instead of individual authors.[164][187]

Using SMS

Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man-based number for international use. There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone, O2[188] and Orange[189] networks. In India, since Twitter only supports tweets from Bharti Airtel,[190] an alternative platform called smsTweet[191] was set up by a user to work on all networks.[192] A similar platform called GladlyCast exists for mobile phone users in Singapore and Malaysia.[193]

The tweets were set to a largely constrictive 140-character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging, introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. The 140-character limit also increased the usage of URL shortening services such as bit.ly, goo.gl, tinyurl.com, tr.im, and other content-hosting services such as TwitPic, memozu.com and NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text longer than 140 characters. Since June 2011, Twitter has used its own t.co domain for automatic shortening of all URLs posted on its site, making other link shorteners unnecessary for staying within Twitter's 140 character limit.[195]

In August 2019, Jack Dorsey's account was hacked by using Twitter's SMS to tweet feature to send crude messages. Days later, the ability to send a tweet via SMS was temporarily turned off.[196]

In April 2020, Twitter discontinued the ability to receive SMS messages containing the text of new tweets in most countries.[197][198]

Character limits

In 2016, Twitter announced that media such as photos, videos, and the person's handle, would not count against the already constrictive 140 character limit. A user photo post used to count for a large chunk of a Tweet, about 24 characters.[199] Attachments and links would also no longer be part of the character limit.

On March 29, 2016, Twitter introduced the ability to add a caption of up to 480 characters to each image attached to a tweet.[201][202] This caption can be accessed by screen reading software or by hovering the mouse above a picture inside TweetDeck.

Since March 30, 2017, the Twitter handles are outside the tweet itself, therefore they no longer count towards the character limit.[203] Only new Twitter handles added to the conversation count towards the limit.

In 2017, Twitter doubled their historical 140-character-limitation to 280.[204] Under the new limit, glyphs are counted as a variable number of characters, depending upon the script they are from: most AVS Audio Editor 9.0.3.534 Keygen - Crack Key For U letters and punctuation forms count as one character, while each CJK glyph counts as two so that only 140 such glyphs can be used in a tweet.[204]

URL shortener

t.co is a URL shortening service created by Twitter. It is only available for links posted to Twitter and not available for general use. All links posted to Twitter use a t.co wrapper. Twitter hopes that the service will be able to protect users from malicious sites, and will use it to track clicks on links within tweets.[206]

Having used the services of third parties TinyURL and bit.ly,[207] Twitter began experimenting with its own URL shortening service for private messages in March 2010 using the twt.tl domain, before it purchased the t.co domain. The service was tested on the main site using the accounts @TwitterAPI, @rsarver and @raffi. On September 2, 2010, an email from Twitter to users said they would be expanding the roll-out of the service to users. On June 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it was rolling out the feature.[195]

Trending topics

Main article: Twitter trends

Countries and cities with local trending topicsin Twitter

A word, phrase, or topic that is mentioned at a greater rate than others is said to be a "trending topic". Trending topics become popular either through a concerted effort by users or because of an event that prompts people to talk about a specific topic.[208] These topics help Twitter and their users to understand what is happening in the world and what people's opinions are about it.[209]

Trending topics are sometimes the result of concerted efforts and manipulations by preteen and teenaged fans of certain celebrities or cultural phenomena, particularly musicians like Lady Gaga (known as Little Monsters), Justin Bieber (Beliebers), Rihanna (Rih Navy) and One Direction (Directioners), and novel series Twilight (Twihards) and Harry Potter (Potterheads). Twitter has altered the trend algorithm in the past to prevent manipulation of this type with limited success.[210]

The Twitter web interface displays a list of trending topics on a sidebar on the home page, along with sponsored content (see image).

Twitter often censors trending hashtags that are claimed to be abusive or offensive. Twitter censored the #Thatsafrican[211] and #thingsdarkiessay hashtags after users complained that they found the hashtags offensive.[212] There are allegations that Twitter removed #NaMOinHyd from the trending list and added an Indian National Congress-sponsored hashtag.[213] President Donald Trump prosteted trends calling them "unfair, disgusting, illegal, ridiculous" claiming the ones that are bad about him are blown up.[214][215][216]

Moments

In October 2015, Twitter introduced "Moments"—a feature that allows users to curate tweets from other users into a larger collection. Twitter initially intended the feature to be used by its in-house editorial team and other partners; they populated a dedicated tab in Twitter's apps, chronicling news headlines, sporting events, and other content.[217][218] In September 2016, creation of moments became available to all Twitter users.[219]

Adding and following content

There are numerous tools for adding content, monitoring content and conversations including Twitter's own TweetDeck, Salesforce.com, HootSuite, and Twitterfeed.com. As of 2009[update], fewer than half of tweets posted were posted using the web user interface with most users using third-party applications (based on an analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos).[220]

Verified accounts

Main article: Twitter verification

The official Twitter profile of Twitter, Inc. The blue check mark right of the profile name indicates that it is a verified account.

In June 2009, after being criticized by Kanye West and sued by Tony La Russa over unauthorized accounts run by impersonators, the company launched their "Verified Accounts" program.[221][222] Twitter stated that an account with a "blue tick" verification badge indicates "we've been in contact with the person or entity the account is representing and verified that it is approved".[223] In July 2016, Twitter announced a public application process to grant verified status to an account "if it is determined to be of public interest" and that verification "does not imply an endorsement".[224][225][226] Verified status allows access to some features unavailable to other users, such as only seeing mentions from other verified accounts.[227]

In November 2020, Twitter announced a relaunch of its verification system in 2021. According to the new policy, Twitter verifies six different types of accounts; for three of them (companies, brands, and influential individuals like activists), the existence of a Wikipedia page will be one criterion for showing that the account has "Off Twitter Notability".[228] Twitter states that it will re-open public verification applications at some point in "early 2021".[229]

Mobile

Twitter has mobile apps for iPhone, iPad, Android, Windows 10, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, and Nokia S40.[231] Users can also tweet by sending SMS.[232] In April 2017, Twitter introduced Twitter Lite, a progressive web app designed for regions with unreliable and slow Internet connections, with a size of less than one megabyte, designed for devices with limited storage capacity.[233][234]

This has been released in countries with slow internet connection such as the Philippines.[235]

Twitter Lite has evolved into the main Twitter web interface, see section "interface".[citation needed]

Third-party applications

For many years, Twitter has limited the use of third-party applications accessing the service by implementing a 100,000 user limit per application.[236] Since August 2010, third-party Twitter applications have been required to use OAuth, an authentication method that does not require users to enter their password into the authenticating application. This was done to increase security and improve the user experience.[237]

Related headlines feature

This feature adds websites to the bottom of a tweet's permalink page. If a website embedded a tweet onto one of their stories, the tweet will show the websites that mentioned the tweet. This feature was added onto Twitter so if the viewer doesn't understand what the tweet means, they can click on the sites to read more about what the person is talking about.[238]

Polls

In 2015, Twitter began to roll out the ability to attach poll questions to tweets. Polls are open for up to 7 days, and voters are not personally identified.[239]

Initially, polls could have only two options with a maximum of twenty characters per option. Later[when?], the ability to add four options with up to 25 characters per option, was added.

Integrated photo-sharing service

On June 1, 2011, Twitter announced its own integrated photo-sharing service that enables users to upload a photo and attach it to a Tweet right from Twitter.com.[240] Users now also have the ability to add pictures to Twitter's search by adding hashtags to the tweet.[241] Twitter also plans to provide photo galleries designed to gather and syndicate all photos that a user has uploaded on Twitter and third-party services such as TwitPic.[241]

Streaming video

In 2016, Twitter began to place a larger focus on live streaming video programming, hosting various events including streams of the Republican and Democratic conventions during the U.S. presidential campaign as part of a partnership with CBS News,[242]Dreamhack and ESLeSports events, and winning a bid for non-exclusive streaming rights to ten NFLThursday Night Football games in the 2016 season.

During an event in New York in May 2017, Twitter announced that it planned to construct a 24-hour streaming video channel hosted within the service, featuring content from various partners. CEO Jack Dorsey stated that the digital video strategy was part of a goal for Twitter to be "the first place that anyone hears of anything going on that matters to them"; as of the first quarter of 2017, Twitter had over 200 content partners, who streamed over 800 hours of video over 450 events.[246]

Twitter announced a number of new and expanded partnerships for its streaming video services at the event, including Bloomberg, BuzzFeed, Cheddar (Opening Bell and Closing Bell shows; the latter was introduced in October 2016) IMG Fashion (coverage of fashion events), Live Nation Entertainment (streaming concert events), Major League Baseball (weekly online game stream, plus a weekly program with live look-ins and coverage of trending stories), MTV and BET (red carpet coverage for their MTV Video Music Awards, MTV Movie & TV Awards, and BET Awards), NFL Network (the Monday-Thursday news program NFL Blitz Live, and Sunday Fantasy Gameday),[247] the PGA Tour (PGA Tour Live coverage of early tournament rounds preceding television coverage),The Players' Tribune, Ben Silverman and Howard T. Owens' Propagate (daily entertainment show #WhatsHappening), The Verge (weekly technology show Circuit Breaker: The Verge's Gadget Show), Stadium (a new digital sports network being formed by Silver Chalice and Sinclair Broadcast Group)[250][251][252] and the WNBA (weekly game).[246]

Account archival

Twitter has offered two different methods[clarify] of archiving one's own Twitter account data. Those methods have their individual benefits and disadvantages. As of September 2019, only the latter archival method is available.[citation needed]

In December 2012, Twitter introduced a "Tweet archival" feature, which created a ZIP file that contains an offline-browsable archive of all tweets.[253] Those exported tweets could be browsed and searched offline by using the bundled user-interface accessible through an Internet browser, which used client-side, JavaScript-powered pagination.[254] The user interface of the tweet archive browser had a design similar to Twitter's 2010–2014 desktop user interface, even until the feature's removal. The tweet text contents, ID's, time data and source labels are located in the file called "". It was possible to request at least one archive per day[verification needed]. The ability to export this type of tweet archive, which never existed on the new layout, has been removed entirely in August 2019[when exactly?], after co-existing with the new 2018 data archival method. Even when accessing the legacy Twitter desktop website layout using the user-agent of an older browser version, the option has disappeared from the account settings.

Spaces

A social audio feature that enables users to host or participate in a live-audio virtual environment called space for conversation. Spaces can accommodate a maximum of 13 people (1 host, 2 co-hosts and 10 speakers) onstage and an unlimited number of listeners. The feature was initially limited to users with at least 600 followers. Since October 21, 2021, any Twitter user can create a Space from the Android or iOS app.[255]

Fleets

In March 2020, Twitter began to test a stories feature known as "fleets" in some markets,[256][257] which officially launched on November 17, 2020.[258][259] Similarly to equivalent features, fleets can contain text and media, are only accessible for 24 hours after they are posted, and are accessed within the Twitter app via an area above the timeline.[256]

In June 2021, Twitter announced it would start implementing advertising into fleets, integrating full-screen ads among user-created content.[260] On July 14, 2021, Twitter stated that it would remove Fleets by August 3. Twitter had intended for fleets to encourage more users to tweet regularly, rather than simply consume other folks' tweets, but instead fleets were generally used by users who already tweeted a lot. The company stated that their X-Plane 11.52 Crack With USB Key Full Version Free Download [2021] at the top of the screen would now be occupied by currently active Spaces from the user's feed.[261]

On June 3, 2021, Twitter announced a service known as Twitter Blue, which provides features exclusive to those who are subscribers to the Twitter Blue service. They include:

  • Undo Tweet, which allows users to withdraw a tweet within a short time frame before it is posted.[262]
  • Bookmarks, which allows users to save individual tweets into folders.[262]
  • Reader mode, which converts threads of tweets into an article-like view.[262]
  • Color themes for the Twitter mobile app.[262]
  • Dedicated customer support.[262]

The service was initially released in Australia and Canada.[262] On November 9, 2021, Twitter Blue was launched for US customers.[263]

Tip Jar

In May 2021, Twitter began testing a Tip Jar feature on its iOS and Android clients. The feature allows users to send monetary tips to certain accounts, providing a financial incentive for content creators on the platform. The Tip Jar is optional and users can choose whether or not to enable tips for their account. The day the feature was launched, a user discovered that sending a tip through PayPal would reveal the sender's address to the recipient.[264]

On September 23, 2021, Twitter announced that it will allow users to tip users on the social network with bitcoin. The feature will be available for iOS users. Previously, users could tip with fiat currency using services such as Square'sCash app and PayPal'sVenmo. Twitter will integrate the Strike bitcoin lightning wallet service. It was noted that at this current time, Twitter will not take a cut of any money sent through the tips feature.[265]

The Shop Module

In July 2021, Twitter launched a test of The Shop Module, a shopping extension that directs customers to a brand's products from its official Twitter account. The feature initially launched for US-based users only and only on iOS.[266]

Safety Mode

On September 1, 2021, Twitter began to roll out Safety Mode, allowing users to reduce disruptive interactions. The rollout began with a small beta-feedback group on iOS, Android, and Twitter's web application.[267]

The functionality allows users to temporarily block accounts for seven days when potentially harmful language is detected. If a user has Safety Mode enabled, authors of tweets that are identified by Twitter's technology as being harmful or exercising uninvited behavior will be temporarily unable to follow the account, send direct messages, or see tweets from the user with the enabled functionality during the temporary block period. Jarrod Doherty, senior product manager at Twitter, stated that the technology in place within Safety mode assesses existing relationships to prevent blocking accounts that the user frequently interacts with.

Twitter first revealed Safety Mode in February 2021 within the Analyst Day slide deck.[268]

NFT Digital Assets

On September 23, 2021, Twitter revealed that it is experimenting with a feature that would allow users to authenticate and showcase their collections of NFT digital assets on the platform. The company did not provide specifics about the project but stated that it would be a way to support creators who make digital art.

Usage

Daily user estimates vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. A February 2009 Compete.com blog entry ranked Twitter as the third most used social network based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits.[44] In 2009, Twitter had a monthly user retention rate of forty percent.[269] Twitter had annual growth of 1,382 percent, increasing from 475,000 unique visitors in February 2008 to 7 million in February 2009. Twitter's annual growth rate decreased from 7.8 percent in 2015 to 3.4 percent in 2017.[270] An April 2017 a statista.com blog entry ranked Twitter as the tenth most used social network based on their count of 319 million monthly visitors.[271] Its global user base in 2017 was 328 million.[272] As per August 2018, Twitter light (data saving app) is available in 45 countries.[273]

Demographics

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(September 2019)

See also: Black Twitter

Twitter.com Top5 Global Markets by Reach (%)[274][275]
CountryFraction
IndonesiaJune 2010

  

20.8%
December 2010

  

19.0%
BrazilJune 2010

  

20.5%
December 2010

  

21.8%
VenezuelaJune 2010

  

19.0%
December 2010

  

21.1%
NetherlandsJune 2010

  

17.7%
December 2010

  

22.3%
JapanJune 2010

  

16.8%
December 2010

  

20.0%
Note: Visitor age >15, home and work locations. Excludes visitation from public computers such as Internet cafes or access from mobile phones or PDAs.

In 2009, Twitter was mainly used by older adults who might not have used other social sites before Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst studying social media. "Adults are just catching up to what teens have been doing for years", he said. According to comScore only 11% of Twitter's users are aged 12 to 17. comScore attributed this to Twitter's "early adopter period" when the social network first gained popularity in business settings and news outlets attracting primarily older users. However, comScore also stated in 2009 that Twitter had begun to "filter more into the mainstream", and "along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq, Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twitterati".[277]

According to a study by Sysomos in June 2009, women make up a slightly larger Twitter demographic than men—53% over 47%. It also stated that 5% of users accounted for 75% of all activity and that New York City has more Twitter users than other cities.[278]

According to Quancast, 27 million people in the US used Twitter as of September 3, 2009; 63% of Twitter users are under 35 years old; 60% of Twitter users are Caucasian, but a higher than average (compared to other Internet properties) are African American/black (16%) and Hispanic (11%); 58% of Twitter users have a total household income of at least US$60,000.[279] The prevalence of African American Twitter usage and in many popular hashtags has been the subject of research studies.[280][281]

On September 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it had 100 million active users logging in at least once a month and 50 million active users every day.[282]

In 2012, the country with the most active users on Twitter was the United States.[283] A 2016 Pew research poll found that Twitter is used by 24% of all online US adults. It was equally popular with men and women (24% and 25% of online Americans respectively), but more popular with younger (36% of 18–29 year olds) generations.[284]

In an article published on January 6, 2012, Twitter was confirmed to be the biggest social media network in Japan, with Facebook following closely in second. ComScore confirmed this, stating that Japan was the only country in the world where Twitter leads Facebook.[285]

On March 31, 2014, Twitter announced that there were 255 million monthly active users (MAUs) and 198 million mobile MAUs. In 2013, there were over 100 million users actively using Twitter daily and about 500 million Tweets every day,[287] with about 29% of users checking Twitter multiple times a day.[288] As of Q1 2019[update], Twitter had more than 330 million monthly active users. The majority of Twitter users skew to the American political left.[289][290]

A 2019 survey conducted by the Pew Foundation found that Twitter users are more likely than the general public to have both a college degree and higher income than the average U.S. adult. Users are also three times as likely to be younger than 50 years old, with the median age of adult U.S. users being 40 years old. The survey found that 10% of users who are most active on Twitter are responsible for 80% of all tweets, focusing mainly on the topics of politics and women.[291]

Levels of use

About 22% of Americans say they have ever used Twitter, according to a 2019 Pew Research Center survey.[292] Noting how demographics of Twitter users differ from the average Americans, commentators have cautioned against media narratives that treat Twitter as representative of the population,[293] adding that only 10% of users Tweet actively, and that 90% of Twitter users have Tweeted no more than twice. In 2016, shareholders sued Twitter, alleging it "artificially inflated its stock price by misleading them about user engagement." The company announced on September 20, 2021 that it would pay $809.5 million to settle this class-action lawsuit.[294]

Branding

The Twitter logo from September 14, 2010, to June 5, 2012, featuring the silhouette version of "Larry the Bird"

Twitter has become internationally identifiable by its signature bird logo, or the Twitter Bird. The original logo, which was simply the word "Twitter", was in use from its launch in March 2006. It was accompanied by an image of a bird which was later discovered to be a piece of clip art created by the British graphic designer Simon Oxley.[295] A new logo had to be redesigned by founder Biz Stone with help from designer Philip Pascuzzo, which resulted in a more cartoon-like bird in 2009. This version had been named "Larry the Bird", specifically after Larry Bird of the NBA's Boston Celtics fame.[296][297]

Within a year, the Larry the Bird logo underwent a redesign by Stone and Pascuzzo to eliminate the cartoon features, leaving a solid silhouette of Larry the Bird that was used from 2010 through 2012.[296] In 2012, Douglas Bowman created a further simplified version of Larry the Bird, keeping the solid silhouette but making it more similar to a mountain bluebird.[298] This new logo was called simply the "Twitter Bird" and has been used as the company's branding since.[296][299]

Finances

For the fiscal year 2017, Twitter reported losses of US$108 million, with an annual revenue of $2.443 billion, a decrease of 3.9% over pdf expert crack ipad previous fiscal cycle. Twitter's shares traded at over $17 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$25.6 billion in October 2018.

Year Revenue
in mil. US$
Net income
in mil. US$
Total assets
in mil. US$
Employees
2010[300]28 −67 0 N/A
2011[300]106 −164 721 N/A
2012[300]317 −79 832 2,000
2013[300]665 −645 3,366 2,712
2014[301]1,403 −578 5,583 3,638
2015[302]2,218 −521 6,442 3,898
2016[303]2,530 −457 6,870 3,583
2017[304]2,443 −108 7,412 3,372
2018[305]3,042 1,206 10,163 3,900
2019[306]3,459 1,466 12,703 4,900
2020[2]3,716 1,136 13,379 over 5,500

Funding

Twitter's San Francisco headquarters located at 1355 Market Street

Twitter raised over US$57 million from venture capitalist growth funding, although exact figures are not publicly disclosed. Twitter's first A round of funding was for an undisclosed amount that is rumored to have been between US$1 million and US$5 million.[307] Its second B round of funding in 2008 was for US$22 million[308] and its third C round of funding in 2009 was for US$35 million from Institutional Venture Partners and Benchmark Capital along with an undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square Ventures, Spark Capital, and Insight Venture Partners.[307] Twitter is backed by Union Square Ventures, Digital Garage, Spark Capital, and Bezos Expeditions.[309]

In May 2008, The Industry Standard remarked that Twitter's long-term viability is limited by a lack of revenue.[310] Twitter board member Todd Chaffee forecast that the company could profit from e-commerce, noting that users may want to buy items directly from Twitter since it already provides product recommendations and promotions.[311]

By March 2009, communications consultant Bill Douglass predicted in an interview that Twitter would be worth $1 billion within six months,[312] which came to pass when the company closed a financing round valuing it at $1 billion in September of that year.[313]

The company raised US$200 million in new venture capital in December 2010, at a valuation of approximately US$3.7 billion.[314] In March 2011, 35,000 Twitter shares sold for US$34.50 each on Sharespost, an implied valuation of US$7.8 billion.[315] In August 2010 Twitter announced a "significant" investment led by Digital Sky Technologies that, at US$800 million, was reported to be the largest venture round in history.[316]

In December 2011, the Saudi prince Alwaleed bin Talal invested US$300 million in Twitter. The company was valued at US$8.4 billion at the time.[317] In 2016, Twitter was valued by Forbes at US$15.7 billion.[318]

Revenue sources

In July 2009, some of Twitter's revenue and user growth documents were published on TechCrunch after being illegally obtained by Hacker Croll. The documents projected 2009 revenues of US$400,000 in the third quarter and US$4 million in the fourth quarter along with 25 million users by the end of the year. The projections for the end of 2013 were US$1.54 billion in revenue, US$111 million in net earnings, and one billion users.[319] No information about how Twitter planned to achieve those numbers was published. In response, Twitter co-founder Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting the possibility of legal action against the hacker.[320]

On April 13, 2010, Twitter announced plans to offer paid advertising for companies that would be able to purchase "promoted tweets" to appear in selective search results on the Twitter website, similar to Google Adwords' advertising model. As of April 13, Twitter announced it had already signed up a number of companies wishing to advertise, including Sony Pictures, Red Bull, Best Buy, and Starbucks.[321][322]

The company generated US$45 million in annual revenue in 2010, after beginning sales midway through that year; the company operated at a loss through most of 2010.[314]

Users' photos can generate royalty-free revenue for Twitter, and an agreement with World Entertainment News Network (WENN) was announced in May 2011.[323] In June 2011, Twitter announced that it would offer small businesses a self-service advertising system.[324] Twitter generated US$139.5 million in advertising sales during 2011.

The self-service advertising platform was launched in March 2012 to American Express card members and merchants in the U.S. on an invite-only basis. Twitter later reported that numerous small businesses and people who used the self-service tool provided feedback that indicated they were impressed by the feature.[325] To continue their advertising campaign, Twitter announced on March 20, 2012, that promoted tweets would be introduced to mobile devices.[326] In April 2013, Twitter announced that its Twitter Ads self-service platform, consisting of promoted tweets and promoted accounts, was available to all U.S. users without an invite.[325]

Twitter's financial revenue statistics for the first quarter of 2014 was reported as US$250 million.

On August 3, 2016, Twitter launched Instant Unlock Card, a new feature that encourages people to tweet about a brand in order to earn rewards and utilize the social media network's conversational ads. The format itself consists of images or videos with call-to-action buttons and a customizable hashtag.[327]

Stock launch and tax issues

Twitter's San Francisco headquarters, as seen from a corner on Market Street

On September 12, 2013, Twitter announced that it had filed papers with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) ahead of a planned stock market listing.[328] It revealed its prospectus in an 800-page filing.[329] Twitter planned to raise US$1 billion as the basis for its stock market debut.[330] The initial public offering (IPO) filing states that "200,000,000+ monthly active users" access Twitter and "500,000,000+ tweets per day" are posted.[35][331] In an October 15, 2013, amendment to their SEC S-1 filing,[332] Twitter declared that they would list on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), quashing speculation that their stock pdf expert crack ipad trade on the NASDAQ exchange. This decision was widely viewed to be a reaction to the botched initial public offering of Facebook.[333] On November 6, 2013, 70 million shares[334] were priced at US$26 and issued by lead underwriter Goldman Sachs.[335]

On November 7, 2013, the first day of trading on the NYSE, Twitter shares opened at $26.00 and closed at US$44.90, giving the company a valuation of around US$31 billion.[336] Consequently, executives and early investors marginally increased their capital, including co-founders Williams and Dorsey who received a sum of US$2.56 billion and US$1.05 billion respectively, while Costolo's payment was US$345 million.[337] On February 5, 2014, Twitter published its first results as a public company, showing a net loss of $511 million in the fourth quarter of 2013.[338] On January 5, 2016, CEO Jack Dorsey commented on a report that Twitter planned to expand its character limit to 10,000 (private messages already had the longer limit as of July), requiring users to click to see anything beyond 140 characters. He said while Twitter would "never lose that feeling" of speed, users could do more with the text.[339]

In September 2016, Twitter shares rose 20% after a report that it had received takeover approaches.[340] Potential buyers were Alphabet (the parent company of Google),[340]Microsoft,[341][342][343]Salesforce.com,[340][344]Verizon,[344] and The Walt Disney Company.[345][346] Twitter's board of directors were open to a deal, which could have come by the end of 2016.[340][347] However, no deal was made, with reports in October stating that all the potential buyers dropped out partly due to concerns over abuse and harassment on the service.[348][349][350] In June 2017, Twitter revamped its dashboard to improve the new user experience.[351][352]

In November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Twitter is among the corporations that avoided paying taxes by using offshore companies.[353] Later The New York Times reported that Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner had strong Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter.[354]

Contributions

In the 2018 US election cycle, 96.15% ($295,722) of donations of $200 or more from Twitter employees toward the category of "all federal candidates" went to Democrats, versus 3.85% ($11,850) to Republicans.[355]

Advertising bans

In October 2017, Twitter banned the Russian media outlets RT and Sputnik from advertising on their website following the conclusions of the U.S. national intelligence report the previous January that both Sputnik and RT had been used as vehicles for Russia's interference in the 2016 US presidential election.[356]Maria Zakharova for the Russian foreign ministry said the ban was a "gross violation" by the US of free speech.[357]

In October 2019, Twitter announced it would stop running political ads on its ad platform effective November 22. This resulted from several spurious claims made by political ads. Company CEO Dorsey clarified that internet advertising had great power and was extremely effective for commercial advertisers, the power brings significant risks to politics where crucial decisions impact millions of lives.[358]

User Monetization

In February 2021, Twitter began testing different methods of monetizing users. This is in response to social platforms like Instagram, TikTok, Medium, Facebook, and Clubhouse increasingly focusing on monetizing platform creators. In June 2021, the company opened applications for its premium subscription options called Super Follows. This lets eligible accounts charge $2.99, $4.99 or $9.99 per month to subscribe to the account.[359] The launch only generated about $6,000 in its first two weeks.[360]

On August 27, 2021, Twitter rolled out Ticketed Spaces, which let Twitter Spaces hosts charge between $1 and $999 for access to their rooms.[361]

Technology

Implementation

Twitter places great reliance on open-source software.[362] The Twitter Web interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework,[363] deployed on a performance enhanced Ruby Enterprise Edition implementation of Ruby.[364]

In the early days of Twitter, tweets were stored in MySQL databases that were temporally sharded (large databases were split based on time of posting). After the huge volume of tweets coming in caused problems reading from and writing to these databases, the company decided that the system needed re-engineering.[365]

From Spring 2007 to 2008, the messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling.[366] Since 2009, implementation has been gradually replaced with software written in Scala.[367] The switch from Ruby to Scala and the JVM has given Twitter a performance boost from 200–300 requests per second per host to around 10,000–20,000 requests per second per host. This boost was greater than the 10x improvement that Twitter's engineers envisioned when starting the switch. The continued development of Twitter has also involved a switch from monolithic development of a single app to an architecture where different services are built independently and joined through remote procedure calls.[365]

As of April 6, 2011, Twitter engineers confirmed that they had switched away from their Ruby on Rails search stack to a Java server they call Blender.

Individual tweets are registered under unique IDs called snowflakes, and geolocation data is added using 'Rockdove'. The URL shortener t.co then checks for a spam link and shortens the URL. Next, the tweets are stored in a MySQL database using Gizzard, and the user receives an acknowledgement that the tweets were sent. Tweets are then sent to search engines via the Firehose API. The process is managed by FlockDB and takes an average of 350 ms.[362]

On August 16, 2013, Raffi Krikorian, Twitter's vice president of platform engineering, shared in a blog post that the company's infrastructure handled almost 143,000 tweets per second during that week, setting a new record. Krikorian explained that Twitter achieved this record by blending its homegrown and open source technologies.[365][368]

The service's application programming interface (API) allows other web services and applications to integrate with Twitter.[369]

Interface

Twitter introduced the first major redesign of its user interface in September 2010, adopting a dual-pane layout with a navigation bar along the top of the screen, and an increased focus on the inline embedding of multimedia content. Critics considered the redesign an attempt to emulate features and experiences found in mobile apps and third-party Twitter clients.[370][371][372][373]

The new layout was revised in 2011 with a focus on continuity with the web and mobile versions, introducing "Connect" (interactions with other users such as replies) and "Discover" (further information regarding trending topics and news headlines) tabs, an updated profile design, and moving all content to the right pane (leaving the left pane dedicated to functions and the trending topics list).[374] In March 2012, Twitter became available in Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew and Urdu, the first right-to-left language versions of the site. About 13,000 volunteers helped with translating the menu options.[375] In August 2012, beta support for Basque, Czech and Greek was added, making the site available in 33 different languages.[376]

In September 2012, a new layout for profiles was introduced, with larger "covers" that could be customized with a custom header image, and a display of the user's recent photos posted.[377] The "Discover" tab was discontinued in April 2015,[378] and was succeeded on the mobile app by an "Explore" tab—which features trending topics and moments.[379]

In September 2018, Twitter began to migrate selected web users to its progressive web app (based on its Twitter Lite experience for mobile web), reducing the interface to two columns. Migrations to this iteration of Twitter increased in April 2019, with some users receiving it with a modified layout.[380][381]

In July 2019, Twitter officially released this redesign, with no further option to opt-out while logged in. It is designed to further-unify Twitter's user experience between the web and mobile application versions, adopting a three-column layout with a sidebar containing links to common areas (including "Explore" that has been merged with the search page) which previously appeared in a horizontal top bar, profile elements such as picture and header images and biography texts merged into the same column as the timeline, and features from the mobile version (such as multi-account support, and an opt-out for the "top tweets" mode on the timeline).[382][383]

Outages

During an outage, Twitter users were at one time shown the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying Lu,[384] illustrating eight orange birds using a net to hoist a whale from the ocean captioned "Too many tweets! Please wait a moment and try again."[385] Web designer and Twitter user Jen Simmons was the first to coin the term "fail whale" in a September 2007 tweet.[386][387] In a November 2013 WIRED interview Chris Fry, VP of Engineering at that time, noted that the company had taken the "fail whale" out of production as the platform was now more stable.[388]

Twitter had approximately ninety-eight percent uptime in 2007 (or about six full days of downtime).[389] The downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with the technology industry such as the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expokeynote address.[390][391]

User accounts

Privacy, security and harassment

Twitter messages are public, but users can also send private "direct messages".[392] Information about who has chosen to follow an account and who a user has chosen to follow is also public, though accounts can be changed to "protected" which limits this information (and all tweets) to approved followers.[393] Twitter collects personally identifiable information about its users and shares it with third parties as specified in its privacy policy. The service also reserves the right to sell this information as an asset if the company changes hands.[394] While Twitter displays no advertising, advertisers can target users based on their history of tweets and may quote tweets in ads[395] directed specifically to the user.

A security vulnerability was reported on April 7, 2007, by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. Since Twitter used the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication, malicious users could update someone else's status page by using SMS spoofing.[396] The vulnerability could be used if the spoofer knew the phone number registered to their victim's account. Within a few weeks of this discovery, Twitter introduced an optional personal identification number (PIN) that its users could use to authenticate their SMS-originating messages.[397]

On January 5, 2009, 33 high-profile Twitter accounts were compromised after a Twitter administrator's password was guessed by a dictionary attack.[398] Some of the compromised accounts sent falsified tweets, including drug-related messages.[399]

Twitter launched the beta version of their "Verified Accounts" service on June 11, 2009, allowing people with public profiles to announce their account name. The home pages of these accounts display a badge indicating their status.[400]

In May 2010, a bug was discovered by İnci Sözlük that could allow a Twitter user to force others to follow them without the other users' consent or knowledge. For example, comedian Conan O'Brien's account, which had been set to follow only one person, was changed to receive nearly 200 malicious subscriptions.[401]

In response to Twitter's security breaches, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) brought charges against the service; the charges were settled on June 24, 2010. This was the first time the FTC had taken action against a social network for security lapses. The settlement requires Twitter to take a number of steps to secure users' private information, including maintenance of a "comprehensive information security program" to be independently audited biannually.[402]

On December 14, 2010, the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks.[403] Twitter decided to notify its users and said in a statement, ". it's our policy to notify users about law enforcement and governmental requests for their information, unless we are prevented by law from doing so."[392]

A "MouseOver" exploit occurred on September 21, 2010, when an XSS Worm became active on Twitter. When a user held the mouse cursor over blacked-out parts of a tweet, the worm within the script would automatically open links and re-post itself on the reader's account.[404] The exploit was then re-used to post pop-up ads and links to pornographic sites. The origin of the worm is unclear, but Pearce H. Delphin (known on Twitter as @zzap) and a Scandinavian developer, Magnus Holm, both claim to have modified a related exploit found by another user (possibly Masato Kinugawa) who was using it to create colored Tweets.[405] Kinugawa, a Japanese developer, reported the XSS vulnerability to Twitter on August 14. Later, when he found it was exploitable again, he created the account 'RainbowTwtr' and used it to post colored messages.[405] Delphin says he exposed the security flaw by tweeting a JavaScript function for "onMouseOver",[405] and Holm later created and posted the XSS Worm that automatically re-tweeted itself.[404] Security firm Sophos reported that the virus was spread by people doing it for "fun and games", but noted it could be exploited by cybercriminals.[404] Twitter issued a statement on their status blog at 13:50 UTC that "The exploit is fully patched."[404][406] Twitter representative Carolyn Penner said no charges would be pressed.[407]

In May 2011, a claimant known as "CTB" in the case of CTB v Twitter Inc. took action against Twitter at the High Court of Justice of England and Wales,[408] requesting that the company release details of account holders. This followed gossip posted on Twitter about professional footballer Ryan Giggs's private life. This led to the 2011 British privacy injunctions controversy and the "super-injunction".[409] Tony Wang, the head of Twitter in Europe, said that people who do "bad things" on the site would need to defend themselves under the laws of their own jurisdiction in the event of controversy and that the site would hand over information about users to the authorities when it was legally required to do so.[410] He also suggested that Twitter would accede to a UK court order to divulge names of users responsible for "illegal activity" on the site.[411]

Twitter acquired Dasient, a startup that offers malware protection for businesses, in January 2012. Twitter announced plans to use Dasient to help remove hateful advertisers on the website.[412] Twitter also offered a feature which would allow tweets to be removed selectively by country, before deleted tweets used to be removed in all countries.[413][414] The first use of the policy was to block the account of German neo-Nazi group Besseres Hannover on October 18, 2012.[415] The policy was used again the following day to remove anti-Semitic French tweets with the hashtag #unbonjuif ("a good Jew").[416] In February 2012, a third-partypublic-key encryptionapp

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter

A Few Follow-Up Points on Apple’s Self Service Repair Program

Thursday, 18 November 2021

Yours truly, yesterday:

This appears to be a cause for celebration in right-to-repair circles, but I don’t see it as a big deal at all. Almost no one wants to repair their own cracked iPhone display or broken MacBook keyboard; even fewer people are actually competent enough to do so.

I expected some pushback on this, and got it, and I now think I missed one key point. Despite the program’s name, I think it’s not so much about individual users repairing their own personal devices. The biggest ramification, I think, will be that the program will allow unofficial independent repair shops to procure genuine OEM Apple replacement parts and service manuals. There are tons of people around the world (including here in the U.S.) who don’t live near an Apple store or an Apple-authorized repair shop. A lot of those people, though, might live near (or at least nearer) an independent repair shop. If those repair shops can now order genuine Apple parts and manuals, that’s a win, and maybe a bigger deal than I thought yesterday.

There’s also this factor: if the device in need of repair is still usable — say, an iPhone with a cracked but functional screen, or a MacBook with one or more broken but nonessential keys — it might be a lot more appealing for a user who doesn’t live near an Apple-authorized repair shop to go to a local independent shop for same-day service than to ship their device to Apple for official service.

On the flip side, though, I think a lot of the “Apple’s repair policies are screwing people” sentiment is based on the misconception that Apple grossly overcharges for repairs. A lot of companies in a lot of industries do just that. Car dealers, for example, are notorious for overcharging for parts and routine service. I think the logic goes something like this: Big companies always screw you over for service and repairs; Apple is obscenely profitable and reaps high margins; therefore surely Apple price-gauges for repairs, or makes repairs for older devices arduous to encourage people to buy new devices instead.

But Apple isn’t really like that at all. Longtime DF reader Jim Lipsey sent me a note yesterday. His two kids each happily use an iPhone 6S Plus, but each of them needed repairs this past summer — one needed the camera replaced, the other needed a new battery. Through Apple, the camera replacement cost $59, the battery $49. $108 total, to return two six-year-old iPhones to perfect working order. As Lipsey noted, that’s a tremendous cost-of-ownership value. ★


Wednesday, 17 November 2021

Apple Newsroom:

Apple today announced Self Service Repair, which will allow customers who are comfortable with completing their own repairs access to Apple genuine parts and tools. Available first for the iPhone 12 and iPhone 13 lineups, and soon to be followed by Mac computers featuring M1 chips, Self Service Repair will be available early next year in the US and expand to additional countries throughout 2022. Customers join more than 5,000 Apple Authorized Service Providers (AASPs) and 2,800 Independent Repair Providers who have access to these parts, tools, and manuals.

The initial phase of the program will focus on the most commonly serviced modules, such as the iPhone display, battery, and camera. The ability for additional repairs will be available later next year.

“Creating greater access to Apple genuine parts gives our customers even more choice if a repair is needed,” said Jeff Williams, Apple’s chief operating officer. “In the past three years, Apple has nearly doubled the number of service locations with access to Apple genuine parts, tools, and training, and now we’re providing an option for those who wish to complete their own repairs.”

This appears to be a cause for celebration in right-to-repair circles, but I don’t see it as a big deal at all. Almost no one wants to repair their own cracked iPhone display or broken MacBook keyboard; even fewer people are actually competent enough to do so. iFixit, in a celebratory post, claims:

But we’re thrilled to see Apple admit what we’ve always known: Everyone’s enough of a genius to fix an iPhone.

Nonsense. I just don’t see how more than a sliver of people would even want to do this rather than go to a professional shop.

Also, nothing announced today changes the fact that Apple still requires Apple genuine parts for all authorized repairs, no matter who does the repairing. There’s good reason for that, and it’s not a money grab. Today’s announcement, to my eyes, is about nothing more than reducing regulatory pressure from legislators who’ve fallen for the false notion that Apple’s repair policies, to date, have been driven by profit motive — that Apple profits greatly from authorized repairs, and/or that their policies are driven by a strategy of planned obsolescence, to get people to buy new products rather than repair broken old ones. I don’t believe either of those things,1 but for those who believe either or both, I don’t see how this Self Repair Program really changes anything other than who’s performing the labor.

Brian X. Chen, hailing the announcement in his column at The New York Times:

Apple delivered an early holiday gift on Wednesday to the eco-conscious and the do-it-yourselfers: It said it would soon begin selling the parts, tools and instructions for people to do their own iPhone repairs.

The appeal to do-it-yourselfers is self-evident. I don’t see how this is eco-conscious at all. It doesn’t enable people to repair older devices that Apple itself and authorized repair shops weren’t themselves able to repair.

The company has not yet published a list of costs for parts, but said the prices for consumers would be what authorized repair shops paid. Currently, a replacement iPhone 12 screen costs an authorized shop about $234 after a broken screen is traded in. At an Apple store, repairing an out-of-warranty iPhone 12 screen costs about $280.

In short, you will have more options to mend an iPhone, which can bring your costs down.

Previously, it was easiest to visit an Apple store to get an iPhone fixed. But just as taking your car to a dealer for servicing isn’t the cheapest option, going to an Apple store also wasn’t the most cost-effective.

The alternative was to take your iPhone to a third party for repair, potentially for a more competitive price. When I took a broken iPhone XS screen to an Apple store this year, I was quoted $280 for the repair, compared with $180 from an independent outlet.

Chen is not exactly comparing like-to-like here, with his prices for a replacement iPhone XS display “from an independent outlet” and the $234 Apple charges for an iPhone 12 display component, but it seems pretty clear that for a customer to pay just $180 for the XS screen replacement, including labor, the “independent outlet” was not using Apple genuine parts. How is that relevant to this new Self Service Repair program that is based on buying genuine parts directly from Apple? What we’re looking at here is saving $46. Good luck replacing that screen yourself, without any specialized tooling.

Don’t get me wrong: this program is nice, and perhaps a bit surprising given Apple’s public stance on the issue in recent years. We’re better off with this Self Service Repair program in place than we were without it. (Making service manuals available might actually help extend the lifetime of older devices for which Apple no longer sells parts.) But to me it clearly seems to be a small deal, not a “big deal”, as Chen claims.

And if it is a big deal, it’s for Apple, politically. (Nothing wrong with that.) ★


Wednesday, 17 November 2021

The Future of Work in the Metaverse ★

This summarizes my take.

WSJ: ‘Activision CEO Bobby Kotick Knew for Years About Sexual-Misconduct Allegations at Videogame Giant’ ★

Kirsten Grind, Ben Fritz, and Sarah E. Needleman, reporting yesterday for The Wall Street Journal (emphasis added):

Dan Bunting, co-head of Activision’s Treyarch studio, was accused by a female employee of sexually harassing her in 2017 after a night of drinking, according to people familiar with the incident. Activision’s human-resources department and other supervisors launched an internal investigation in 2019 and recommended that he be fired, but Mr. Kotick intervened to keep him, these people said. Mr. Bunting, who led Treyarch through the production of several successful Call of Duty games, was given counseling and allowed to remain at the company, these people said.

Mr. Bunting didn’t respond to requests for comment. The Activision spokeswoman said an outside investigation was conducted in 2020. “After considering potential actions in light of that investigation, the company elected not to terminate Mr. Bunting, but instead to impose other disciplinary measures,” she said. Mr. Bunting left the company after the Journal asked about the incident.

The article’s lede makes the situation at Activision sound pretty bad, but much of the next page or so is about stuff that was already known by Activision’s board. Then we get to the above quoted passage. HR recommended firing Bunting two years ago; when the Journal inquired about the incident now, Bunting quit the company. That he remained at the company between 2019 and now is all on Kotick. If it’s defensible, why quit now?

Chris Plante, editor-in-chief and co-founder of Polygon, today: “Bobby Kotick Must Resign”.

This is not the sort of thing Polygon normally does.

Cleveland Guardians Settle Lawsuit With Local Roller Derby Team Over Rights to Name ★

The Associated Press:

Cleveland will have two teams called the Guardians. The Major League Baseball franchise and a local roller derby club have reached a resolution in a lawsuit filed over the use of the name Guardians, allowing both to continue using it.

The sides on Tuesday jointly announced an “amicable resolution,” an agreement that permits the Indians to continue their changeover to Guardians — a switch that was delayed due to the legal matter and isn’t completely finished.

Nice resolution to this item two weeks ago. The official change from Indians to Guardians will now happen Friday.

Tuesday, 16 November 2021

Qualcomm Announces Plans for ‘M-Series Competitive’ PC CPU’s in 2023 ★

Chaim Gartenberg, reporting for The Verge:

The new chip will be designed by the Nuvia team, which Qualcomm had bought earlier this year in a massive $1.4 billion acquisition. Nuvia, notably, was founded in 2019 by a trio of former Apple employees who had previously worked on the company’s A-series chips.

The company is making big promises, too: in addition to offering competition to Apple’s stellar M-series chips (which power its latest MacBook Pro and MacBook Air laptops and iMac and Mac Mini desktops), Qualcomm is aiming to lead the field for “sustained performance and battery life,” too. Additionally, Qualcomm promised that it would be scaling up its Adreno GPUs, too, with the goal of offering desktop-class gaming capabilities for its future PC products.

When they debuted, Apple-silicon-powered Macs were these crazy new machines that offered performance-per-watt far above the industry state-of-the-art. One year later, though, with pro-caliber laptops shipping, Apple silicon is the industry state-of-the-art, and everything else is behind. Qualcomm isn’t gunning for Intel or AMD; they’re gunning for Apple, because the M-series is the new benchmark.

Based on mobile chips, however, I have doubts about Qualcomm’s ability to catch up to Apple’s M-series — especially as entire SoCs, including GPUs — any time soon. If Qualcomm hasn’t caught up to Apple in SoCs for phones (ostensibly Qualcomm’s bread and butter) how will they catch up in SoCs for high-end PCs (an area where Qualcomm has never made a dent)? Maybe the answer is the Nuvia acquisition — perhaps Nuvia will be to Qualcomm what PA Semi was for Apple. Or maybe the answer is that it’ll play out like phone chips have, and Qualcomm will never catch up.


Tuesday, 16 November 2021

Earlier this month, Craig Federighi delivered a keynote address at Web Summit in Lisbon, Portugal. It’s just 20 minutes long, including the introduction, and worth watching. His sole topic is sideloading — why Apple doesn’t support it on iOS, and why Apple thinks it would be a (very) bad idea for the E.U. to mandate support for it.

If you get a sense of déjà vu watching it, that’s probably because Apple released a white paper making the case against sideloading back in June, which I annotated extensively. Federighi largely sticks to the same points, so I won’t repeat my entire thoughts on them here. I just re-read that piece from June, and it stands up well.

A few quick thoughts, though:

  • I found Federighi’s talk to be more compelling than Apple’s June white paper, despite the fact that in general, I’d rather read something than watch or listen to someone speak. I think part of it is that Apple has further refined its case against sideloading, boiling it down to a few cohesive core points. Also: Federighi is a charismatic speaker. With Phil Schiller seemingly retired from speaking on stage, Federighi is now by far the company’s most compelling advocate for a talk like this.

  • It’s always a little weird seeing an Apple executive speak on what’s clearly not an Apple-designed stage. Understated Web Summit’s staging is not.

  • Apple is clearly taking the threat of legally-mandated sideloading seriously. Apple SVPs don’t deliver keynotes in Portugal on a lark.

  • Rhetorically, Federighi does a clever job of appealing to E.U. regulators as an ally rather than an adversary, right in his opening lines:

    My topic is privacy and security, and it’s great to speak about this here in Europe, where so many have embraced these values not just as high ideals — but as fundamental human rights. I have to say, there are times in the U.S. when fighting for privacy has felt a little lonely. But knowing that our values are shared with so many in Europe, and that European policymakers have been willing to take action, well that has felt like a bit of a lifeline.

    It frames his anti-mandatory-sideloading argument not as a fundamental disagreement, but rather as a “Look, we’re on the same pro-privacy side here, buuut.” sort of thing.

  • Lastly, there’s a key topic that Federighi does not broach: money. Here, I will quote from my piece back in June, regarding a section in Apple’s white paper that started with the line, “The goal of App Review is to ensure that apps on the App Store are trustworthy [.].” I wrote:

    The problem Apple is facing today is that it’s clear that one word in the above is inaccurate: the opening “the”. The above is a goal of the App Store — and I would argue that it remains the primary goal. But clearly the App Store serves another goal for Apple: making the company money. Exhibit A: last year’s Hey fiasco. Nothing about Apple’s rejection of Hey (or, I’d wager, some number of thousands of other apps flagged by App Store review for similar reasons) was about trustworthiness. It was about money.

    That’s a conflict of interest, and it detracts significantly from Apple’s entirely legitimate trustworthiness argument defending the App Store model for distribution. I remain convinced Apple wouldn’t be facing these regulatory pressures today if they’d walked away from a strategy of maximizing App Store profits years ago, and I also think they could largely dissipate these pressures today by doing it now — better late than never.

If Apple stopped making it look like they’re running the App Store primarily to maximize their own revenue from it, regulators and lawmakers might stop thinking that Apple is running the App Store primarily to maximize their own revenue from it. ★


Monday, 15 November 2021

Hoax Email Blast Abused Poor Coding in FBI Website ★

Brian Krebs:

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) confirmed today that its fbi.gov domain name and Internet address were used to blast out thousands of fake emails about a cybercrime investigation. According to an interview with the person who claimed responsibility for the hoax, the spam messages were sent by abusing insecure code in an FBI online portal designed to share information with state and local law enforcement authorities.

Remember when the FBI insisted they could be trusted with the keys to an encryption backdoor in iOS? Good times.

‘Can Nuclear Fusion Put the Brakes on Climate Change?’ ★

Rivka Galchen, writing for The New Yorker:

Let’s say that you’ve devoted your entire adult life to developing a carbon-free way to power a household for a year on the fuel of a single glass of water, and that you’ve had moments, even years, when you were pretty sure you would succeed. Let’s say also that you’re not crazy. This is a reasonable description of many of the physicists working in the field of nuclear fusion. In order to reach this goal, they had to find a way to heat matter to temperatures hotter than the center of the sun, so hot that atoms essentially melt into a cloud of charged particles known as plasma; they did that. They had to conceive of and build containers that could hold those plasmas; they did that, too, by making “bottles” out of strong magnetic fields. When those magnetic bottles leaked — because, as one scientist explained, trying to contain plasma in a magnetic bottle is like trying to wrap a jelly in twine — they had to devise further ingenious solutions, and, again and again, they did. Over decades, in the pursuit of nuclear fusion, scientists and engineers built giant metal doughnuts and Gehryesque twisted coils, they “pinched” plasmas with lasers, and they constructed fusion devices in garages. For thirty-six years, they have been planning and building an experimental fusion device in Provence. And yet commercially viable nuclear-fusion energy has always remained just a bit farther on. As the White Queen, in “Through the Looking Glass,” said to Alice, it is never jam today, it is always jam tomorrow.

Fascinating and intriguing.

Fossil’s Gen 6 Smartwatch ★

Dieter Bohn, writing for The Verge:

The kindest thing I can say about the new $299 Gen 6 iteration of Fossil’s long-running smartwatch series is this: it’s not entirely Fossil’s fault that it’s bad.

The company reportedly learned that Google and Samsung had teamed up to finally revitalize the Wear OS software Fossil’s been using at the same time we did: this past May at Google IO. And so Fossil’s 2021 smartwatch lineup is running software that hasn’t been meaningfully improved since at least 2019 and it won’t receive the latest software until late 2022. Samsung has smartwatches that run on Wear OS 3 and do so competently, Fossil is stuck on Wear OS 2.

Running old software is not inherently a bad thing — old software is often battle tested, reliable, and fast. Sadly, none of those adjectives apply here and Fossil compounded Wear OS 2’s issues by cramming in features it’s unable to support.

Maybe in the long run, hitting the reset button on Wear OS will prove to be a solid strategy. But in the meantime, Air explorer pro License key rather astonishing how Apple is just running away with the smartwatch market.

Saturday, 13 November 2021

Rows ★

My thanks to Rows for sponsoring this week at DF (along with this week’s episode of The Talk Show). Rows reinvented spreadsheets to let you build data-rich spreadsheets that look beautiful and modern. Rows uses the same logic as traditional spreadsheets like Google Sheets and Excel. It has row-and-column-based cells and all the functions you’re used to, like, and .

On top of that, Rows added powerful integrations with business tools and public databases. Your spreadsheet can talk to Google Analytics, Twitter, Stripe, and Salesforce; it can send emails and Slack alerts, and even connect to your custom APIs. And you can fetch public data from databases like Crunchbase, Hunter, and LinkedIn.

Rows offers Live Sharing — a revolutionary new feature for spreadsheets. Users with live access can’t make changes like editors can. They only see the data you want them to see, and can only edit cells you mark as editable. No one can mess up your spreadsheets. Turn them into interactive dashboards, reports, and forms with buttons, input fields, and checkboxes.

Join thousands of teams that have stepped up their spreadsheet game with Rows. Head to www.rows.com to get started today.

Devan Scott on the Use of Color in ‘Skyfall’ and ‘Spectre’ ★

Speaking of Daniel Craig’s run as James Bond, Devan Scott put together a wonderful, richly illustrated thread on Twitter contrasting the use of color grading in Skyfall and Spectre. Both of those films were directed by Sam Mendes, but they had different cinematographers — Roger Deakins for Skyfall, and Hoyte van Hoytema for Spectre. Scott graciously and politely makes the case that Skyfall is more interesting and fully-realized because each new location gets a color palette of its own, whereas the entirety of Spectre is in a consistent color space.

(For an essay of this sort, with so many images that go along with a few sentences of prose at a time, a Twitter thread is an outstanding medium.)

See Also:Kat Clay: “Why Skyfall Is a Masterclass in Cinematography”.

Switched on Pop: ‘James Bond’s Spycraft Sound’ ★

Nate Sloan and Charlie Harding:

The latest installment of the James Bond franchise, No Time To Die, closes the book on the Daniel Craig era of the international superspy. The film’s theme song, “No Time to Die,” by Billie Eilish, Finneas, and Hans Zimmer, also marks the conclusion of one of the great musical sagas in recent cinema. Monty Norman’s and John Barry’s now-iconic “James Bond Theme,” written for 1962’s Dr. No, has remained a constant across six decades of espionage and one-liners. But every new Bond theme has also developed subtle variations on the original that reflect the character’s changes over time. On this episode of Switched On Pop, we uncover what inspired the theme, how it’s changed, and why it almost never happened.

Absolutely delightful podcast, and really astute commentary on how music helped tie together the entirety of Daniel Craig’s five-movie saga in the role.

Joanna Stern Spends 24 Hours in Facebook’s Metaverse ★

Speaking of the metaverse:

Everyone is blabbing about the metaverse. But what does this future digital world look like? WSJ’s Joanna Stern checked into a hotel and strapped on a VR headset for the day. She went to work meetings, hung out with new avatar friends and attended virtual shows.

So glad she made this video; so glad it wasn’t me.

The Talk Show: ‘The Warden’s Dilemma’ ★

For your weekend listening enjoyment: Ben Thompson returns to the show to go deep on the concept of the metaverse. Is it the next frontier in tech? Is it bullshit? Somewhere in between?

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Playdate Delayed Until Early 2022 ★

Panic, in an update to those who’ve pre-ordered the Playdate:

And so, we shipped 5,000 finished Playdates back to Malaysia to be given new batteries. How did that feel? Not great!!!

The good news: we’ve already received the new batteries from the new supplier, and they’re looking really impressive — they’re exactly what we’re hoping for, if not even better than before. We’re extremely confident the new supplier can give Playdate the battery life we designed, and you deserve.

And there’s one huge silver lining: we’re extremely glad that we found this potential issue before shipping you a Playdate.

And:

With lots of pre-orders in place, we immediately placed an order at our factory for all the parts needed for 2022 units and beyond. The response was… sobering. Many of our parts have been delayed significantly. In fact, we can’t get any more of Playdate’s current CPU for — you’re not going to believe this — two years. Like, 730 days.

Maybe you’ve heard about the “global chip shortage” everyone’s talking about? We’re here to say it is very real. Covid-19 caused an ever-cascading set of worldwide supply chain failures that are leading to many, many electronic parts being simply… gone.

The good news on that front is that they’ve already designed a new logic board using a different, but equivalent, CPU that is available. More good news: the Playdate SDKs (there are two — the full SDK using C and Lua, and a web-based graphical you-don’t-even-have-to-be-a-programmer-to-make-a-game tool called Pulp) are close to shipping.

Basically, shipping any project is hard. Shipping hardware is really hard. And shipping hardware amidst this pandemic-induced global supply chain fiasco is just crazy hard. Valve’s Steam Deck — sort of the anti-Playdate — is delayed into early 2022 too, and both Sony and Nintendo have cut production estimates for the PlayStation 5 and Switch consoles.

Friday, 12 November 2021

‘The iOS App Icon Book’ by Michael Flarup ★

Michel Flarup:

I simply love app icons — they continue to be everything that excites me about visual design. App icon design is a carefully balanced discipline with the goal of producing a memorable graphic that sits at the intersection of art and utility. At their best, app icons are design, distilled. This book is a celebration of the art and craft of app icon design and the golden age of icon design that has lived and evolved on our devices this past decade.

It’s a Kickstarter project, with books expected to ship in April. Take my money — I can’t wait to devour this book. It looks so good.

John Hanke: ‘AR Is Where the Real Metaverse Is Going to Happen’ ★

Steven Levy, writing for Wired:

As the CEO and founder of Niantic Labs, Hanke launched Pokémon Go in 2016, and he remains obsessed with a vision of a physical world enhanced by digital objects, the concept now called augmented reality. He has been pursuing this vision since at least 2010, when he founded Niantic as an internal startup at Google, then spun it out and launched Go. The game, in which players wander the streets with phones held to their faces trying to capture Weedles, Squirtles, and Nidorinas, was both a cultural phenomenon and a financial success, reaping over a billion dollars in revenue. Like Wendy sewing Peter Pan’s shadow to his foot, Hanke has been gradually binding the ephemeral to the real, providing a substrate for the merger of pixels and atoms that he sees as the future. […]

He’s read all the science fiction books and seen all the films that first imagined the metaverse — all great fun, and all wrong. He believes that his vision, unlike virtual reality, will make the real world better without encouraging people to totally check out of it.

Terrific interview.

YouTube Will Keep ‘Dislike’ Button, but Make Dislike Counts Private to the Creator ★

YouTube:

As part of this experiment, viewers could still see and use the dislike button. But because the count was not visible to them, we found that they were less likely to target a video’s dislike button to drive up the count. In short, our experiment data showed a reduction in dislike attacking behavior. We also heard directly from smaller creators and those just getting started that they are unfairly targeted by this behavior — and our experiment confirmed that this does occur at a higher proportion on smaller channels.

Based on what we learned, we’re making the dislike counts private across YouTube, but the dislike button is not going away. This change will start gradually rolling out today.

This is an interesting middle ground. Sounds good to me. Marking something as disliked obviously can be useful, but hiding the dislike count apparently diminishes the pile-on mob mindset.

Twitter has been experimenting with a “dislike” button as well. Not sure where that stands, but if they go forward with it, they should keep the dislike counts private too.

Judge Denies Apple’s Motion to Stay App Store Antisteering Policy Changes in Epic Case ★

Judge Yvonne Gonzalez Rogers, in a ruling earlier this week:

The Court is in receipt of Apple Inc.’s Motion to Stay part of the Court’s injunction pending resolution of all appeals, specifically that portion prohibiting developers from including “in their apps and their metabuttons, [sic] external links, or other calls to action that direct customers to purchasing mechanisms, in addition to In-App Purchasing [“IAP”].” (See Dkt. No. 821.)

Having considered all the filings, and oral argument, the Court finds Apple has failed to satisfy its burden, and the request as framed is DENIED. In short, Apple’s motion is based on a selective reading of this Court’s findings and ignores all of the findings which supported the injunction, namely incipient antitrust conduct including supercompetitive commission rates resulting in extraordinarily high operating margins and which have not been correlated to the value of its intellectual property. This incipient antitrust conduct is the result, in part, of the antisteering policies which Apple has enforced to harm competition. As a consequence, the motion is fundamentally flawed. Further, even if additional time was warranted to comply Express VPN 9.0.20 Crack - Free Activators the limited injunction, Apple did not request additional time other than ten days to appeal this ruling. Thus, the Court does not consider the option of additional time, other than the requested ten days.

“Metabuttons” is a typo — the original ruling used the (already technically ambiguous) term “metadata buttons” there.

It’s a near-certainty that Apple is going to appeal this. But if the appeal doesn’t work, December 9 is just four weeks away.

Concepts to Redesign the New York City Street ★

Justin Davidson, writing for Curbed:

Our efforts yielded two big lessons. The first is that every improvement is a trade-off. Protecting bus lanes with concrete barriers, for example, would keep cars out, but it would also keep limited-stop buses from passing local ones. Our street incorporates a possible set of compromises. The second is that even simple tweaks imply a far-reaching organizational overhaul. Enclosed trash bins would push the Department of Sanitation to update some of its trucks and pickup procedures.

There are a lot of good ideas here. Drastically reducing curbside parking and using that space to widen sidewalks and increase outdoor eating areas is something that’s happened in a lot of cities during this pandemic. It’s been a huge win here in Philly.

But to nitpick one of the ideas: enclosed trash bins are terrible. Philly replaced its old-fashioned open-top trash bins with enclosed ones several years ago, and they’re just awful. They sound like a fine idea, but in practice they’re disgusting. You have to touch them to put anything in them, and, well, they’re camtasia studio 32 bit full version free download - Free Activators with garbage. They’re really hard to use one-handed, like when you’re carrying, say, a grocery bag with your other hand. They tend to break, too. It’s been a huge step backwards here.

Jamf CEO Welcomes Apple Business Essentials ★

Jonny Evans, writing for Computerworld’s Appleholic:

“When Apple innovates, Jamf celebrates,” Jamf CEO, Dean Hager said, on learning about Apple Business Essentials. “We believe this expected announcement is good news and presents Jamf with a terrific opportunity.” […]

Jamf, which announced an impressive set of Q3 results Nov. 11, has always existed alongside Apple. Hager noted several times during the last decade when industry watchers thought Apple moves might damage his business: Once when Apple introduced MDM in 2010, again in 2011 with Profile Manager, later with Apple Configurator, and more recently with Apple Business Manager.

Brings to mind Apple’s famous “Welcome IBM. Seriously.” ad from 1981. I don’t mean that to be snarky. Apple was ready for the IBM PC in 1981, and it sounds like Jamf and similar companies have been ready for Apple to enter this market ever since they acquired Fleetsmith a year ago.

FastScripts 3 ★

Daniel Jalkut, writing at the Red Sweater blog:

This update is the culmination of years of work on various aspects of the app, many of which are not “headline” level changes. Little things, like the ability of the app to detect when you attempt to assign a shortcut that is already being used for another script, to improvements to the appearance of the app’s built in “display message” panels, to the long-awaited support for symbolic links in the script folder, will perpetually surprise and delight you!

All sorts of cool new stuff in this update, including new (and much improved) icons, parallel script execution, and more. One of my favorite small features in FastScripts is the above-mentioned “display message” command. It’s a nicer way to briefly show a message on screen than Notification Center. Anyone who uses scripting on their Mac should be using FastScripts. Hall of Fame Mac utility.

Thursday, 11 November 2021

iOS 15.2 Beta Includes the ‘Communication Safety’ Messages Feature for Children ★

Juli Clover, reporting for MacRumors:

Communication Safety is a Family Sharing feature that can be enabled by parents, and it is opt-in rather than activated by default. When turned on, the Messages app is able to detect nudity in images that are sent or received by children. If a child receives or attempts to send a photo with nudity, the image will be blurred and the child will be warned about the content, told it’s okay not to view the photo, and offered resources to contact someone they trust for help.

When Communication Safety was first announced, Apple said that parents of children under the age of 13 had the option to receive a notification if the child viewed a nude image in Messages, but after receiving feedback, Apple has removed this feature. Apple now says that no notifications are sent to parents.

Apple removed the notification option because parallels desktop 15 crack reddit was suggested that parental notification could pose a risk for a child in a situation where there is parental violence or abuse. For all children, including those under the age of 13, Apple will instead offer guidance on getting help from a trusted adult in a situation where nude photos are involved.

This seems like a good middle ground to address the above-stated concerns.

America’s ‘Wokeness’ Divide Is Not About Level of Education ★

Olga Khazan, writing for The Atlantic:

But according to a recent Atlantic/Leger survey, no gap exists between people with college degrees and those without them on some of the hot topics most commonly associated with “wokeness.” Instead, neither group endorses the supposedly “woke” positions particularly strongly. Though the term originated in the Black community, woke now lacks a standard definition, and is sometimes used as a catchall label for a group of only loosely related ideas. People often use the term to describe neologisms that are more popular among progressives, such as pregnant people, as well as policy choices advocated for by some on the left, such as defunding the police. In our poll, we also included reverse-coded statements, meant to capture whether someone was the opposite of “woke,” by asking about common right-wing shibboleths such as political correctness, “cancel culture,” and critical race theory.

For the poll, Leger surveyed a representative sample of 1,002 American adults from October 22 to October 24. We asked for respondents’ agreements with various statements, shown in the chart below, that are often invoked by conservatives and moderates as being associated with people who are “woke.” The results showed that there was no significant difference between people with college degrees and those without them on the question of whether America is becoming too politically correct (slight majorities of both groups agreed somewhat or strongly). The same was true for believing “cancel culture is a big problem in society” — 51 percent of degree holders agreed, as did 45 percent of those without degrees.

Long story short, it’s an age divide, not an education divide. But none of these “woke” positions are actually popular, even amongst the young.

Wednesday, 10 November 2021

Unity Is Buying Weta Digital for $1.6 Billion ★

Marc Whitten, writing for the Unity blog:

Today, Unity announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Weta Digital, specifically its artist tools, core pipeline, intellectual property, and award-winning engineering talent. The Academy Award-Winning VFX service teams of Weta Digital will continue as a standalone entity known as WetaFX and will become Unity’s largest customer in the Media and Entertainment space. By combining the industry leading VFX tools and technical talent from the incredible team at Weta, plus the deep development and real-time knowledge within Unity, we aim to deliver tools to unlock the full potential of the metaverse.

This is, to me, carlson survey software free download wow it’s really happened moment. Even just a few years ago, if you told me Unity and Weta were merging, I’d have assumed Weta was the buyer and Unity the acquisition. But it’s the other way around — and that represents the fact that gaming is now a bigger industry than movies. (As a friend notes, gaming is bigger than movies + sports combined.)

I don’t think this is a big deal for the movie/TV VFX industry. WetaFX continues as it was. But it could be a huge deal for gaming, because Unity now has access to Weta’s apparently excellent toolchain for 3D world building and character creation and animation. Basically, I think Unity wanted to remote desktop manager enterprise keygen - Free Activators up to Unreal in terms of content production tools, and with this acquisition, maybe they do that and more.

There’s Actually an Apple Angle From the Kyle Rittenhouse Trial ★

Put aside breaking down in tears on the witness stand — when your lawyer doesn’t understand the difference between algorithms and logarithms, you’re in bad shape.

Apple Business Essentials ★

Apple Newsroom:

Apple today announced Apple Business Essentials, an all-new service that brings together device management, 24/7 Apple Support, and iCloud storage into flexible subscription plans for small businesses with up to 500 employees. The company also unveiled a new Apple Business Essentials app that enables employees to install apps for work and request support. […]

In addition to streamlined setup and onboarding, Apple Business Essentials provides a dedicated iCloud account for work, providing simple and secure storage, backup, and collaboration on files and documents. Business data in iCloud is automatically stored and backed up, making it easy to move between devices or upgrade to a new device.

Fascinating. Unless I’m misreading this, Apple is entering the same market as Jamf and Kandji (editor’s note: both are previous sponsors at DF) and the other MDM companies that specialize in Apple devices. I’m curious what they mean by “backup” here, because iCloud only does backup for iOS devices. Does this program somehow back up Macs to iCloud, or is Apple just pretending that’s not a problem?

Update: Nothing magic here. It’s just like consumer iCloud, where iPhones and iPads can be backed up, and for the Mac, it’s just iCloud Drive (which, of course, can include your Desktop and Documents folders).

WSJ: Apple Plans Car Crash Detection for iPhone and Watch ★

Rolfe Winkler, reporting for The Wall Street Journal:

Beginning next year, iPhone users who are in a car accident could have their phone dial 911 automatically. Apple Inc. plans next year to roll out a product feature called “crash detection” for iPhones and Apple Watches, according to documents reviewed by The Wall Street Journal and people familiar with the feature.

Crash detection uses data from sensors built into Apple devices including the accelerometer to detect car accidents as they occur, for instance by measuring a sudden spike in gravity, or “g,” forces on impact.

Almost enough to make you think Apple sees health as a major new frontier.

Johnson & Johnson Honcho Alex Gorsky Joins Apple’s Board of Directors ★

Apple Newsroom:

Apple today announced Alex Gorsky, chairman and CEO of Johnson & Johnson, has been elected to Apple’s board of directors. Gorsky will bring decades of experience in corporate leadership and health technologies, and a long track record of leading innovative and diverse teams around the world.

Almost enough to make you think Apple sees health as a major new frontier.

Tuesday, 9 November 2021

Pixel 6 Fingerprint Scanner Is Not Good ★

J. Fingas, writing for Engadget:

Ask Pixel 6 owners about their top gripe and they’ll likely point to the slow, finicky fingerprint sensor. There may be an explanation for that momentary anguish, though. Google is telling users that the Pixel 6’s fingerprint reader is using “enhanced security pdf expert crack ipad that may either take longer to check your digits or require better sensor contact.

Google hasn’t elaborated on its statement. We’ve asked Google for comment.

That’s in reference to this tweet from the Made By Google account:

We’re sorry for the hassle. The Pixel 6 fingerprint sensor utilizes enhanced security algorithms. In some instances, these added protections can take longer to verify or require more direct contact with the sensor. Try troubleshooting steps: https://goo.gle/36GYhYB. Thanks.

That is some seriously weak sauce. I read a bunch of Pixel 6 reviews, and while the phones were received very well overall — particularly the cameras’ still photo capabilities, as usual — every single review mentioned that the fingerprint recognition was too slow.

Is this a dealbreaker? I don’t know. But fast, accurate biometric authentication — fingerprint or facial recognition — is table stakes for a phone today. The face unlock feature on my two-year-old Pixel 4 works perfectly. Seems weird that Google would ditch a good facial recognition scanner for a slow fingerprint scanner.

Monday, 8 November 2021

The Fox Sports NFL Crew on Aaron Rodgers ★

In case you don’t follow sports, the big story last week is that Green Bay Packers star quarterback — a sure-thing Hall-of-Famer who is still playing terrific football — Aaron Rodgers tested positive for COVID-19 and was ineligible to play. (The Packers lost to the Chiefs 13-7.)

Rodgers was not vaccinated, but he had strongly suggested before the season that he was, talking about being “immunized”. But his version of “immunization” was just a bunch of homeopathic quackery.

I think it would be easy for the NFL commentators on TV to dance around this, given the subject’s (sadly utterly irrational) political volatility. Maybe especially so at Fox Sports. But Jimmy Johnson, Howie Long, Michael Strahan, and particularly Terry Bradshaw absolutely eviscerated Rodgers.

More like this, please.

Saturday, 6 November 2021

Apple Hires Tesla Autopilot Software Director ★

Mark Gurman and Dana Hull, reporting for Bloomberg:

Apple Inc., bolstering its car-development efforts, hired a former engineer from Tesla Inc. who drew controversy this year for remarks about that company’s Autopilot feature.

The iPhone maker tapped Christopher “CJ” Moore for its team working on a self-driving car, according to people with knowledge of the matter. Moore is working on the effort’s software, reporting to Stuart Bowers, another former Tesla executive who joined Apple at the end of last year. Bowers had led Tesla’s Autopilot team before departing in mid-2019. […]

At Tesla, Moore implied camtasia studio 32 bit full version free download - Free Activators Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk had overstated the capabilities of the Autopilot software. Earlier this year, California Department of Motor Vehicles officials interviewed Moore as part of investigations into the self-driving software. The department asked Moore about Musk claiming that Teslas would be capable of fully autonomous driving this year. Moore signaled in response that Musk’s statements didn’t “match engineering reality,” according to a DMV memo summarizing the conversation.

Apple’s car efforts continue to mystify.

Sometimes the Claim Chowder Cooks Quickly ★

Dylan Patel posted this piece on his SemiAnalysis site two months ago, just after Apple’s iPhone 13 event. The headline, to say the least, was eye-catching: “Apple CPU Gains Grind to a Halt and the Future Looks Dim as the Impact From the CPU Engineer Exodus to Nuvia and Rivos Starts to Bleed In”.

His post garnered a lot of attention, set a pessimistic first impression regarding the A15 Bionic SoC. But Patel’s speculation — based on Apple’s sparse performance information during the keynote — didn’t pan out when reviewers actually got the iPhones 13 into their hands. And it looks even worse now that the M1 Pro and Max are out. And we still haven’t seen Apple’s pro desktop silicon.

Is brain drain going to be a problem for Apple’s silicon efforts pdf expert crack ipad down the road? Could be! But retention of talent across the entire companyhas long been Apple’s number one concern.

Friday, 5 November 2021

Austin Mann: ‘MacBook Pro M1 Max for Photographers’ ★

Austin Mann has a great review of the new MacBook Pros from his perspective as a professional photographer. I enjoyed this item from his wishlist though:

I really wish there was a matte/non-glare screen option. Years ago, this was an option on Apple’s laptops, and with the recent Pro Display XDR “nano-etch” anti-glare option, I was crossing my fingers we might see something similar on the MacBook Pro.

Clive Thompson: ‘The Metaverse Is Already Here — It’s Minecraft ★

Clive Thompson:

The truth is, a thriving metaverse already exists. It’s incredibly high-functioning, with millions of people immersed in it for hours a day. In this metaverse, people have built uncountable custom worlds, and generated god knows how many profitable businesses and six-figure careers. Yet this terrain looks absolutely nothing the like one Zuckerberg showed off.

It’s Minecraft, of course.

I think this is a compelling argument. But the big difference from Zuckerberg’s stated vision is that Minecraft isn’t even just one metaverse. Minecraft alone is like millions of metaverses. Zuckerberg is talking about One True Metaverse that connects the entire world. Something, obviously, akin to Facebook’s position among “social networks”.

Thompson:

This hackability is part of why the game has remained so vibrant: Players are constantly revitalizing Minecraft and inventing new things you can do inside it. Third-party folks build tools like skin editors to make it easier pdf expert crack ipad players to be creative.

As a piece of software, Minecraft isn’t open-source, but it’s very friable and gas-permeable around the edges. Mojang was willing to give their players a lot of control, and it’s part of why people are devoted to the game.

I could be wrong, but I honestly can’t imagine many of the big tech metaverses allowing this sort of Xtreme tinkerability.

I would argue that Minecraft’s sensational and enduring popularity isn’t despite the fact that it is not open source, but because it is not open source. Open source is not a panacea — far from it. An open source Minecraft, would likely, in my opinion, devolve into something akin to Calvinball, where the only rule is that there are no permanent rules. A closed system that encourages and enables a rich amount of user-hackery within a set of reasonable constraints is almost certainly more fun and rewarding than an anything-goes free-for-all.

(Via Kottke.)

Ars Technica on Intel’s New Alder Lake CPUs ★

Jim Salter, writing for Ars Technica:

If the AMD fans in the crowd are looking for something to crow about, this is it — both raw power draw and performance-per-watt for Intel are still much worse than on competing AMD designs. The higher core count in Alder Lake translates to a higher power draw as well — nearly back up to Intel 10th-generation levels, and well north of either the Ryzen 9 5900X or 5950X.

We saw more than a 300W system power draw at the wall for the i9-12900K — that’s over 100 watts higher than our Ryzen 9 5950X at full tilt. About 230W of that draw is accounted for by the i9-12900K’s CPU package itself, as reported by its own sensors to hwinfo64. Power efficiency is a somewhat different story: although the i9-12900K guzzles more power than the i9-11900K did, it offers stunningly higher performance — about a 50 percent net gain. (Though it’s still nearly as far behind the Ryzen 9 5950X as it is ahead of its own older sibling, unfortunately.)

The lack of overall efficiency here is somewhat surprising given Alder Lake’s hybrid big.little design, which we expected would give it an edge over AMD’s traditional all-performance-core setup. We suspect the culprit is Intel’s 10nm process — the company claims that it’s basically similar in density to the 7nm TSMC process Zen 3 enjoys, but something has to account for the discrepancy.

Intel is seemingly only capable of operating at the extremes: very fast “performance at all costs” chips that consume inordinate power, and power-efficient chips that run very slow. The sweet spot is clearly a proper balance in the middle.

Google Announces Plan for Compliance With South Korean ‘App Stores Must Offer Alternative In-App Payments’ Law, and It’s Something ★

Wilson White, senior director of public policy, on Google’s Korean developer blog:

Service fees for distributing apps via Android and Google Play will continue to be based on digital sales on the platform. We recognize, however, that pdf expert crack ipad will incur costs to support their billing system, so when a user selects alternative billing, we will reduce the developer’s service fee by 4%. For example, for the vast majority of developers who pay 15% for transactions through Google Play’s billing system, their service fee for transactions through the alternate billing system would be 11%. As another example, certain categories of apps participating in our Media Experience Program, such as an eBooks provider, will pay a 10% service fee for transactions made via Google Play’s billing system, but only 6% for transactions on an alternative system.

If you just start reading from the beginning, it sounds like they are proposing what many of us thought Google (and Apple) might have to offer to comply with South Korea’s new law: the option for third-party apps to completely circumvent paying Google a fee on in-app transactions. But what they’re actually proposing is that if third party apps want to offer their own credit card processing, they can, but (a) only alongside Google Play, and (b) they still owe Google for most of the fees.

As Ben Thompson observed on today’s episode of Dithering, for small transactions — like the ones typically offered in games — credit card fees are likely in the 5-6 percent range. So if this flies, Google’s revenue per in-app transaction for apps from the Play Store isn’t going to effectively change at all.

Is it going to fly? Like I’ve said, stock up on popcorn.

PETA Calls on MLB to Drop ‘Bullpen’ in Favor of ‘Arm Barn’ ★

Danny Prater, writing for PETA last week:

As the World Series turns into a pitching duel, PETA is pitching a proposal to the baseball world: Strike out the word “bullpen” — which refers to the holding area where terrified bulls are kept before slaughter — in favor of a more modern, animal-friendly term. PETA’s suggestion? The arm barn!

And people wonder why independent voters suspect that Democrats on the far left are ridiculous ninnies.

‘World Series Rings: Everyone Wants Them, No One Wears Them’ ★

Fun story by Tyler Kepner for The New York Times:

Yet even George Steinbrenner, the longtime Yankees owner who loved lavish gestures, probably did not spring for 1,332 rings, the total that Crane distributed in 2017 to Astros players, staff, front office members, trainers, clubhouse attendants, broadcasters and so on.

The Braves were similarly generous in 1995, awarding rings to minor league staffers like Brian Snitker, who is now their manager. Snitker keeps it in a lockbox.

“The things are not real comfortable to wear, if you want to know the truth,” he said.

That Braves ring — engraved, perhaps prematurely, with the slogan “Team of the 90s” — is the last one without a team logo on top, though naturally there are dozens of diamonds. Even so, John Schuerholz, the architect of the 1995 champions, did not wear it in Atlanta during this World Series.

That “perhaps prematurely” is impeccable Times house style for delivering a zinger in a news piece. (Another team went on to win in 1996 (over the Braves), 1998, and 1999 (over the Braves, again).)

Glad to see the Atlanta Braves win this year, though, against the cheaters on the Houston Astros. Hell, I was even pulling for the Red Sox — the goddamn Red Sox — to beat the Astros in the ALCS.

Thursday, 4 November 2021

‘The Booming Underground Market for Bots That Steal Your 2FA Codes’ ★

Fascinating report from Joseph Cox for Motherboard:

The call came from PayPal’s fraud prevention system. Someone had tried to use my PayPal account to spend $58.82, according to the automated voice on the line. PayPal needed to verify my identity to block the transfer.

“In order to secure your account, please enter the code we have sent your mobile device now,” the voice said. PayPal sometimes texts users a code in order to protect their account. After entering a string of six digits, the voice said, “Thank you, your account has been secured and this request has been blocked.”

“Don’t worry if any payment has been charged to your account: we will refund it within 24 to 48 hours. Your reference ID is 1549926. You may now hang up,” the voice said.

But this call was actually from a hacker. The fraudster used a type of bot that drastically streamlines the process for hackers to trick victims into giving up their multi-factor authentication codes or one-time passwords (OTPs) for all sorts of services, letting them log in or authorize cash transfers.

Here’s the gist of how the bots work.

  1. The bot calls you, the victim, using a faked Caller ID. So the Caller ID the victim sees might say something like “PayPal Inc.” or “Bank of America”.

  2. The bots sound robotic and automated. There’s no uncanny valley here — the bots are clearly bots. But a lot of legitimate voice-driven phone systems sound like bots. We’ve normalized talking to robots on the phone, and these bots are taking advantage of that. That these bots sound obviously robotic is a feature, not a bug. Cox has a recording of one such bot in his report.

  3. The bot triggers an actual 2FA code to be sent to the victim. Let’s say the crooks know (or just guess) your email address and password for the service they’re targeting — quite possibly because the email/password combination appeared in one of the many major data leaks in recent years. When the call starts, the bot enters the target’s email address and password on the site, which results in the site sending a 2FA code via SMS to the victim.

  4. Now the bot, on the phone, says that to complete this “security verification” or whatever, just enter the code they just sent you via text. PayPal — or your bank, or Amazon, or whoever — actually did just text you a code. The call is fraudulent but the SMS message was legit. But if you give the legit code to the fraudulent bot, boom, now the bot has the 2FA code needed to actually go into your account and steal your money.

This is devilishly simple, and you can see how it’s effective. According to Cox, some of these bots also target authentication codes from apps like Google Authenticator or Authy. The bot just asks you to keypress the current code from your app.

The other thing that intrigues me about this whole scheme is that the interface to these bots — meaning, the interface a human criminal uses to interact with the bots — is entirely text-based, going through a service like Telegram or Discord. That makes sense, but it also feels decidedly old-school — like the sort of terminal-based interfaces for “games” my friends and I would write in BASIC decades ago. “Type Y for this or type N for that; enter victim’s bank name now” — that sort of thing. Again, Cox illustrates this copiously in his article, including with a video showing a bot’s interface in action. As is so often the case, the simplest possible thing often works the most reliably.

The Cleveland Guardians vs. The Cleveland Guardians ★

Remember a few months back when the Cleveland Indians announced their new name for next season? Well, it turns out, there’s an existing Cleveland Guardians — a roller derby team — and they still haven’t worked out a deal. Here’s Kyle Jahner, reporting last week for Bloomberg Law:

The baseball team allegedly reached out to the roller derby team in June, more than a month before its announcement of the Guardians re-brand, according to the complaint. The derby team asked the team to make an offer, and the team offered “likely no more than fifteen minutes of annual team revenue,” according to the lawsuit.

The lawsuit estimated $290 million annual revenue for the Indians, implying an offer of about $8,300. The derby team alleged that it rejected that offer and countered, but the baseball team didn’t respond.

This, of course, follows upon Facebook’s potential legal problems with existing companies named “Meta”. Why cheap out with a lowball offer? It makes no sense. It’s certainly possible that the roller derby team’s lawyer is being hyperbolic regarding “likely no more than 15 minutes of annual team revenue”, but whatever the baseball team’s offer, they could have made both sides happy by now. And if the offer really was in the ballpark of $8,300 — sheesh. That’s just stupid.

Wednesday, 3 November 2021

Meta Company ★

Nate Skulic, founder of MetaCompany (a name they’ve been using since at least 2014):

On October 20th, 2021, during a phone call with Facebook attorneys, we declined their low offer and maintained our requirements. At this point, we presumed it was Facebook and identified them on the call. The attorney representing Facebook declared they would respect our existing right and registration.

On October 28th, 2021, Facebook decided to commit trademark infringement and call themselves “Meta”.

They couldn’t buy us, so they tried to bury us by force of media. We shouldn’t be surprised by these actions — from a company that continually says one thing and does another. Facebook and its operating officers are deceitful and acting in bad faith, not only towards us, but to all of humanity.

Looks like they’re going to fight Facebook for their name. Good for them.

It’s a common word, so it would be surprising if there weren’t existing companies using “Meta”. There’s also Meta.inc, founded by Andrew Wilkinson: “A long-term home for the world’s best digital agencies.”

What is surprising to me is that Facebook didn’t use their “infinite money” cheat code and just buy these names. I think that’s basically what Apple did with the “iPhone” trademark that was held by Cisco back in 2007. (I had forgotten that the prototype iPhones on display at Macworld Expo didn’t have “iPhone” printed on them.) There’s an entitled petulance at play here on Facebook’s part.

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  • PDF Expert has been updated with iOS and iPadOS 13 support.
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Popular PDF editing app PDF Expert has been updated to add support for all of the new hotness that iOS and iPadOS 13 offer up. The update is free and available for download now.

After the public release of PDF Expert 7 back in August, our team has been busy working on readying the next set of major features to be shipped in the app. PDF Expert 7 is the biggest release of PDF Expert to date, bringing in a ton of features and improvements to your PDF experience on your iPhone and iPad. Today, we're delighted to introduce the new PDF Expert with some exciting new features and powerful experiences made possible by iOS 13 and iPadOS for iPhones and iPads.

Like so many of the other apps that have been updated in recent days, PDF Expert now supports Dark Mode. Not only does that look great, but the theory goes that it will also be less harsh on your eyes. If you're a secret midnight PDF editor, this update is for you.

Developer Readdle has also included support for PencilKit, improving the way Apple Pencil owners will interact with documents on-screen. Speaking of interacting on-screen, new gestures are also included to make it easier than ever to work with your PDF of choice.

For the true productivity fiend Readdle has also added support for multiple windows. This is multitasking at its best with two different documents open side-by-side. Comparing versions of files or just taking notes while editing a PDF are just two of the situations where having multiple PDF Expert windows open at a single time can be super helpful. But hardcore multitaskers won't need us to tell them that!

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Top 4 Free Alternatives to PDF Expert

PDF Expert is a popular PDF application in the MacOS ecosystem. EarTrumpet Free Download, the application is fairly limited in what you can do. While there are some basic features in PDF Expert Mac, the advanced features are lacking, such as OCR. For basic and individual users, PDF expert might be enough. But if you are running a successful business, you need a complete PDF solution that will be able to meet all your standards and requests.

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One of the best PDF Expert Mac alternative options is PDFelement. Unlike PDF Expert, it comes with all of the advanced features you need for your daily tasks.

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The complete solution is available in more than 20 languages, including Dutch, Chinese, English, Spanish, French, German, and others.

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The PDF tool by Nuance is one of PDF Expert 6 alternatives you can get. The PDF editor by Nuance is aimed at the business user who needs workflow, sharing features, and similar advanced features that home packages do not include. You can still get the standard version, but the advanced features are not available.

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Foxit PDF tool is a complete PDF software solution that is usable for both personal and business users. The familiar interface has many advanced and common features. But what shines the most is the multilingual capabilities that make Foxit great choice for international business.

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With all the basic features there, you might feel like this is almost the same tool as PDF Expert. Adobe lacks some of the advanced features of top-rated PDF programs. However, the basic tools are sometimes more than enough for some users. The problem with the program is the difficulty of use.

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Readdle, the company behind PDF expert, often offers promo codes. You can find them on websites like dayscoupon.com, offers.com, and similar.

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PDF Expert is a built-in macOS application. It is easy to see what users are saying with a simple Google search. At g2crowd, one of the largest and best websites for customer reviews, PDF Expert has received both good and bad reviews. Here are some examples:

- I'm fully satisfied with PDF Expert. Their support team is really helpful, but usually, the built-in help on the "New Tab" is good enough

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Using PDF expert should be simple and easy to do. There are guides and tutorials for every feature and for every task you can find on the website of the product.

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How to Edit PDF with PDF Expert on Mac

PDF Expert is a software built with different editing options. This software allows you to change texts, add images, replace images, add links, and change font style and color. Moreover, you can use it to combine PDFs, split, and fill out PDF forms. To be able to edit PDF with PDF expert you need to visit its official website and download the Mac version then follow these steps.

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Go to the website of PDF Expert to download a free trial version of PDF Expert Mac. Install and open the PDF Expert on your Mac after the download process.

Open the product on your Mac, and then click on "File" and open the PDF file with the program.

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Still, under the "Edit" option click on the "Image" icon and move to space where you want to add an image. Click on it and upload the image from your Mac.

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