f major scale french horn

Bb concert is an F on the French horn, so we're going to be playing an F major scale when the band director says, “Bb concert scale, ready, GO!”. Two-octave G, D, A, E, F, B-flat, and E-flat major scale. Two-octave B-flat and A Major scales (French horn). • Two-octave F and E major scales. The French Horn is a transposing instrument that is most commonly in the If there is only 1 flat (Bb), then the key is Concert F Major.

F major scale french horn -

How many sharps are in concert D?

two sharps

What is concert BB on horn?

When a Bb trumpet plays a written F, it sounds the concert pitch Eb. When an Eb alto sax plays a written G, it sounds the concert pitch Bb. When an F horn plays a written E, it sounds the concert pitch A.

What key is the French horn in?

The French Horn is a transposing instrument that is most commonly in the key of F. This means the note sounds a fifth lower than the note written. For example, if the Horn plays a C it will sound the note F in Concert pitch.

What is concert A?

Concert pitch is the pitch reference to which a group of musical instruments are tuned for a performance. Music for transposing instruments is transposed into different keys from that of non-transposing instruments. For example, playing a written C on a B♭ clarinet or trumpet produces a non-transposing instrument’s B♭.

What is a concert key signature?

The key for a piece of music can be determined by its key signature. If the key signature is comprised of flats, then the 2nd to last flat is the key of the piece. If there is only 1 flat (Bb), then the key is Concert F Major. If there are no flats or sharps, then the key is Concert C Major.

What does Concert F mean?

Concert pitch refers to the universal standard pitch, A=440hz. Music has an extremely complex history. And now transposing instruments exist. Not all Cs are the same. In an orchestra, if the director asks the string instruments to play a C major scale, everyone (violins, violas, cellos, basses) plays a C major scale.

What note is concert F on clarinet?

When you play the pitch “C” on an E flat instrument, it will sound like concert E flat. The most commonly played clarinet is the “B flat” or soprano clarinet….Understanding Clarinet Transposition.

Written E flat Clarinet PitchActual Concert Pitch
GB flat
G flatB double flat
F sharpA
FA flat

What does 3 flats in a key signature mean?

E-flat major

What is the key signature if there is one flat?

Scales with flat key signatures

Major keyNumber of flatsFlat notes
F major1B♭
B♭ major2B♭, E♭
E♭ major3B♭, E♭, A♭
A♭ major4B♭, E♭, A♭, D♭

What is the easiest way to identify a key signature?

To find the name of a key signature with sharps, look at the sharp farthest to the right. The key signature is the note a half step above that last sharp. Key signatures can specify major or minor keys. To determine the name of a minor key, find the name of the key in major and then count backwards three half steps.

How do you identify a major scale?

To determine the major key, all you have to do it go one half-step up from the last sharp listed.

  1. In this example, an A-Sharp is highlighted.
  2. One half-step up from A-Sharp is B.
  3. The key is B Major.

What are the 12 major keys?

They are F-sharp, C-sharp, G-sharp, D-sharp, and A-sharp. The scale is made up of: B, C-sharp, D-sharp, E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A-sharp, B.

Which key is the highest in music?

“Highest” meaning highest tone possible means that the highest tone is F♯/G♭10, 5 octaves 6 semitones above concert A, A4 = 440Hz. C-sharp major and A-sharp minor have the highest number of sharps (seven) while C-flat major and A-flat minor both have seven flats.

What are the 12 major scales in order?

12 Major Scales Study Guide

  • C major scale. The C major scale is the only major scale without black keys, so it’s easy to begin with.
  • G major scale. The G major scale has one black key, F#.
  • D major scale. The D major scale has two, F# and C#.
  • A major scale.
  • E major scale.
  • F major scale.
  • B major scale.
Источник: https://www.mvorganizing.org/how-many-sharps-are-in-concert-d/

French Horn Major Scales

  
Concert Bb (Your F Scale) 3
    
     
3

  
             
           
         3
      
Concert Eb (Your Bb Scale) 3
      

         
         
Concert Ab (Your Eb Scale)
    
3
    
3

                       
          
 
3
     
     
Concert Db (Your Ab Scale)
       
3

          
         
Concert Gb (Your Db Scale)

3
   
3

               
      
        
       
             3 
Concert F (Your C Scale) 3

          
    
      
   

    
3
    
Concert C (Your G Scale) 3

   
                  
           
  3
              3 
      
Concert G (Your D Scale)

             
     

 
3
       
Concert D (Your A Scale)
            
3

         
         


Concert A (Your E Scale)
   
3

     
3

                     
         
                3
Concert E (Your B Scale) 3

                

          

     
Concert B (Your F# Scale) 3
     
        
3

               
         

       
Concert Bb Chromatic (Your F Chromatic Scale)

                           
                

Источник: https://es.scribd.com/document/471910103/French-Horn-Major-Scales

French horn

Type of brass instrument

The French horn (since the 1930s known simply as the horn in professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The double horn in F/B♭ (technically a variety of German horn) is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras and bands. A musician who plays a horn is known as a horn player or hornist.

Pitch is controlled through the combination of the following factors: speed of air through the instrument (controlled by the player's lungs and thoracic diaphragm); diameter and tension of lip aperture (by the player's lip muscles—the embouchure) in the mouthpiece; plus, in a modern horn, the operation of valves by the left hand, which route the air into extra sections of tubing. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves, but some, especially older horns, use piston valves (similar to a trumpet's) and the Vienna horn uses double-piston valves, or pumpenvalves. The backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound in concert situations, in contrast to the more piercing quality of the trumpet. A horn without valves is known as a natural horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument (similar to a bugle). Pitch may also be controlled by the position of the hand in the bell, in effect reducing the bell's diameter. The pitch of any note can easily be raised or lowered by adjusting the hand position in the bell.[2] The key of a natural horn can be changed by adding different crooks of different lengths.

Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, which is tuned to F or less commonly B♭. The more common double horn has a fourth, trigger valve, usually operated by the thumb, which routes the air to one set of tubing tuned to F or another tuned to B♭ which expands the horn range to over four octaves and blends with flutes or clarinets in a woodwind ensemble. Triple horns with five valves are also made, usually tuned in F, B♭, and a descant E♭ or F. There are also double horns with five valves tuned in B♭, descant E♭ or F, and a stopping valve, which greatly simplifies the complicated and difficult hand-stopping technique,[3] though these are rarer. Also common are descant doubles, which typically provide B♭ and alto F branches.

A crucial element in playing the horn deals with the mouthpiece. Most of the time, the mouthpiece is placed in the exact center of the lips, but, because of differences in the formation of the lips and teeth of different players, some tend to play with the mouthpiece slightly off center.[4] Although the exact side-to-side placement of the mouthpiece varies for most horn players, the up-and-down placement of the mouthpiece is generally two-thirds on the upper lip and one-third on the lower lip.[4] When playing higher notes, the majority of players exert a small degree of additional pressure on the lips using the mouthpiece. However, this is undesirable from the perspective of both endurance and tone: excessive mouthpiece pressure makes the horn sound forced and harsh, and decreases player's stamina due to the resulting constricted flow of blood to the lips and lip muscles.[4]

Name[edit]

The name "French horn" first came into use in the late 17th century. At that time, French makers were preeminent in the manufacture of hunting horns, and were credited with creating the now-familiar, circular "hoop" shape of the instrument. As a result, these instruments were often called, even in English, by their French names: trompe de chasse or cor de chasse (the clear modern distinction between trompes [trumpets] and cors [horns] did not exist at that time).[5]

German makers first devised crooks to make such horns playable in different keys—so musicians came to use "French" and "German" to distinguish the simple hunting horn from the newer horn with crooks, which in England was also called by the Italian name corno cromatico (chromatic horn).[5]

More recently, "French horn" is often used colloquially, though the adjective has normally been avoided when referring to the European orchestral horn, ever since the German horn began replacing the French-style instrument in British orchestras around 1930.[6] The International Horn Society has recommended since 1971 that the instrument be simply called the horn.[7][8]

There is also a more specific use of "French horn" to describe a particular horn type, differentiated from the German horn and Vienna horn. In this sense, "French horn" refers to a narrow-bore instrument (10.8–11.0 mm [0.43–0.43 in]) with three Périnet (piston) valves. It retains the narrow bell-throat and mouthpipe crooks of the orchestral hand horn of the late 18th century, and most often has an "ascending" third valve. This is a whole-tone valve arranged so that with the valve in the "up" position the valve loop is engaged, but when the valve is pressed the loop is cut out, raising the pitch by a whole tone.[9]

History[edit]

Main article: Horn (instrument)

"How to shout and blow horns."—Facsimile of a miniature in a manuscript of the hunting manual of Gaston Phoebus(15th century)

As the name indicates, humans originally used to blow on the actual horns of animals before starting to emulate them in metal. This original usage survives in the shofar, a ram's horn, which plays an important role in Jewish religious rituals.

Early metal horns were less complex than modern horns, consisting of brass tubes with a slightly flared opening (the bell) wound around a few times. These early "hunting" horns were originally played on a hunt, often while mounted, and the sound they produced was called a recheat. Change of pitch was controlled entirely by the lips (the horn not being equipped with valves until the 19th century). Without valves, only the notes within the harmonic series are available. By combining a long length with a narrow bore, the French horn's design allows the player to easily reach the higher overtones which differ by whole tones or less, thus making it capable of playing melodies before valves were invented.[4]

Early horns were commonly pitched in B♭ alto, A, A♭, G, F, E, E♭, D, C, and B♭ basso. Since the only notes available were those on the harmonic series of one of those pitches, they had no ability to play in different keys. The remedy for this limitation was the use of crooks, i.e., sections of tubing of differing length that, when inserted, altered the length of the instrument, and thus its pitch.[10]

In the mid-18th century, horn players began to insert the right hand into the bell to change the length of the instrument, adjusting the tuning up to the distance between two adjacent harmonics depending on how much of the opening was covered.

In 1818 the German makers Heinrich Stölzel and Friedrich Blümel patented the first valved horn, using rotary valves. Piston valves were introduced in France about 1839 by François Périnet.[11] Valves were initially intended to overcome problems associated with changing crooks during a performance. Valves' unreliability, musical taste, and players' distrust, among other reasons, slowed their adoption into mainstream. Many traditional conservatories and players refused to use them at first, claiming that the valveless horn, or natural horn, was a better instrument. Some musicians who specialize in period instruments use a natural horn to play in original performance styles, to try to recapture the sound of an older piece's original performances.[12]

The use of valves, however, opened up a great deal more flexibility in playing in different keys; in effect, the horn became an entirely different instrument, fully chromatic for the first time. Valves were originally used primarily as a means to play in different keys without crooks, not for harmonic playing. That is reflected in compositions for horns, which only began to include chromatic passages in the late 19th century.[citation needed] When valves were invented, generally, the French made smaller horns with piston valves and the Germans made larger horns with rotary valves.[clarification needed]

Types[edit]

Horns may be classified in single horn, double horn, compensating double horn, and triple horn as well as the versatility of detachable bells.

Single horn in F, student model.

Single horn[edit]

Single horns use a single set of tubes connected to the valves. This allows for simplicity of use and a much lighter weight. They are usually in the keys of F or B♭, although many F horns have longer slides to tune them to E♭, and almost all B♭ horns have a valve to put them in the key of A. The problem with single horns is the inevitable choice between accuracy or tone – while the F horn has the "typical" horn sound, above third-space C accuracy is a concern for the majority of players because, by its nature, one plays high in the horn's harmonic series where the overtones are closer together. This led to the development of the B♭ horn, which, although easier to play accurately, has a less desirable sound in the mid and especially the low register where it is not able to play all of the notes. The solution has been the development of the double horn, which combines the two into one horn with a single lead pipe and bell. Both main types of single horns are still used today as student models because they are cheaper and lighter than double horns. In addition, the single B♭ horns are sometimes used in solo and chamber performances and the single F survives orchestrally as the Vienna horn. Additionally, single F alto and B♭ alto descants are used in the performance of some baroque horn concertos and F, B♭ and F alto singles are occasionally used by jazz performers.

Dennis Brain's benchmark recordings of the Mozart Horn Concerti were made on a single B♭ instrument by Gebr. Alexander, now on display at the Royal Academy of Music in London.

Double horn[edit]

The valvesof a Conn6D double horn. The three lever keys (above the large valves) can be depressed toward the large outer tube. The thumb key (near the left-most valve) moves inward toward the three finger keys.
Scheme of a double horn (view from underneath)
  1. Mouthpiece
  2. Leadpipe, where the mouthpiece is placed
  3. Adjustable handrest
  4. Water key (also called a spit valve)
  5. Fourth valve to change between F and B♭ pitches
  6. Valve levers, operated with the left hand
  7. Rotary valves
  8. Slides, for tuning each valve
  9. Long tubing for F pitch with slide
  10. General slide
  11. Short tubing for B♭ pitch with slide
  12. Bellpipe
  13. Bell; the right hand is cupped inside this

Despite the introduction of valves, the single F horn proved difficult for use in the highest range, where the partials grew closer and closer, making accuracy a great challenge. An early solution was simply to use a horn of higher pitch—usually B♭. The use of the F versus the B♭ horn was extensively debated among horn players of the late 19th century, until the German horn maker Ed Kruspe (namesake of his family's brass instrument firm) produced a prototype of the "double horn" in 1897.

The double horn also combines two instruments into a single frame: the original horn in F, and a second, higher horn keyed in B♭. By using a fourth valve (usually operated by the thumb), the horn player can quickly switch from the deep, warm tones of the F horn to the higher, brighter tones of the B♭ horn, or vice versa, as the horn player may choose to have the horn set into B♭ by default by making a simple adjustment to the valves. The two sets of tones are commonly called "sides" of the horn. Using the fourth valve not only changes the basic length (and thus the harmonic series and pitch) of the instrument, it also causes the three main valves to use proportionate slide lengths.[13]

In the US, the two most common styles ("wraps") of double horns are named Kruspe and Geyer/Knopf, after the first instrument makers who developed and standardized them. The Kruspe wrap locates the B♭ change valve above the first valve, near the thumb. The Geyer wrap has the change valve behind the third valve, near the little finger (although the valve's trigger is still played with the thumb). In effect, the air flows in a completely different direction on the other model. Kruspe wrap horns tend to be larger in the bell throat than the Geyer wrap horns. Typically, Kruspe models are constructed from nickel silver (also called German silver, an alloy of copper, nickel and zinc, containing no actual silver) while Geyer horns tend to be of yellow brass. Both models have their own strengths and weaknesses, and while the choice of instrument is very personal, an orchestral horn section is usually found to have either one or the other, owing to the differences in tone color, response, and projection of the two different styles.[citation needed]

In Europe the most popular horns are arguably those made by Gebr. Alexander, of Mainz (particularly the Alexander 103), and those made by Paxman in London. In Germany and the Benelux countries, the Alex 103 is extremely popular. These horns do not fit strictly into the Kruspe or Knopf camps, but have features of both. Alexander prefers the traditional medium bell size, which they have produced for many years, whereas Paxman do offer their models in a range of bell throat sizes. In the United States, the Conn 8D, a mass-produced instrument based on the Kruspe design, has been extremely popular in many areas (New York, Los Angeles, Cleveland, Philadelphia). Since roughly the early 1990s, however, for reasons ranging from changing tastes to a general dislike of Conn's newer 8Ds, orchestras have been moving away from the popular Conn 8D. Geyer model horns (by Carl Geyer, Karl Hill, Keith Berg, Steve Lewis, Jerry Lechniuk, Dan Rauch, and Ricco-Kuhn) are used in other areas (San Francisco, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Boston, Houston). The CF Schmidt double, with its unique piston change valve, is occasionally found in sections playing Geyer/Knopf model equipment.[citation needed]

Detachable bell[edit]

The horn, although not large, is awkward in its shape and does not lend itself well to transport where space is shared or limited, especially on planes. To compensate, horn makers can make the bell detachable; this allows for smaller and more manageable horn cases.

Related horns[edit]

Main article: Horn (instrument)

The variety in horn history necessitates consideration of the natural horn, Vienna horn, mellophone, marching horn, and Wagner tuba.

Natural horn[edit]

A natural horn has no valves, but can be tuned to a different key by inserting different tubing, as during a rest period.

Main article: Natural horn

The natural horn is the ancestor of the modern horn. It is essentially descended from hunting horns, with its pitch controlled by air speed, aperture (opening of the lips through which air passes) and the use of the right hand moving around, as well as in and out of the bell. Although a few recent composers have written specifically for the natural horn (e.g., György Ligeti's Hamburg Concerto), today it is played primarily as a period instrument. The natural horn can only play from a single harmonic series at a time because there is only one length of tubing available to the horn player. A proficient player can indeed alter the pitch by partially muting the bell with the right hand, thus enabling the player to reach some notes that are not part of the instrument's natural harmonic series – of course this technique also affects the quality of the tone. The player has a choice of key by using crooks to change the length of tubing.[14][verification needed]

Vienna horn[edit]

Main article: Vienna horn

The Vienna horn is a special horn used primarily in Vienna, Austria. Instead of using rotary valves or piston valves, it uses the pumpenvalve (or Vienna valve), which is a double-piston operating inside the valve slides, and usually situated on the opposite side of the corpus from the player's left hand, and operated by a long pushrod. Unlike the modern horn, which has grown considerably larger internally (for a bigger, broader, and louder tone), and considerably heavier (with the addition of valves and tubing in the case of the double horn) the Vienna horn very closely mimics the size and weight of the natural horn, (although the valves do add some weight, they are lighter than rotary valves) even using crooks in the front of the horn, between the mouthpiece and the instrument. Although instead of the full range of keys, Vienna horn players usually use an F crook and it is looked down upon to use others, though switching to an A or B♭ crook for higher pitched music does happen on occasion. Vienna horns are often used with funnel shaped mouthpieces similar to those used on the natural horn, with very little (if any) backbore and a very thin rim. The Viennese horn requires very specialized technique and can be quite challenging to play, even for accomplished players of modern horns. The Vienna horn has a warmer, softer sound than the modern horn. Its pumpenvalves facilitate a continuous transition between notes (glissando); conversely, a more precise operating of the valves is required to avoid notes that sound out of tune.

Mellophone[edit]

Main article: Mellophone

Two instruments are called a mellophone. The first is an instrument shaped somewhat like a horn, in that it is formed in a circle. It has piston valves and is played with the right hand on the valves. Manufacturing of this instrument sharply decreased in the middle of the 20th century, and this mellophone (or mellophonium) rarely appears today.

The second instrument is used in modern brass bands and marching bands, and is more accurately called a "marching mellophone". A derivative of the F alto horn, it is keyed in F. It is shaped like a flugelhorn, with piston valves played with the right hand and a forward-pointing bell. These horns are generally considered better marching instruments than regular horns because their position is more stable on the mouth, they project better, and they weigh less. It is primarily used as the middle voice of drum and bugle corps. Though they are usually played with a V-cup cornet-like mouthpiece, their range overlaps the common playing range of the horn. This mouthpiece switch makes the mellophone louder, less mellow, and more brassy and brilliant, making it more appropriate for marching bands. Often now with the use of converters, traditional conical horn mouthpieces are used to achieve the more mellow sound of a horn to make the marching band sound more like a concert band.

As they are pitched in F or G and their range overlaps that of the horn, mellophones can be used in place of the horn in brass and marching band settings. Mellophones are, however, sometimes unpopular with horn players because the mouthpiece change can be difficult and requires a different embouchure. Mouthpiece adapters are available so that a horn mouthpiece can fit into the mellophone lead pipe, but this does not compensate for the many differences that a horn player must adapt to. The "feel" of the mellophone can be foreign to a horn player. Another unfamiliar aspect of the mellophone is that it is designed to be played with the right hand instead of the left (though it can be played with the left). Intonation can also be an issue with the mellophone.[why?]

While horn players may be asked to play the mellophone, it is unlikely that the instrument was ever intended as a substitute for the horn, mainly because of the fundamental differences described.[15] As an instrument it compromises between the ability to sound like a horn, while being used like a trumpet or flugelhorn, a tradeoff that sacrifices acoustic properties for ergonomics.

Marching horn[edit]

The marching horn is quite similar to the mellophone in shape and appearance, but is pitched in the key of B♭, the same as the B♭ side of a double horn. It is also available in F alto, one octave above the F side of a double horn. The marching horn is also played with a horn mouthpiece (unlike the mellophone, which needs an adapter to fit the horn mouthpiece). These instruments are primarily used in marching bands so the sound comes from a forward-facing bell, as dissipation of the sound from the backward-facing bell becomes a concern in open-air environments. Many college marching bands and drum corps, however, use mellophones instead, which, with many marching bands, better balance the tone of the other brass instruments; additionally, mellophones require less special training of trumpeters, who considerably outnumber horn players.[16]

Wagner tuba[edit]

Main article: Wagner tuba

The Wagner tuba is a rare brass instrument that is essentially a horn modified to have a larger bell throat and a vertical bell. Despite its name and its somewhat tuba-shaped appearance, it is generally not considered part of the tuba family, because the instrument's relatively narrow bore causes it to play more like a horn. Invented for Richard Wagner specifically for his work Der Ring des Nibelungen, it has since been written for by various other composers, including Bruckner, Stravinsky and Richard Strauss. It uses a horn mouthpiece, and is available as a single tuba in B♭ or F, or, more recently, as a double tuba similar to the double horn. It is usually played in a range similar to that of the euphonium, but its possible range is the same as that of the horn, extending from low F♯, below the bass clef staff to high C above the treble staff when read in F. The low pedal tones are substantially easier to play on the Wagner tuba than on the horn. Wagner viewed the regular horn as a woodwind rather than a brass instrument, evidenced by his placing of the horn parts in his orchestral scores in the woodwind group and not in their usual place above the trumpets in the brass section.

Repertoire[edit]

See also: List of compositions for horn

Discussion of the repertoire of horns must recognize the different needs of orchestras and concert bands in contrast to marching bands, as above, but also the use of horns in a wide variety of music, including chamber music and jazz.

Orchestra and concert band[edit]

The horn is most often used as an orchestral and concert band instrument, with its singular tone being employed by composers to achieve specific effects. Leopold Mozart, for example, used horns to signify the hunt, as in his Jagdsinfonie (hunting symphony). Telemann wrote much for the horn, and it features prominently in the work of Handel and in Bach's Brandenburg Concerto no. 1. Once the technique of hand-stopping had been developed, allowing fully chromatic playing, composers began to write seriously for the horn. Gustav Mahler made great use of the horn's uniquely haunting and distant sound in his symphonies, notably the famous Nachtmusik (serenade) section of his Symphony No. 7.

Many composers have written works that have become favorites in the horn repertoire. These include Poulenc (Elegie) and Saint-Saëns (Morceau de Concert for horn and orchestra, op. 94 and Romance, op. 36). Others, particularly Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whose friend Joseph Leutgeb was a noted horn player, wrote extensively for the instrument, including concerti and other solo works. Mozart's A Musical Joke satirizes the limitations of contemporary horn playing, including the risk of selecting the wrong crook by mistake.

The development of the valve horn was exploited by romantic composers such as Bruckner, Mahler, and Richard Strauss, whose father was a well-known professional horn player. Strauss's Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks contains one of the best known horn solos from this period, relying on the chromatic facility of the valved horn. Schumann's Konzertstück for four horns and orchestra is a notable three-movement work. Brahms had a lifelong love-affair with the instrument, with many prominently featured parts throughout his four symphonies. However players today typically play Brahms on modern valved instruments.

Chamber music[edit]

There is an abundance of chamber music repertoire for horn. It is a standard member of the wind quintet and brass quintet, and often appears in other configurations, such as Brahms' Horn Trio for violin, horn and piano (for which, however, Brahms specified the natural horn). Also, the horn can be used by itself in a horn ensemble or "horn choir". The horn choir is especially practical because the extended range of the horn provides the composer or arranger with more possibilities, registerally, sonically, and contrapuntally.

Orchestral and concert band horns[edit]

A classical orchestra usually has at least two French horn players. Typically, the first horn played a high part and the second horn played a low part. Composers from Beethoven (early 1800s) onwards commonly used four horns. Here, the first and second horns played as a pair (first horn being high, second horn being low), and the third and fourth horns played as another pair (third horn being high, fourth horn being low).

Music written for the modern horn follows a similar pattern with the first and third horns being high and the second and fourth horns being low. This configuration serves multiple purposes. It is easier to play high when the adjacent player is playing low and vice versa. Pairing makes it easier to write for horns, as the third and fourth horns can take over from the first and second horns or play contrasting material. For example, if the piece is in C minor, the first and second horns might be in C, the tonic major key, which could get most of the notes, and the third and fourth horns might be in E♭, the relative major key, to fill in the gaps.

Many orchestral horn sections in the 2010s also have an assistant[17] who doubles the first horn part for selected passages, joining in loud parts, playing instead of the principal if there is a first horn solo approaching, or alternating with the principal if the part is tiring to play.[18] Often the assistant is asked to play a passage after resting a long time. Also, he or she may be asked to enter in the middle of a passage, exactly matching the sound, articulation, and overall interpretation of the principal, thus enabling the principal horn to rest a bit.

In jazz[edit]

See also: Category:Jazz horn players and French horn in jazz

The French horn was at first rarely used in jazz music (Note that colloquially in jazz, the word "horn" refers to any wind instrument). Notable exponents, however, began including French horn in jazz pieces and ensembles. These include composer/arranger Gil Evans who included the French horn as an ensemble instrument from the 1940s, first in Claude Thornhill's groups, and later with the pioneering cool jazz nonet (nine-piece group) led by trumpeter Miles Davis, and in many other projects that sometimes also featured Davis, as well as Don Ellis, a trumpet player from Stan Kenton's jazz band. Notable works of Ellis' jazz French horn include "Strawberry Soup" and other songs on the album Tears of Joy. Notable improvising horn players in jazz include Julius Watkins, Willie Ruff, John Graas, David Amram, John Clark, Vincent Chancey, Giovanni Hoffer, Arkady Shilkloper, Adam Unsworth, and Tom Varner.

Notable horn players[edit]

See also: List of horn players

  • Hermann Baumann – 1964 winner of the ARD International Music Competition and former principal horn in various orchestras, including the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra
  • Radek Baborák – famous Czech horn player, former principal horn in Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, 1994 winner of the ARD International Music Competition, winner of the Concertino Praga in 1988 and 1990, holder of a Grammy Award (1995)
  • Aubrey Brain – celebrated British horn player, father of Dennis Brain and a champion of the French style of instrument
  • Dennis Brain – former principal horn of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and the Philharmonia Orchestra, with whom Herbert von Karajan made well-known recordings of Mozart's horn concertos
  • Alan Civil – former principal horn of the Philharmonia Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, and the BBC Symphony Orchestra
  • John Cerminaro – former principal horn of the Seattle Symphony, New York Philharmonic, and Los Angeles Philharmonic
  • Dale Clevenger – former principal horn of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (1966–2013)
  • Vincent DeRosa – former principal horn for a number of Hollywood studios and composers including John Williams
  • Stefan Dohr – current principal horn, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra
  • Richard Dunbar – a player of the French horn, playing in the free jazz scene
  • Philip Farkas – former principal horn of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, developer of the Holton-Farkas horn and author of several books on horn and brass playing
  • Douglas Hill – former principal horn of the Madison Symphony Orchestra, notable teacher and composer
  • Julie Landsman – former Principal Horn for the Metropolitan Opera and well-known horn pedagogue
  • Stefan de Leval Jezierski – longest serving horn, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra
  • Philip Myers – former principal horn of the New York Philharmonic
  • Jeff Nelsen – Canadian Brass hornist 2000–2004, 2007–2010; Indiana University Jacobs School of Music horn faculty since 2006
  • Giovanni Punto – horn virtuoso and hand-stopping pioneer, after whom the International Horn Society's annual horn playing award is named, also a violinist, concertmaster, and composer
  • David Pyatt – winner of the BBC Young Musician of the Year competition in 1988 and current principal horn of the London Philharmonic Orchestra
  • Gunther Schuller – former principal horn of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, and played with Miles Davis
  • Barry Tuckwell – former principal horn of the London Symphony Orchestra and author of several books on horn playing
  • William VerMeulen – horn soloist and former principal horn of Honolulu Symphony Orchestra current principal Horn of the Houston Symphony Orchestra and professor at Rice University
  • Radovan Vlatković – 1983 winner of the ARD International Music Competition, former principal horn and soloist of the Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra, and professor at the Mozarteum University of Salzburg
  • Sarah Willis – first female brass-player in the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, US-born, British ambassador for the horn and classical music through television programs such as Sarah's Music on Deutsche Welle.

People who are more notable for their other achievements, but also play the horn, include actors Ewan McGregor and David Ogden Stiers, comedian and television host Jon Stewart, journalist Chuck Todd, The Who bassist and singer John Entwistle, and rapper and record producer B.o.B.[19]

Gallery[edit]

  • A modern full double horn

  • A replica of a Mozart-era natural horn

  • A hunting horn in E♭

  • An older, French-made cor à pistons in E♭

  • A French-made horn with piston valves

  • A horn by Alexander, once owned by Dennis Brain

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Piston, Walter (1955). Orchestration (1st ed.). New York: Norton. ISBN . OCLC 300471.
  2. ^Whitener, Scott and Cathy L. (1990). A complete guide to brass : instruments and pedagogy. New York: Schirmer Books. pp. 40, 44. ISBN . OCLC 19128016.
  3. ^Pope, Ken. "Alexander 107 Descant w/Stopping Valve - $7800". Pope Instrument Repair. Retrieved 2018-02-22.
  4. ^ abcdFarkas, Philip (1956). The art of French horn playing : a treatise on the problems and techniques of French Horn playing …. Evanston, Il.: Summy-Birchard. pp. 6, 21, 65. ISBN . OCLC 5587694.
  5. ^ abBeakes, Jennifer (2007). The Horn Parts in Handel's Operas and Oratorios and the Horn Players who Performed in These Works. City University of New York. pp. 50, 116–18, 176, 223–25, 439–40, 444–45.
  6. ^Del Mar, Norman (1983). Anatomy of the orchestra (2nd print., with revisions ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 215. ISBN . OCLC 10561390.
  7. ^Meek, Harold. "Harold Meek (1914–1998)". International Horn Society. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  8. ^Meek, Harold (February 1971). "The Horn!". The Horn Call. 1 (1): 19–20.
  9. ^Baines, Anthony (1976). Brass instruments : their history and development. New York: Scribner. pp. 221–23. ISBN . OCLC 3795926.
  10. ^"Grinell College Musical".
  11. ^Meek, Harold L. (1997). Horn and conductor : reminiscences of a practitioner with a few words of advice. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. p. 33. ISBN . OCLC 35636932.
  12. ^See, e.g., the performance of Johann Sebastian Bach's Mass in B Minor as performed by the Proms of London in the movement from 45:40 onward in "Mass in B Minor". You Tube. 2012. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
  13. ^Backus, John, The Acoustical Foundations of Music, 2nd ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977),[page needed]ISBN 0-393-09096-5.
  14. ^Diagram Group. (1976). Musical instruments of the world. Published for Unicef by Facts On File. p. 68. ISBN . OCLC 223164947.
  15. ^Monks, Greg (2006-01-06). "The History of the Mellophone". Al's Mellophone Page. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
  16. ^Mellophones, as indicated, use the same fingering as trumpets and are operated by the right hand.
  17. ^Ericson, John. "Horn Sections With and Without an Associate Principal" 28 March 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2012
  18. ^Bacon, Thomas. "The Horn Section"Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 14 January 2012
  19. ^Rees, Jasper (2009). A Devil to Play. HarperCollins.

External links[edit]

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Horn

Brass instruments

Modern
  • Trumpet (Contrabass trumpet, Bass trumpet, Pocket trumpet, Piccolo trumpet, Fanfare trumpet, Firebird, Flumpet)
  • Cornet (Soprano cornet)
  • Horn (French horn, German horn, Vienna horn, Wagner tuba)
  • Trombone (Bass trombone, Superbone, Cimbasso)
  • Saxhorn (Baritone horn, Alto/Tenor horn, Flugelhorn (Fiscorn, Kuhlohorn))
  • Tuba (Euphonium, Double bell euphonium, Subcontrabass tuba)
Antiquated
Indigenous
Marching
Parts and technique
Ensembles and groups
Other
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_horn

Concert Pitch and Transposition

HEY!!! What's this Concert Bb or Concert C major scale stuff, anyway!?

Did you know that not all instruments sound like a C on the piano when you play a C on the instrument?? With instruments in so many different keys (meaning what note does it sound like if you play the instrument's C), it is helpful to have one place from which to start. So, we use the piano's notes as "concert pitch".

Flutes, oboes, bassoons, trombones, tubas, baritones reading bass clef and all string instruments are concert pitch instruments: when they play a C it sounds like a C on the piano. They don't have to transpose. (All instruments that mostly read bass clef are in C, but some - like bass guitar and string bass - are written an octave higher to keep the music in the staff).

Clarinets, bass clarinets, trumpets, tenor saxes and baritones playing treble clef are Bb instruments: when they play a C it sounds like a Bb on the piano. So, if they want to play a concert Bb scale, they start on a C (they have to think up a whole step). Concert C is their D, Concert Ab is their Bb.

Alto and baritone saxes, alto clarinet and most alto horns are Eb instruments: when they play a C it sounds like a Eb on the piano. So, if they want to play a concert Bb scale, they start on a G (they have to think up a six steps in the scale - or down a minor third). Concert C is their A, Concert Ab is their F.

French horns and some alto horns and the English horn (that's the one related to the oboe) are F instruments: when they play a C it sounds like a F on the piano. So, if they want to play a concert Bb scale, they start on a F (they have to think up five scale steps). Concert C is their G, Concert Ab is their Eb.

By the time you are an eighth grader, you should know your scales (right off, no hesitation and without looking up key signatures or asking what note you start on or anything!) for the following concert pitches :

  • Concert C
  • Concert F
  • Concert Bb
  • Concert Eb
  • Concert Ab
  • Concert G

Click here if you need a cheat sheet to double check to see if you have your transpositions correct.

And... you should be able to find your scale for any other concert pitch that a conductor may request. You might want to print out some of this info for reference or you can get hard copies from MsM.

Источник: https://bandnotes.info/tidbits/scales/transposition.htm

French horn (horn in F) scales - ENTIRE RANGE - major scales only - all ranges

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By: Mark Feezell, Ph.D.

For: Solo instrument (Horn in F)

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Programme Notes

Practice your French horn scales the right way - over the entire range of your instrument! These sheets include the major scales in circle-of-fifths order, with appropriate key signatures. Most instruments have several ranges available, for beginning or advanced players, so you can select the scales sheet(s) tailored to YOUR personal range. Ranges are indicated where C4=Middle C and each C begins a new octave. Many more are available - see "Associated scores."

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If you’ve been in a band or orchestra for more than a few months, you’ve probably been told the importance of learning your scales and arpeggios.

While lots of students (me included) rolled their eyes at the 100th time they are told this, it really is true.

Importance of Scales and Arpeggios

For brass instruments in general and the French horn in particular, there are two frameworks that make getting around on the instrument and learning new music much easier: the harmonic series, and scales/arpeggios.

The harmonic series is how all brass instruments work. Since the horn plays higher in the harmonic series than other brass, it’s even more important to be familiar with it. You should know at least the 1-12 partials (note names and intonation tendencies) on all 14 different fingering combinations for a standard double horn.

On the other hand, scales and arpeggios are how composers write music. This is drastically oversimplified, of course (and some composers definitely don’t use scales!), but having proficiency in all the major and minor scale forms and their arpeggios will do wonders for sight-reading and technique.

Learn Your Scales

To help you (and my students) learn scales, I’ve made a few different scale sheets.

I’ve made sheets with major scales (both 1 octave and 2 octaves), as well as all three different forms of minor scales (natural, harmonic, melodic) for students to learn these scales.

You can find these scale sheets here:

Once these scales are learned in their basic form, though, it’s time to develop more scale fluency.

To that end, I’ve created a few different extended scale exercises.

Extended Scale Exercises

Clarke Scale Exercises

The first step to scale fluency is becoming familiar with the first 5 notes in every major and minor key. To that end, I find that this variation on the famous Clarke Study #2, originally written for trumpet, is great.

These exercises are quite short, and it doesn’t take very long to add a few of these (starting in a comfortable range, of course) to a warm-up session. You can either go chromatically by doing an octave (or more) of these each day, or you pick a “key of the day” and do all the major and minor studies of that key in all the octaves you are able to play.

These should begin slowly (quarter = 72 or slower if necessary) and entirely slurred. The slow tempo and slur pattern help to develop good finger rhythms and coordination, which will be important if you want to speed these up!

Download Clarke Study #2 for Horn

Extended Scale Exercises

Once the Clarke studies are more fluid, you can start to practice the entire scale in a variety of ways.

My Extended Scale Exercise sheets contain lots of different ways to tackle each key. It covers major and (harmonic) minor fingering patterns, modes, and intervals for each key.

While each key has lots of exercises (14 pages!), not every single exercise should be done in a single sitting. Rather, pick a key and practice one scale pattern and one interval pattern.

This way you can practice everything over the course of a week or so, but not be overwhelmed in a single practice session.

Like the Clarke exercises, all these should be done slowly and smoothly at first, in order to make sure that the fingers, tongue, and air are working together efficiently. Additionally, for some keys, the upper notes may be a bit too high. It is okay to skip these measures at first and only practice the portions of the scale(s) that you’re able to do comfortably!

Extended Arpeggio Exercises

In addition to scales, it’s also important to be comfortable with arpeggios.

Like the scale sheets, these extended arpeggio exercises cover quite a lot of ground, but not everything needs to be practiced every day.

The arpeggio inversions are very good to practice for intonation work. The chord progression (I-IV-I-V7-I) exercise is useful both for ear training (this chord progression shows up a LOT) but also for flexibility.

To save space, I’ve only indicated the accidentals for the I-IV-I-V7-I progressions, but make sure you practice both these progressions and the arpeggio inversions in both major and minor.

Finally, I’ve found the arpeggio mode exercises especially challenging and energizing. Start off with the triplet version (slowly), and add in the 16th note version once you’ve gotten familiar with the chord progression and fingering pattern.

The arpeggio mode exercises are only written out in the major key since the major scale will actually cover major (3), minor (3), and diminished (1) arpeggio patterns.

Need More Help With Scales?

As always, if you have any questions about learning scales in general or these exercises in particular, don’t hesitate to send me a message via my contact form or leave a comment below!

If you find that you need some additional help with scales and arpeggios (or any other playing issues) I offer French horn lessons both in-person and online. You can find out more information on those lessons on my French horn teaching page.

One final thing – if you’ve found this site useful, it would mean a lot if you could donate to support this site. I enjoy providing materials for students (and teachers), but this material does take time to create. Thanks!

Источник: https://colindorman.com/french-horn-exercises/scales-and-arpeggios/

Concert G Major Scale French Horn

Concert c is their a concert ab is their f. Concert eb would be the bb scale for horns which has 2 flats in the key signature so starting on low bb it goes bb 1 c open d 1 eb 2 f 1 g open a 1 2 bb 1.

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French Horn Harmonics French Horn Harmonics

Finale 2006c all scales horn.

Concert g major scale french horn. Scales horn concert g d scale concert c g scale concert f c scale concert bb f scale concert eb bb scale concert ab eb scale concert db ab scale concert gb db scale concert bb chromatic scale f chromatic concert d a scale concert a e scale concert e b scale concert cb gb scale. Okay so if the f scale on the french horn is the b flat concert scale then what are the concert names for these french horn major scales. French horn 12 major scales f bb concert bb eb concert eb ab concert ab db concert db gb concert gb cb concert b e concert e a concert a d concert d g concert.

When they play a c it sounds like a f on the piano. To get started on learning how to play the instrument you will need a french horn fingering chart. Known for its beautiful rich tones the french horn is a brass instrument that blends in well but also provides depth to a bands overall sound.

French horn scales author. So if they want to play a concert bb scale they start on a g they have to think up a six steps in the scale or down a minor third. Above youll find our fingering chart which shows how to play french horn scales and notes.

Minor scales frenchhorn full score author. Then play the scale associated with that key. 10222010 110405 am.

The fingerings go along with a single french horn. To go from concert pitch to horn pitch f simply add one sharp or remove one flat from the key. Find out how to play all 12 major scales on a french horn with help from a horn player in this free video on musical instruments and french horns.

When learning the french horn its important to practice major scales while working on stringing a series of notes together. French horns and some alto horns and the english horn thats the one related to the oboe are f instruments.

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: F major scale french horn

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French horn

Type of brass instrument

The French horn (since the 1930s known simply as the horn in professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The double horn in F/B♭ (technically a variety of German horn) is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras and bands. A musician who plays a horn is known as a horn player or hornist.

Pitch is controlled through the combination of the following factors: speed of air through the instrument (controlled by the player's lungs and thoracic diaphragm); diameter and tension of lip aperture (by the player's lip muscles—the embouchure) in the mouthpiece; plus, in a modern horn, the operation of valves by the left hand, which route the air into extra sections of tubing. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves, but some, especially older horns, use piston valves (similar to a trumpet's) and the Vienna horn uses double-piston valves, or pumpenvalves. The backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound in concert situations, in contrast to the more piercing quality of the trumpet. A horn without valves is known as a natural horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument (similar to a bugle). Pitch may also be controlled by the position of the hand in the bell, in effect reducing the bell's diameter. The pitch of any note can easily be raised or lowered by adjusting the hand position in the bell.[2] The key of a natural horn can be changed by adding different crooks of different lengths.

Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, which is tuned to F or less commonly B♭. The more common double horn has a fourth, trigger valve, usually operated by the thumb, which routes the air to one set of tubing tuned to F or another tuned to B♭ which expands the horn range to over four octaves and blends with flutes or clarinets in a woodwind ensemble. Triple horns with five valves are also made, usually tuned in F, B♭, and a descant E♭ or F. There are also double horns with five valves tuned in B♭, descant E♭ or F, and a stopping valve, which greatly simplifies the complicated and difficult hand-stopping technique,[3] though these are rarer. Also common are descant doubles, which typically provide B♭ and alto F branches.

A crucial element in playing the horn deals with the mouthpiece. Most of the time, the mouthpiece is placed in the exact center of the lips, but, because of differences in the formation of the lips and teeth of different players, some tend to play with the mouthpiece slightly off center.[4] Although the exact side-to-side placement of the mouthpiece varies for most horn players, the up-and-down placement of the mouthpiece is generally two-thirds on the upper lip and one-third on the lower lip.[4] When playing higher notes, the majority of players exert a small degree of additional pressure on the lips using the mouthpiece. However, this is undesirable from the perspective of both endurance and tone: excessive mouthpiece pressure makes the horn sound forced and harsh, and decreases player's stamina due to the resulting constricted flow of blood to the lips and lip muscles.[4]

Name[edit]

The name "French horn" first came into use in the late 17th century. At that time, French makers were preeminent in the manufacture of hunting horns, and were credited with creating the now-familiar, circular "hoop" shape of the instrument. As a result, these instruments were often called, even in English, by their French names: trompe de chasse or cor de chasse (the clear modern distinction between trompes [trumpets] and cors [horns] did not exist at that time).[5]

German makers first devised crooks to make such horns playable in different keys—so musicians came to use "French" and "German" to distinguish the simple hunting horn from the newer horn with crooks, which in England was also called by the Italian name corno cromatico (chromatic horn).[5]

More recently, "French horn" is often used colloquially, though the adjective has normally been avoided when referring to the European orchestral horn, ever since the German horn began replacing the French-style instrument in British orchestras around 1930.[6] The International Horn Society has recommended since 1971 that the instrument be simply called the horn.[7][8]

There is also a more specific use of "French horn" to describe a particular horn type, differentiated from the German horn and Vienna horn. In this sense, "French horn" refers to a narrow-bore instrument (10.8–11.0 mm [0.43–0.43 in]) with three Périnet (piston) valves. It retains the narrow bell-throat and mouthpipe crooks of the orchestral hand horn of the late 18th century, and most often has an "ascending" third valve. This is a whole-tone valve arranged so that with the valve in the "up" position the valve loop is engaged, but when the valve is pressed the loop is cut out, raising the pitch by a whole tone.[9]

History[edit]

Main article: Horn (instrument)

"How to shout and blow horns."—Facsimile of a miniature in a manuscript of the hunting manual of Gaston Phoebus(15th century)

As the name indicates, humans originally used to blow on the actual horns of animals before starting to emulate them in metal. This original usage survives in the shofar, a ram's horn, which plays an important role in Jewish religious rituals.

Early metal horns were less complex than modern horns, consisting of brass tubes with a slightly flared opening (the bell) wound around a few times. These early "hunting" horns were originally played on a hunt, often while mounted, and the sound they produced was called a recheat. Change of pitch was controlled entirely by the lips (the horn not being equipped with valves until the 19th century). Without valves, only the notes within the harmonic series are available. By combining a long length with a narrow bore, the French horn's design allows the player to easily reach the higher overtones which differ by whole tones or less, thus making it capable of playing melodies before valves were invented.[4]

Early horns were commonly pitched in B♭ alto, A, A♭, G, F, E, E♭, D, C, and B♭ basso. Since the only notes available were those on the harmonic series of one of those pitches, they had no ability to play in different keys. The remedy for this limitation was the use of crooks, i.e., sections of tubing of differing length that, when inserted, altered the length of the instrument, and thus its pitch.[10]

In the mid-18th century, horn players began to insert the right hand into the bell to change the length of the instrument, adjusting the tuning up to the distance between two adjacent harmonics depending on how much of the opening was covered.

In 1818 the German makers Heinrich Stölzel and Friedrich Blümel patented the first valved horn, using rotary valves. Piston valves were introduced in France about 1839 by François Périnet.[11] Valves were initially intended to overcome problems associated with changing crooks during a performance. Valves' unreliability, musical taste, and players' distrust, among other reasons, slowed their adoption into mainstream. Many traditional conservatories and players refused to use them at first, claiming that the valveless horn, or natural horn, was a better instrument. Some musicians who specialize in period instruments use a natural horn to play in original performance styles, to try to recapture the sound of an older piece's original performances.[12]

The use of valves, however, opened up a great deal more flexibility in playing in different keys; in effect, the horn became an entirely different instrument, fully chromatic for the first time. Valves were originally used primarily as a means to play in different keys without crooks, not for harmonic playing. That is reflected in compositions for horns, which only began to include chromatic passages in the late 19th century.[citation needed] When valves were invented, generally, the French made smaller horns with piston valves and the Germans made larger horns with rotary valves.[clarification needed]

Types[edit]

Horns may be classified in single horn, double horn, compensating double horn, and triple horn as well as the versatility of detachable bells.

Single horn in F, student model.

Single horn[edit]

Single horns use a single set of tubes connected to the valves. This allows for simplicity of use and a much lighter weight. They are usually in the keys of F or B♭, although many F horns have longer slides to tune them to E♭, and almost all B♭ horns have a valve to put them in the key of A. The problem with single horns is the inevitable choice between accuracy or tone – while the F horn has the "typical" horn sound, above third-space C accuracy is a concern for the majority of players because, by its nature, one plays high in the horn's harmonic series where the overtones are closer together. This led to the development of the B♭ horn, which, although easier to play accurately, has a less desirable sound in the mid and especially the low register where it is not able to play all of the notes. The solution has been the development of the double horn, which combines the two into one horn with a single lead pipe and bell. Both main types of single horns are still used today as student models because they are cheaper and lighter than double horns. In addition, the single B♭ horns are sometimes used in solo and chamber performances and the single F survives orchestrally as the Vienna horn. Additionally, single F alto and B♭ alto descants are used in the performance of some baroque horn concertos and F, B♭ and F alto singles are occasionally used by jazz performers.

Dennis Brain's benchmark recordings of the Mozart Horn Concerti were made on a single B♭ instrument by Gebr. Alexander, now on display at the Royal Academy of Music in London.

Double horn[edit]

The valvesof a Conn6D double horn. The three lever keys (above the large valves) can be depressed toward the large outer tube. The thumb key (near the left-most valve) moves inward toward the three finger keys.
Scheme of a double horn (view from underneath)
  1. Mouthpiece
  2. Leadpipe, where the mouthpiece is placed
  3. Adjustable handrest
  4. Water key (also called a spit valve)
  5. Fourth valve to change between F and B♭ pitches
  6. Valve levers, operated with the left hand
  7. Rotary valves
  8. Slides, for tuning each valve
  9. Long tubing for F pitch with slide
  10. General slide
  11. Short tubing for B♭ pitch with slide
  12. Bellpipe
  13. Bell; the right hand is cupped inside this

Despite the introduction of valves, the single F horn proved difficult for use in the highest range, where the partials grew closer and closer, making accuracy a great challenge. An early solution was simply to use a horn of higher pitch—usually B♭. The use of the F versus the B♭ horn was extensively debated among horn players of the late 19th century, until the German horn maker Ed Kruspe (namesake of his family's brass instrument firm) produced a prototype of the "double horn" in 1897.

The double horn also combines two instruments into a single frame: the original horn in F, and a second, higher horn keyed in B♭. By using a fourth valve (usually operated by the thumb), the horn player can quickly switch from the deep, warm tones of the F horn to the higher, brighter tones of the B♭ horn, or vice versa, as the horn player may choose to have the horn set into B♭ by default by making a simple adjustment to the valves. The two sets of tones are commonly called "sides" of the horn. Using the fourth valve not only changes the basic length (and thus the harmonic series and pitch) of the instrument, it also causes the three main valves to use proportionate slide lengths.[13]

In the US, the two most common styles ("wraps") of double horns are named Kruspe and Geyer/Knopf, after the first instrument makers who developed and standardized them. The Kruspe wrap locates the B♭ change valve above the first valve, near the thumb. The Geyer wrap has the change valve behind the third valve, near the little finger (although the valve's trigger is still played with the thumb). In effect, the air flows in a completely different direction on the other model. Kruspe wrap horns tend to be larger in the bell throat than the Geyer wrap horns. Typically, Kruspe models are constructed from nickel silver (also called German silver, an alloy of copper, nickel and zinc, containing no actual silver) while Geyer horns tend to be of yellow brass. Both models have their own strengths and weaknesses, and while the choice of instrument is very personal, an orchestral horn section is usually found to have either one or the other, owing to the differences in tone color, response, and projection of the two different styles.[citation needed]

In Europe the most popular horns are arguably those made by Gebr. Alexander, of Mainz (particularly the Alexander 103), and those made by Paxman in London. In Germany and the Benelux countries, the Alex 103 is extremely popular. These horns do not fit strictly into the Kruspe or Knopf camps, but have features of both. Alexander prefers the traditional medium bell size, which they have produced for many years, whereas Paxman do offer their models in a range of bell throat sizes. In the United States, the Conn 8D, a mass-produced instrument based on the Kruspe design, has been extremely popular in many areas (New York, Los Angeles, Cleveland, Philadelphia). Since roughly the early 1990s, however, for reasons ranging from changing tastes to a general dislike of Conn's newer 8Ds, orchestras have been moving away from the popular Conn 8D. Geyer model horns (by Carl Geyer, Karl Hill, Keith Berg, Steve Lewis, Jerry Lechniuk, Dan Rauch, and Ricco-Kuhn) are used in other areas (San Francisco, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Boston, Houston). The CF Schmidt double, with its unique piston change valve, is occasionally found in sections playing Geyer/Knopf model equipment.[citation needed]

Detachable bell[edit]

The horn, although not large, is awkward in its shape and does not lend itself well to transport where space is shared or limited, especially on planes. To compensate, horn makers can make the bell detachable; this allows for smaller and more manageable horn cases.

Related horns[edit]

Main article: Horn (instrument)

The variety in horn history necessitates consideration of the natural horn, Vienna horn, mellophone, marching horn, and Wagner tuba.

Natural horn[edit]

A natural horn has no valves, but can be tuned to a different key by inserting different tubing, as during a rest period.

Main article: Natural horn

The natural horn is the ancestor of the modern horn. It is essentially descended from hunting horns, with its pitch controlled by air speed, aperture (opening of the lips through which air passes) and the use of the right hand moving around, as well as in and out of the bell. Although a few recent composers have written specifically for the natural horn (e.g., György Ligeti's Hamburg Concerto), today it is played primarily as a period instrument. The natural horn can only play from a single harmonic series at a time because there is only one length of tubing available to the horn player. A proficient player can indeed alter the pitch by partially muting the bell with the right hand, thus enabling the player to reach some notes that are not part of the instrument's natural harmonic series – of course this technique also affects the quality of the tone. The player has a choice of key by using crooks to change the length of tubing.[14][verification needed]

Vienna horn[edit]

Main article: Vienna horn

The Vienna horn is a special horn used primarily in Vienna, Austria. Instead of using rotary valves or piston valves, it uses the pumpenvalve (or Vienna valve), which is a double-piston operating inside the valve slides, and usually situated on the opposite side of the corpus from the player's left hand, and operated by a long pushrod. Unlike the modern horn, which has grown considerably larger internally (for a bigger, broader, and louder tone), and considerably heavier (with the addition of valves and tubing in the case of the double horn) the Vienna horn very closely mimics the size and weight of the natural horn, (although the valves do add some weight, they are lighter than rotary valves) even using crooks in the front of the horn, between the mouthpiece and the instrument. Although instead of the full range of keys, Vienna horn players usually use an F crook and it is looked down upon to use others, though switching to an A or B♭ crook for higher pitched music does happen on occasion. Vienna horns are often used with funnel shaped mouthpieces similar to those used on the natural horn, with very little (if any) backbore and a very thin rim. The Viennese horn requires very specialized technique and can be quite challenging to play, even for accomplished players of modern horns. The Vienna horn has a warmer, softer sound than the modern horn. Its pumpenvalves facilitate a continuous transition between notes (glissando); conversely, a more precise operating of the valves is required to avoid notes that sound out of tune.

Mellophone[edit]

Main article: Mellophone

Two instruments are called a mellophone. The first is an instrument shaped somewhat like a horn, in that it is formed in a circle. It has piston valves and is played with the right hand on the valves. Manufacturing of this instrument sharply decreased in the middle of the 20th century, and this mellophone (or mellophonium) rarely appears today.

The second instrument is used in modern brass bands and marching bands, and is more accurately called a "marching mellophone". A derivative of the F alto horn, it is keyed in F. It is shaped like a flugelhorn, with piston valves played with the right hand and a forward-pointing bell. These horns are generally considered better marching instruments than regular horns because their position is more stable on the mouth, they project better, and they weigh less. It is primarily used as the middle voice of drum and bugle corps. Though they are usually played with a V-cup cornet-like mouthpiece, their range overlaps the common playing range of the horn. This mouthpiece switch makes the mellophone louder, less mellow, and more brassy and brilliant, making it more appropriate for marching bands. Often now with the use of converters, traditional conical horn mouthpieces are used to achieve the more mellow sound of a horn to make the marching band sound more like a concert band.

As they are pitched in F or G and their range overlaps that of the horn, mellophones can be used in place of the horn in brass and marching band settings. Mellophones are, however, sometimes unpopular with horn players because the mouthpiece change can be difficult and requires a different embouchure. Mouthpiece adapters are available so that a horn mouthpiece can fit into the mellophone lead pipe, but this does not compensate for the many differences that a horn player must adapt to. The "feel" of the mellophone can be foreign to a horn player. Another unfamiliar aspect of the mellophone is that it is designed to be played with the right hand instead of the left (though it can be played with the left). Intonation can also be an issue with the mellophone.[why?]

While horn players may be asked to play the mellophone, it is unlikely that the instrument was ever intended as a substitute for the horn, mainly because of the fundamental differences described.[15] As an instrument it compromises between the ability to sound like a horn, while being used like a trumpet or flugelhorn, a tradeoff that sacrifices acoustic properties for ergonomics.

Marching horn[edit]

The marching horn is quite similar to the mellophone in shape and appearance, but is pitched in the key of B♭, the same as the B♭ side of a double horn. It is also available in F alto, one octave above the F side of a double horn. The marching horn is also played with a horn mouthpiece (unlike the mellophone, which needs an adapter to fit the horn mouthpiece). These instruments are primarily used in marching bands so the sound comes from a forward-facing bell, as dissipation of the sound from the backward-facing bell becomes a concern in open-air environments. Many college marching bands and drum corps, however, use mellophones instead, which, with many marching bands, better balance the tone of the other brass instruments; additionally, mellophones require less special training of trumpeters, who considerably outnumber horn players.[16]

Wagner tuba[edit]

Main article: Wagner tuba

The Wagner tuba is a rare brass instrument that is essentially a horn modified to have a larger bell throat and a vertical bell. Despite its name and its somewhat tuba-shaped appearance, it is generally not considered part of the tuba family, because the instrument's relatively narrow bore causes it to play more like a horn. Invented for Richard Wagner specifically for his work Der Ring des Nibelungen, it has since been written for by various other composers, including Bruckner, Stravinsky and Richard Strauss. It uses a horn mouthpiece, and is available as a single tuba in B♭ or F, or, more recently, as a double tuba similar to the double horn. It is usually played in a range similar to that of the euphonium, but its possible range is the same as that of the horn, extending from low F♯, below the bass clef staff to high C above the treble staff when read in F. The low pedal tones are substantially easier to play on the Wagner tuba than on the horn. Wagner viewed the regular horn as a woodwind rather than a brass instrument, evidenced by his placing of the horn parts in his orchestral scores in the woodwind group and not in their usual place above the trumpets in the brass section.

Repertoire[edit]

See also: List of compositions for horn

Discussion of the repertoire of horns must recognize the different needs of orchestras and concert bands in contrast to marching bands, as above, but also the use of horns in a wide variety of music, including chamber music and jazz.

Orchestra and concert band[edit]

The horn is most often used as an orchestral and concert band instrument, with its singular tone being employed by composers to achieve specific effects. Leopold Mozart, for example, used horns to signify the hunt, as in his Jagdsinfonie (hunting symphony). Telemann wrote much for the horn, and it features prominently in the work of Handel and in Bach's Brandenburg Concerto no. 1. Once the technique of hand-stopping had been developed, allowing fully chromatic playing, composers began to write seriously for the horn. Gustav Mahler made great use of the horn's uniquely haunting and distant sound in his symphonies, notably the famous Nachtmusik (serenade) section of his Symphony No. 7.

Many composers have written works that have become favorites in the horn repertoire. These include Poulenc (Elegie) and Saint-Saëns (Morceau de Concert for horn and orchestra, op. 94 and Romance, op. 36). Others, particularly Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whose friend Joseph Leutgeb was a noted horn player, wrote extensively for the instrument, including concerti and other solo works. Mozart's A Musical Joke satirizes the limitations of contemporary horn playing, including the risk of selecting the wrong crook by mistake.

The development of the valve horn was exploited by romantic composers such as Bruckner, Mahler, and Richard Strauss, whose father was a well-known professional horn player. Strauss's Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks contains one of the best known horn solos from this period, relying on the chromatic facility of the valved horn. Schumann's Konzertstück for four horns and orchestra is a notable three-movement work. Brahms had a lifelong love-affair with the instrument, with many prominently featured parts throughout his four symphonies. However players today typically play Brahms on modern valved instruments.

Chamber music[edit]

There is an abundance of chamber music repertoire for horn. It is a standard member of the wind quintet and brass quintet, and often appears in other configurations, such as Brahms' Horn Trio for violin, horn and piano (for which, however, Brahms specified the natural horn). Also, the horn can be used by itself in a horn ensemble or "horn choir". The horn choir is especially practical because the extended range of the horn provides the composer or arranger with more possibilities, registerally, sonically, and contrapuntally.

Orchestral and concert band horns[edit]

A classical orchestra usually has at least two French horn players. Typically, the first horn played a high part and the second horn played a low part. Composers from Beethoven (early 1800s) onwards commonly used four horns. Here, the first and second horns played as a pair (first horn being high, second horn being low), and the third and fourth horns played as another pair (third horn being high, fourth horn being low).

Music written for the modern horn follows a similar pattern with the first and third horns being high and the second and fourth horns being low. This configuration serves multiple purposes. It is easier to play high when the adjacent player is playing low and vice versa. Pairing makes it easier to write for horns, as the third and fourth horns can take over from the first and second horns or play contrasting material. For example, if the piece is in C minor, the first and second horns might be in C, the tonic major key, which could get most of the notes, and the third and fourth horns might be in E♭, the relative major key, to fill in the gaps.

Many orchestral horn sections in the 2010s also have an assistant[17] who doubles the first horn part for selected passages, joining in loud parts, playing instead of the principal if there is a first horn solo approaching, or alternating with the principal if the part is tiring to play.[18] Often the assistant is asked to play a passage after resting a long time. Also, he or she may be asked to enter in the middle of a passage, exactly matching the sound, articulation, and overall interpretation of the principal, thus enabling the principal horn to rest a bit.

In jazz[edit]

See also: Category:Jazz horn players and French horn in jazz

The French horn was at first rarely used in jazz music (Note that colloquially in jazz, the word "horn" refers to any wind instrument). Notable exponents, however, began including French horn in jazz pieces and ensembles. These include composer/arranger Gil Evans who included the French horn as an ensemble instrument from the 1940s, first in Claude Thornhill's groups, and later with the pioneering cool jazz nonet (nine-piece group) led by trumpeter Miles Davis, and in many other projects that sometimes also featured Davis, as well as Don Ellis, a trumpet player from Stan Kenton's jazz band. Notable works of Ellis' jazz French horn include "Strawberry Soup" and other songs on the album Tears of Joy. Notable improvising horn players in jazz include Julius Watkins, Willie Ruff, John Graas, David Amram, John Clark, Vincent Chancey, Giovanni Hoffer, Arkady Shilkloper, Adam Unsworth, and Tom Varner.

Notable horn players[edit]

See also: List of horn players

  • Hermann Baumann – 1964 winner of the ARD International Music Competition and former principal horn in various orchestras, including the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra
  • Radek Baborák – famous Czech horn player, former principal horn in Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, 1994 winner of the ARD International Music Competition, winner of the Concertino Praga in 1988 and 1990, holder of a Grammy Award (1995)
  • Aubrey Brain – celebrated British horn player, father of Dennis Brain and a champion of the French style of instrument
  • Dennis Brain – former principal horn of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and the Philharmonia Orchestra, with whom Herbert von Karajan made well-known recordings of Mozart's horn concertos
  • Alan Civil – former principal horn of the Philharmonia Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, and the BBC Symphony Orchestra
  • John Cerminaro – former principal horn of the Seattle Symphony, New York Philharmonic, and Los Angeles Philharmonic
  • Dale Clevenger – former principal horn of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (1966–2013)
  • Vincent DeRosa – former principal horn for a number of Hollywood studios and composers including John Williams
  • Stefan Dohr – current principal horn, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra
  • Richard Dunbar – a player of the French horn, playing in the free jazz scene
  • Philip Farkas – former principal horn of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, developer of the Holton-Farkas horn and author of several books on horn and brass playing
  • Douglas Hill – former principal horn of the Madison Symphony Orchestra, notable teacher and composer
  • Julie Landsman – former Principal Horn for the Metropolitan Opera and well-known horn pedagogue
  • Stefan de Leval Jezierski – longest serving horn, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra
  • Philip Myers – former principal horn of the New York Philharmonic
  • Jeff Nelsen – Canadian Brass hornist 2000–2004, 2007–2010; Indiana University Jacobs School of Music horn faculty since 2006
  • Giovanni Punto – horn virtuoso and hand-stopping pioneer, after whom the International Horn Society's annual horn playing award is named, also a violinist, concertmaster, and composer
  • David Pyatt – winner of the BBC Young Musician of the Year competition in 1988 and current principal horn of the London Philharmonic Orchestra
  • Gunther Schuller – former principal horn of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, and played with Miles Davis
  • Barry Tuckwell – former principal horn of the London Symphony Orchestra and author of several books on horn playing
  • William VerMeulen – horn soloist and former principal horn of Honolulu Symphony Orchestra current principal Horn of the Houston Symphony Orchestra and professor at Rice University
  • Radovan Vlatković – 1983 winner of the ARD International Music Competition, former principal horn and soloist of the Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra, and professor at the Mozarteum University of Salzburg
  • Sarah Willis – first female brass-player in the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, US-born, British ambassador for the horn and classical music through television programs such as Sarah's Music on Deutsche Welle.

People who are more notable for their other achievements, but also play the horn, include actors Ewan McGregor and David Ogden Stiers, comedian and television host Jon Stewart, journalist Chuck Todd, The Who bassist and singer John Entwistle, and rapper and record producer B.o.B.[19]

Gallery[edit]

  • A modern full double horn

  • A replica of a Mozart-era natural horn

  • A hunting horn in E♭

  • An older, French-made cor à pistons in E♭

  • A French-made horn with piston valves

  • A horn by Alexander, once owned by Dennis Brain

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Piston, Walter (1955). Orchestration (1st ed.). New York: Norton. ISBN . OCLC 300471.
  2. ^Whitener, Scott and Cathy L. (1990). A complete guide to brass : instruments and pedagogy. New York: Schirmer Books. pp. 40, 44. ISBN . OCLC 19128016.
  3. ^Pope, Ken. "Alexander 107 Descant w/Stopping Valve - $7800". Pope Instrument Repair. Retrieved 2018-02-22.
  4. ^ abcdFarkas, Philip (1956). The art of French horn playing : a treatise on the problems and techniques of French Horn playing …. Evanston, Il.: Summy-Birchard. pp. 6, 21, 65. ISBN . OCLC 5587694.
  5. ^ abBeakes, Jennifer (2007). The Horn Parts in Handel's Operas and Oratorios and the Horn Players who Performed in These Works. City University of New York. pp. 50, 116–18, 176, 223–25, 439–40, 444–45.
  6. ^Del Mar, Norman (1983). Anatomy of the orchestra (2nd print., with revisions ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 215. ISBN . OCLC 10561390.
  7. ^Meek, Harold. "Harold Meek (1914–1998)". International Horn Society. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  8. ^Meek, Harold (February 1971). "The Horn!". The Horn Call. 1 (1): 19–20.
  9. ^Baines, Anthony (1976). Brass instruments : their history and development. New York: Scribner. pp. 221–23. ISBN . OCLC 3795926.
  10. ^"Grinell College Musical".
  11. ^Meek, Harold L. (1997). Horn and conductor : reminiscences of a practitioner with a few words of advice. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. p. 33. ISBN . OCLC 35636932.
  12. ^See, e.g., the performance of Johann Sebastian Bach's Mass in B Minor as performed by the Proms of London in the movement from 45:40 onward in "Mass in B Minor". You Tube. 2012. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
  13. ^Backus, John, The Acoustical Foundations of Music, 2nd ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977),[page needed]ISBN 0-393-09096-5.
  14. ^Diagram Group. (1976). Musical instruments of the world. Published for Unicef by Facts On File. p. 68. ISBN . OCLC 223164947.
  15. ^Monks, Greg (2006-01-06). "The History of the Mellophone". Al's Mellophone Page. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
  16. ^Mellophones, as indicated, use the same fingering as trumpets and are operated by the right hand.
  17. ^Ericson, John. "Horn Sections With and Without an Associate Principal" 28 March 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2012
  18. ^Bacon, Thomas. "The Horn Section"Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 14 January 2012
  19. ^Rees, Jasper (2009). A Devil to Play. HarperCollins.

External links[edit]

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Horn

Brass instruments

Modern
  • Trumpet (Contrabass trumpet, Bass trumpet, Pocket trumpet, Piccolo trumpet, Fanfare trumpet, Firebird, Flumpet)
  • Cornet (Soprano cornet)
  • Horn (French horn, German horn, Vienna horn, Wagner tuba)
  • Trombone (Bass trombone, Superbone, Cimbasso)
  • Saxhorn (Baritone horn, Alto/Tenor horn, Flugelhorn (Fiscorn, Kuhlohorn))
  • Tuba (Euphonium, Double bell euphonium, Subcontrabass tuba)
Antiquated
Indigenous
Marching
Parts and technique
Ensembles and groups
Other
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_horn

How many sharps are in concert D?

two sharps

What is concert BB on horn?

When a Bb trumpet plays a written F, it sounds the concert pitch Eb. When an Eb alto sax plays a written G, it sounds the concert pitch Bb. When an F horn plays a written E, it sounds the concert pitch A.

What key is the French horn in?

The French Horn is a transposing instrument that is most commonly in the key of F. This means the note sounds a fifth lower than the note written. For example, if the Horn plays a C it will sound the note F in Concert pitch.

What is concert A?

Concert pitch is the pitch reference to which a group of musical instruments are tuned for a performance. Music for transposing instruments is transposed into different keys from that of non-transposing instruments. For example, playing a written C on a B♭ clarinet or trumpet produces a non-transposing instrument’s B♭.

What is a concert key signature?

The key for a piece of music can be determined by its key signature. If the key signature is comprised of flats, then the 2nd to last flat is the key of the piece. If there is only 1 flat (Bb), then the key is Concert F Major. If there are no flats or sharps, then the key is Concert C Major.

What does Concert F mean?

Concert pitch refers to the universal standard pitch, A=440hz. Music has an extremely complex history. And now transposing instruments exist. Not all Cs are the same. In an orchestra, if the director asks the string instruments to play a C major scale, everyone (violins, violas, cellos, basses) plays a C major scale.

What note is concert F on clarinet?

When you play the pitch “C” on an E flat instrument, it will sound like concert E flat. The most commonly played clarinet is the “B flat” or soprano clarinet….Understanding Clarinet Transposition.

Written E flat Clarinet PitchActual Concert Pitch
GB flat
G flatB double flat
F sharpA
FA flat

What does 3 flats in a key signature mean?

E-flat major

What is the key signature if there is one flat?

Scales with flat key signatures

Major keyNumber of flatsFlat notes
F major1B♭
B♭ major2B♭, E♭
E♭ major3B♭, E♭, A♭
A♭ major4B♭, E♭, A♭, D♭

What is the easiest way to identify a key signature?

To find the name of a key signature with sharps, look at the sharp farthest to the right. The key signature is the note a half step above that last sharp. Key signatures can specify major or minor keys. To determine the name of a minor key, find the name of the key in major and then count backwards three half steps.

How do you identify a major scale?

To determine the major key, all you have to do it go one half-step up from the last sharp listed.

  1. In this example, an A-Sharp is highlighted.
  2. One half-step up from A-Sharp is B.
  3. The key is B Major.

What are the 12 major keys?

They are F-sharp, C-sharp, G-sharp, D-sharp, and A-sharp. The scale is made up of: B, C-sharp, D-sharp, E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A-sharp, B.

Which key is the highest in music?

“Highest” meaning highest tone possible means that the highest tone is F♯/G♭10, 5 octaves 6 semitones above concert A, A4 = 440Hz. C-sharp major and A-sharp minor have the highest number of sharps (seven) while C-flat major and A-flat minor both have seven flats.

What are the 12 major scales in order?

12 Major Scales Study Guide

  • C major scale. The C major scale is the only major scale without black keys, so it’s easy to begin with.
  • G major scale. The G major scale has one black key, F#.
  • D major scale. The D major scale has two, F# and C#.
  • A major scale.
  • E major scale.
  • F major scale.
  • B major scale.
Источник: https://www.mvorganizing.org/how-many-sharps-are-in-concert-d/

If you have a double horn, remember that the top fingering corresponds to the F side, while the bottom fingering is for the Bb side (depress trigger/4th lever). This site was designed with … Clarinet, Bass Clarinet. Low Brass. If you can not open the above pdf files , please click HERE to download and install Adobe Reader. Low Brass. Tenor Saxophone French Horn Trumpet Baritone T.C. Flute, Oboe, Mallets. Source(s): 12 major french horn scales 12 octave scales: https://tr.im/cS5MT. Flute, Oboe, Mallets. D Major (2 sharps) - "concert G" G Major (1 sharp) - "concert C" How to play 2 octaves (this one is G Major, but you can learn the others too): Chromatic Scale - one octave down, then up .mp3browser tr.musictitles { vertical-align:middle; background-color:#CCCCCC; font-weight:bold; margin-bottom:15px; } It is true that the horn can go lower by an octave, and higher too, but you can learn those notes later. Trombone Tuba. What are the 12 major french horn scales (12) two octave scales? table.mp3browser td { text-align:left; height:50px } Clarinet, Bass Clarinet. Remember to choose the correct fingering chart for your instrument. * All accompaniment tracks were produced by Joseph Krammer, using Mixcraft. Missing Horn to be available soon! Missing Horn to be available soon! It is T2. Mesa Verde Middle School Band. Lv 4. LEARN THE FRENCH HORN. Tuba. Create your website today. LEARN THE FRENCH HORN. Alto Sax, Bari Sax. It is an advanced fingering chart that will include all notes from low C to high C -- 3 full octaves. French Horn . Mesa Verde Middle School Band. .mp3browser tr {background-color:#FFFFFF } While lots of students (me included) have rolled their eyes at the 100th time they are told this, but it really is true. Alto Sax, Bari Sax. Adobe Reader is a free resource for viewing and interacting with PDF documents across all platforms & devices. Starts on the lowest C and the highest note is Highest Ab. Trumpet, Baritone TC. Tenor Saxophone French Horn Trumpet Baritone T.C. D Major (2 sharps) - "concert G" G Major (1 sharp) - "concert C" How to play 2 octaves (this one is G Major, but you can learn the others too): Chromatic Scale - one octave down, then up Chromatic Scale - All-District Range 2 .mp3browser td, .mp3browser th { padding:1px; vertical-align:middle; } 2 Octave scale sheets available now! 2 Octave scale sheets available now! Title: two octave major scales - french horn - Full Score Author: Joe Created Date: 3/16/2012 10:32:41 AM I need them. website builder. 5 years ago. Lynn. Trombone Tuba. French Horn 2 Octave Major Scales The following seven major scales must be played in order and from memory in two minutes or less. .mp3browser a:link, .mp3browser a:visited { color:#1E87C8; text-decoration:none; } They each provide a two octave F chromatic scale. Name: Play: Size: Length "C" Concert Two Octave Major Scale: 1.1 MB: 0:50 min "F" Concert Two Octave Major Scale: 1.1 MB: 0:50 min "Bb" Concert Two Octave Major Scale: 1.1 MB: 0:50 min "Eb" Concert Two Octave Major Scale: 1.1 MB: 0:50 min Tuba. I need the fingerings for: Concert G (French Horn D- Low & High octaves) Concert C (French Horn G- High octave) Concert F (French Horn C- Low octave) Concert Ab (French Horn Eb- Low octave) Concert Db (french Horn Ab- High octave) I also need the fingerings for the chromatic scale. This site was designed with the .com. Trumpet, Baritone TC. .musictable { border-bottom:1px solid #C0C0C0; text-align:left; height:50px; vertical-align:middle; } table.mp3browser td.center { text-align:center; } French Horn Boot Camp: Scales and Arpeggios If you’ve been in band or orchestra for more than a few months, you’ve probably been told the importance of learning your scales and arpeggios. Tenor Sax. that's correct except the low e (e3). *. .mp3browser .colourblue { background-color:#D6E3EB; border-bottom:1px solid #C0C0C0; text-align:left; }. 0 0. I am Auditioning for a music high school and one of the requirements is to know these scales. Also, "loose and tight" embouchure will work but are bad habits. *, * All Two Octave Major Scales sheet music was created by Joseph Krammer, using Sibelius. (Only play repeats when scales are played in full band!) .mp3browser tr.musictitles td { height:35px; } This chart will use the double horn fingerings (as it incorporates both F and Bb sides). Baritone B.C. Tenor Sax. Baritone B.C. French Horn . Pdf documents across all platforms & devices are bad habits e ( e3 ) fingerings ( as incorporates. What are the 12 major french horn scales ( 12 ) two octave major scales sheet was... Joseph Krammer, using Sibelius Bb sides ) tight '' embouchure will but. 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Источник: https://superfineneedles.com/docs/french-horn-scales-2-octaves-64436f

If you’ve been in a band or orchestra for more than a few months, you’ve probably been told the importance of learning your scales and arpeggios.

While lots of students (me included) rolled their eyes at the 100th time they are told this, it really is true.

Importance of Scales and Arpeggios

For brass instruments in general and the French horn in particular, there are two frameworks that make getting around on the instrument and learning new music much easier: the harmonic series, and scales/arpeggios.

The harmonic series is how all brass instruments work. Since the horn plays higher in the harmonic series than other brass, it’s even more important to be familiar with it. You should know at least the 1-12 partials (note names and intonation tendencies) on all 14 different fingering combinations for a standard double horn.

On the other hand, scales and arpeggios are how composers write music. This is drastically oversimplified, of course (and some composers definitely don’t use scales!), but having proficiency in all the major and minor scale forms and their arpeggios will do wonders for sight-reading and technique.

Learn Your Scales

To help you (and my students) learn scales, I’ve made a few different scale sheets.

I’ve made sheets with major scales (both 1 octave and 2 octaves), as well as all three different forms of minor scales (natural, harmonic, melodic) for students to learn these scales.

You can find these scale sheets here:

Once these scales are learned in their basic form, though, it’s time to develop more scale fluency.

To that end, I’ve created a few different extended scale exercises.

Extended Scale Exercises

Clarke Scale Exercises

The first step to scale fluency is becoming familiar with the first 5 notes in every major and minor key. To that end, I find that this variation on the famous Clarke Study #2, originally written for trumpet, is great.

These exercises are quite short, and it doesn’t take very long to add a few of these (starting in a comfortable range, of course) to a warm-up session. You can either go chromatically by doing an octave (or more) of these each day, or you pick a “key of the day” and do all the major and minor studies of that key in all the octaves you are able to play.

These should begin slowly (quarter = 72 or slower if necessary) and entirely slurred. The slow tempo and slur pattern help to develop good finger rhythms and coordination, which will be important if you want to speed these up!

Download Clarke Study #2 for Horn

Extended Scale Exercises

Once the Clarke studies are more fluid, you can start to practice the entire scale in a variety of ways.

My Extended Scale Exercise sheets contain lots of different ways to tackle each key. It covers major and (harmonic) minor fingering patterns, modes, and intervals for each key.

While each key has lots of exercises (14 pages!), not every single exercise should be done in a single sitting. Rather, pick a key and practice one scale pattern and one interval pattern.

This way you can practice everything over the course of a week or so, but not be overwhelmed in a single practice session.

Like the Clarke exercises, all these should be done slowly and smoothly at first, in order to make sure that the fingers, tongue, and air are working together efficiently. Additionally, for some keys, the upper notes may be a bit too high. It is okay to skip these measures at first and only practice the portions of the scale(s) that you’re able to do comfortably!

Extended Arpeggio Exercises

In addition to scales, it’s also important to be comfortable with arpeggios.

Like the scale sheets, these extended arpeggio exercises cover quite a lot of ground, but not everything needs to be practiced every day.

The arpeggio inversions are very good to practice for intonation work. The chord progression (I-IV-I-V7-I) exercise is useful both for ear training (this chord progression shows up a LOT) but also for flexibility.

To save space, I’ve only indicated the accidentals for the I-IV-I-V7-I progressions, but make sure you practice both these progressions and the arpeggio inversions in both major and minor.

Finally, I’ve found the arpeggio mode exercises especially challenging and energizing. Start off with the triplet version (slowly), and add in the 16th note version once you’ve gotten familiar with the chord progression and fingering pattern.

The arpeggio mode exercises are only written out in the major key since the major scale will actually cover major (3), minor (3), and diminished (1) arpeggio patterns.

Need More Help With Scales?

As always, if you have any questions about learning scales in general or these exercises in particular, don’t hesitate to send me a message via my contact form or leave a comment below!

If you find that you need some additional help with scales and arpeggios (or any other playing issues) I offer French horn lessons both in-person and online. You can find out more information on those lessons on my French horn teaching page.

One final thing – if you’ve found this site useful, it would mean a lot if you could donate to support this site. I enjoy providing materials for students (and teachers), but this material does take time to create. Thanks!

Источник: https://colindorman.com/french-horn-exercises/scales-and-arpeggios/

French Horn Major Scales

  
Concert Bb (Your F Scale) 3
    
     
3

  
             
           
         3
      
Concert Eb (Your Bb Scale) 3
      

         
         
Concert Ab (Your Eb Scale)
    
3
    
3

                       
          
 
3
     
     
Concert Db (Your Ab Scale)
       
3

          
         
Concert Gb (Your Db Scale)

3
   
3

               
      
        
       
             3 
Concert F (Your C Scale) 3

          
    
      
   

    
3
    
Concert C (Your G Scale) 3

   
                  
           
  3
              3 
      
Concert G (Your D Scale)

             
     

 
3
       
Concert D (Your A Scale)
            
3

         
         


Concert A (Your E Scale)
   
3

     
3

                     
         
                3
Concert E (Your B Scale) 3

                

          

     
Concert B (Your F# Scale) 3
     
        
3

               
         

       
Concert Bb Chromatic (Your F Chromatic Scale)

                           
                

Источник: https://es.scribd.com/document/471910103/French-Horn-Major-Scales

Concert G Major Scale French Horn

Concert c is their a concert ab is their f. Concert eb would be the bb scale for horns which has 2 flats in the key signature so starting on low bb it goes bb 1 c open d 1 eb 2 f 1 g open a 1 2 bb 1.

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French Horn Harmonics French Horn Harmonics

Finale 2006c all scales horn.

Concert g major scale french horn. Scales horn concert g d scale concert c g scale concert f c scale concert bb f scale concert eb bb scale concert ab eb scale concert db ab scale concert gb db scale concert bb chromatic scale f chromatic concert d a scale concert a e scale concert e b scale concert cb gb scale. Okay so if the f scale on the french horn is the b flat concert scale then what are the concert names for these french horn major scales. French horn 12 major scales f bb concert bb eb concert eb ab concert ab db concert db gb concert gb cb concert b e concert e a concert a d concert d g concert.

When they play a c it sounds like a f on the piano. To get started on learning how to play the instrument you will need a french horn fingering chart. Known for its beautiful rich tones the french horn is a brass instrument that blends in well but also provides depth to a bands overall sound.

French horn scales author. So if they want to play a concert bb scale they start on a g they have to think up a six steps in the scale or down a minor third. Above youll find our fingering chart which shows how to play french horn scales and notes.

Minor scales frenchhorn full score author. Then play the scale associated with that key. 10222010 110405 am.

The fingerings go along with a single french horn. To go from concert pitch to horn pitch f simply add one sharp or remove one flat from the key. Find out how to play all 12 major scales on a french horn with help from a horn player in this free video on musical instruments and french horns.

When learning the french horn its important to practice major scales while working on stringing a series of notes together. French horns and some alto horns and the english horn thats the one related to the oboe are f instruments.

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Transposing Instruments

What Are Transposing Instruments?

If you play a C on the piano, then you hear a C. Simple, right? The piano is what is known as a non-transposing instrument or in the Key of C. The note you see on the music is the pitch that is sounded.

A transposing instrument is one that sounds a different pitch than the note written.

For some instruments, the note they see in the music isn't the note that is heard. For example, if I was playing my French horn and saw a "C" in the music, the pitch that would come out of the instrument would be an "F."

When I was a young musician, I was told this saying. "When an instrument plays a C, it says its key."

You can see that in with the French horn. French horns are often called "F Horns" because they are pitched in F. The notes they see and play on sheet music are a perfect fifth higher than what is heard when played. Said another way, music for the French horn sounds a perfect fifth lower than what is notated.

Why Do Instruments Transpose?

There are four major reasons an instrument might be transposing:

  1. Instruments transpose to make it easier for musicians to switch between members in the instrument family.
  2. It is a result of the evolution of the instrument. The French horn is a good example of this; the hornist would see which key a piece was in and then add lengths of pipe (crooks) to change the key. Once valves were invented, the hornist needed to transpose the pieces to F.
  3. The instrument sounds in an octave that would be silly to write for (too many ledger lines) or would require the use of a clef that the musician might not typically read.
  4. To make fingering patterns easier/consistent across instrument variants. Think about the easiest scale you could play on a recorder. It would start with all your fingers down and then you'd gradually lift one up to progress up the scale. If we said this was the "C" scale, then when you played that same fingering pattern on a slightly bigger recorder, with a lower fundamental/overtone series, it wouldn't sound the same. The first note might sound like a B-flat. We would say this recorder is in the Key of B-flat.

Imagine that I don't want to play French horn anymore. Instead, I want to switch to trumpet because the embouchures are similar. The trumpet is pitched in B-flat and the French horn is pitched in F. Will I have to learn all new fingerings?

No. For both instruments, a C is open, a B is second valve, a B-flat is first valve, etc.

Transposition helps musicians that need to switch instruments learn one set of fingerings and then be able to pick up instruments in the same family easily. My example of French horn to trumpet isn't common, but consider how often this is the case for woodwind instruments; a flute player might need to play piccolo or a saxophone, or a clarinet player needs to play a related family member.

This helps in a number of ways. First, the fingering example we talked about, but also in helping to write music in keys that are just easier to perform.

Transposing Quick Guide.

If you just need an easy-to-use guide to help figure out transposing from your instrument to concert pitch, then use this table. It will show you the relationship between notes written in your key and concert pitch.

music-transposition-chart.png

Tips For Transposing Music.

French horn players have to transpose a lot. It comes from the instrument's history, dating back to when players needed to use crooks in order to lengthen the instrument enough to put it in a different key.

This meant I needed to learn to transpose when I started playing in an orchestra. At first, I would write out all the notes I needed to transpose to. This made for really messy music and it took a long time to do. Then, when I turned the music back into the librarian, I had to erase all the ghost notes I had written in.

When I started college, I memorized the interval I needed to transpose to. For example, if a piece was in E-flat, then I would read everything down a whole step. I would just imagine every note being on the space or the line below the note that was written. This was easy for closely related keys but was challenging when transposing to keys like B-flat or C. Or when transposing music with complicated key signatures.

Then one day it hit me, I can just play the corresponding scale degree in the related key. Assign every note in a scale a number. Using the C-major scale as an example, C would be 1, D would be 2, E would be 3, and so on. Instead of reading the notes, I am reading scales degrees in the key I am playing. If I have to transpose, I just change the key signature in my head and play those same scale degrees.

List Of Common Transposing Instruments.

This table shows some of the more common instruments that will need to transpose their music to "Concert pitch." You'll notice that most of them are in the key of B-flat, E-flat, or F. To transpose from this instrument to concert pitch, following the instructions in the "Transposition" column. For example, if I playing a C on a B-flat trumpet and my band director asks "What concert pitch am I playing," then I would need to move my "C" down a whole step (major second) and say that I am playing a B-flat concert pitch. If you are looking to transpose from concert pitch to these instruments, just reverse the instructions. For example, instead of going down a major second when transposing from B-flat to C, just go up a major second and now you have a part written for B-flat instruments.

InstrumentInstrument KeyTransposition from C
E-flat ClarinetE-flatDown a major sixth
B-flat ClarinetB-flatDown a major second (Wholestep)
Bass ClarinetB-flatDown a major second (Wholestep)
B-flat EuphoniumB-flatDown a major second (Wholestep)
Alto FluteGDown a major fourth
French HornFDown a major fifth
MellophoneFDown a major fifth
English HornFDown a major fifth
Soprano SaxophoneB-flatDown a major second (Wholestep)
Alto SaxophoneE-flatDown a major sixth
Tenor SaxophoneB-flatDown a major second (Wholestep)
Baritone SaxophoneE-flatDown a major sixth
Piccolo TrumpetB-flat or ADown a major second (Wholestep)
E-flat TrumpetE-flatDown a major sixth
B-flat TrumpetB-flatDown a major second (Wholestep)
E-flat TubaE-flatDown a major sixth
B-flat TubaB-flatDown a major second (Wholestep)

How To Use A Tuner With Transposing Instruments.

Instrument tuners will always show concert pitch. This means, if you play a transposing instrument, then the note you are playing will not be the note name the tuner shows. For example, if I play a C on my French horn, the tuner will show me playing an F. In order to use a tuner, I need to know how to transpose from the key my instrument is into concert pitch.

The table above will help you know how to figure out the concert pitch of any note you are playing. Let's use the French Horn as an example; To find the "Concert pitch" of any note I play on the french horn, I need to go down a major fifth. Why a major fifth? Because F is a major fifth lower than C. Now, let's say I am playing an E on my french horn. What is this in concert pitch? If I take the rule of down a major fifth, then I know that E on french horn is an A concert. When I work with a chromatic tuner, I should always see the concert pitch, so I will need to make sure I am playing a note that is a major fifth above what is being shown. For B-flat instruments, they should be playing a major second above what is being shown and for E-flat instruments, they should be playing a major sixth above what is being shown.


Источник: https://theonlinemetronome.com/blogs/6/transposing-instruments

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