Extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators

extreme picture finder alternative  - Free Activators

Download Shotcut bit for Windows. Fast downloads of the latest free software! Click now/10(). Shotcut is a free, open source, cross-platform video editor. Extreme Picture Finder crack is a download manager-style multimedia Extreme Picture Finder 3.57.1 with Crack Free Download [Latest]. Extreme Picture Finder Crack With Activation Key 2022: The Extreme Picture Finder key can download pictures from password-protected websites.

Similar video

Easy Duplicate Finder 7.9.1.24 (2021) - How to Install and Activate 100% Full Working

Extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators -

Windows 8

Personal computer operating system by Microsoft released in 2012

Windows 8 logo and wordmark.svg
Windows 8 Start Screen.png

Windows 8 Start screen, showing default live tile arrangement.

DeveloperMicrosoft
Source model
Released to
manufacturing
August 1, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-08-01)[2]
General
availability
October 26, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-10-26)[3]
Latest release6.2.9200 / December 13, 2016; 4 years ago (2016-12-13)
Update methodWindows Update, Windows Store, Windows Server Update Services
PlatformsIA-32, x86-64, ARM (Windows RT)
Kernel typeHybrid
UserlandWindows API, NTVDM
LicenseTrialware, Microsoft Software Assurance, MSDN subscription, DreamSpark
Preceded byWindows 7 (2009)
Succeeded byWindows 8.1 (2013)
Official websitewindows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-8/meet (archived at Wayback Machine)
All editions except Windows Embedded 8 Standard:
  • Unsupported as of January 12, 2016
  • Users must install the Windows 8.1 update for their edition or Windows 10 in order to continue to receive updates and support.[4]

Windows Embedded 8 Standard:

Windows 8 is a major release of the Windows NToperating system developed by Microsoft. The product was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, and generally to retail on October 26, 2012.[6] Windows 8 was made available for download via MSDN and TechNet and available as an upgrade to all Windows 7 users via Windows Update.[citation needed]

Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface intended to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS.[7] In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro"design language and the Start screen (which displays programs and dynamically updated content on a grid of tiles), a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services (including the ability to synchronize apps and settings between devices), and Windows Store, an online distribution for downloading and purchasing new software, and a new keyboard shortcut for screenshots.[8] Many of these features were adoptions from Windows Phone. Windows 8 added support for USB 3.0, Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, and cloud computing. Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreenphishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.

Windows 8 is the first version of Windows to support the ARM architecture, under the Windows RT branding.

Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn, especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses were sold through January 2013, a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.[9]

Microsoft released Windows 8.1 in October 2013, addressing some aspects of Windows 8 that were criticized by reviewers and early adopters and incorporated additional improvements to various aspects of the operating system.[10][11] Windows 8 was ultimately succeeded by Windows 10 in July 2015. Support for IE10 on Windows Server 2012[12][13] and Windows Embedded 8 Standard[14] ended on January 31, 2020. Market share had fallen to 1.06% by October 2020.[15]

In August 2019, computer experts reported that the BlueKeepsecurity vulnerability, CVE-2019-0708, that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program's Remote Desktop Protocol, allowing for the possibility of remote code execution, may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue, affecting newer Windows versions (i.e., Windows 7 and all recent versions).[16] In addition, experts reported a Microsoftsecurity vulnerability, CVE-2019-1162, based on legacy code involving Microsoft CTF and ctfmon (ctfmon.exe), that affects all Windows versions from the older Windows XP version to the most recent Windows 10 versions; a patch to correct the flaw is currently available.[17]

Development history[edit]

Early development[edit]

Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009.[18] At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARMsystem-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise."[19][20][21][22] Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.[23]

The earliest build of Windows 8 is build 7700, compiled in January 2010.[24] The build was identical to Windows 7 except for the wallpaper being different - the same one from the Beta and Release Candidate. In addition, there were references to Windows 8 in this build.

In late 2010, an optional 3D desktop user interface for high-end systems named "Wind" was rumored.[25]

Two milestone releases of Windows 8 and one of Windows Server 2012leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011.[26] It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh. let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010.[27] The leaked copy was Enterprise edition, with other editions leaking later. In 2020, it was discovered that Metro existed in this build, after enabling the 'Redpill'. The start screen was very primitive, being a white screen with gray tiles. The charms bar was also included, but was unusable. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new black screen,[28] although it was later reverted to a different blue color. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". Both builds 7850 and 7955 leaked alongside Windows Server 2012 build 7959. On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same Betta fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later replaced, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was scrapped.[29] The boot screen was not new to this build though - it came from build 7973, a slightly earlier build. It is worth mentioning that most of these leaks "hid" the main Metro UI features that were to come in tweak known as Redlock in order to prevent relevant leaks. A patch named Redpill was necessary to reveal the new Metro UI as well as the redesigned Start Screen, Lock Screen and apps.[citation needed] Several applications have tried to replicate this patch as closely as possible, although one called Redlock is the most accurate, supporting the enabling of builds' Metro UI from 7850-8056. It also worked on the Developer Preview.

This build also leaked in the x86 architecture as a debug build, with the setup having a slight change - the theme was now Windows Basic in setup, rather than Classic.

Build 8008 was the first build to remove the User Tile. A new wallpaper was introduced and Metro was updated to be more like the final version of Windows 8.

On June 1, 2011, Microsoft unveiled Windows 8's new user interface, as well as additional features at both Computex Taipei and the D9: All Things Digital conference in California.[30][31]

The "Building Windows 8" blog launched on August 15, 2011, featuring details surrounding Windows 8's features and its development process.[32]

Previews[edit]

A screenshot of Windows Developer Preview running on a multi-monitor system, showcasing some features

As Windows 8 transitioned away from being in the Milestone phase of development, the Developer Preview was beginning to take shape.

Build 8032 changed the branding to Windows Developer Preview and was the last build to use Windows 7 branding anywhere.

Build 8056 introduced several changes to the interface and small stability improvements. Metro was updated to be more like the Metro in Developer Preview (although it was still different) and a new wallpaper was introduced.

Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13, 2011.[33] Microsoft released the first public beta build of Windows 8, Windows Developer Preview (build 8102) at the event. A Samsung tablet running the build was also distributed to conference attendees.

The build was released for download later that day in standard 32-bit and 64-bit variants, plus a special 64-bit variant which included SDKs and developer tools (Visual Studio Express and Expression Blend) for developing Metro-style apps.[34] The Windows Store was announced during the presentation, but was not available in this build.[35][36] According to Microsoft, there were about 535,000 downloads of the developer preview within the first 12 hours of its release.[37] Originally set to expire on March 11, 2012, in February 2012 the Developer Preview's expiry date was changed to January 15, 2013.[38]

The new File Explorer interface with "Ribbon" in Windows 8

The next step was the Consumer Preview, sometimes called Windows 8 Beta in the builds before it.

Build 8118 is the earliest leaked post-Developer Preview build. This build disables Redpill, and Metro can be manually enabled through the editing of system files.

Build 8128 removed Redpill, and Metro was enabled by default with no way to disable it (although build 8102 is being distributed by Microsoft with Redpill already applied and can be disabled with a registry key[39]).[40]

Build 8176 featured new branding - Windows 8 Beta. The Consumer Preview wallpapers have now been added, and the setup color has been changed to be the same as the final Consumer Preview.

Build 8195 is largely the same as 8176, although it removes the Start Button from the taskbar. While the start button could be removed in early Milestone 2 (and this persisted through Windows 8 development) with a registry key, this build disabled it by default with no way to turn it back on. The branding is now identical to the Consumer Preview.

On February 17, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new logo to be adopted for Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Additionally, the entire logo is now rendered in a single solid color.[41]

On February 29, 2012, Microsoft released Windows 8 Consumer Preview, the beta version of Windows 8, build 8250. Alongside other changes, the build brought over the big change from build 8195: removing the Start button from the taskbar for the first time in a public build since its debut on Windows 95; according to Windows manager Chaitanya Sareen, the Start button was removed to reflect their view that on Windows 8, the desktop was an "app" itself, and not the primary interface of the operating system.[42][43] Windows president Steven Sinofsky said more than 100,000 changes had been made since the developer version went public.[43] The day after its release, Windows 8 Consumer Preview had been downloaded over one million times.[44] Like the Developer Preview, the Consumer Preview expired on January 15, 2013.

Development on the third and final preview of Windows 8, the Release Preview, began shortly after Consumer Preview (note: build 8277 was compiled on February 8, 2012, before 8250[45][46]). Build 8330 was a build in between the Consumer and Release Previews. This build includes a new default wallpaper and several changes, such as the new logo replacing the old one and appearing in the About Windows dialog box.

Many other builds may exist or were released until Japan's Developers Day conference when Steven Sinofsky announced that Windows 8 Release Preview (build 8400) would be released during the first week of June.[47] On May 28, 2012, Windows 8 Release Preview (Standard Simplified Chinese x64 edition, not China-specific variant, build 8400) was leaked online on various Chinese and BitTorrent websites.[48] On May 31, 2012, Windows 8 Release Preview was released to the public by Microsoft.[49] Major items in the Release Preview included the addition of Sports, Travel, and News apps, along with an integrated variant of Adobe Flash Player in Internet Explorer.[50] Like the Developer Preview and the Consumer Preview, the release preview expired on January 15, 2013.

Release[edit]

Windows 8 launch event at Pier 57in New York City

With the Release Preview of Windows 8 finished, Microsoft began work on the final release.

Build 8423 is the last leaked build to contain Aero. It was dropped in build 8432 and seen for two builds after 8423.

Build 8438 removed Desktop Gadgets. It was identical to 8432, which removed Aero. This build and the x86 variant of build 8330 were built in the interestingly named 'fbl_ie_longhorn' branch.

Build 8888 was leaked in December 2014, and was identical to the RTM with the exception of the timebomb and missing apps.

On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 (build 9200[51]) was released to manufacturing with the build number 6.2.9200.16384.[52] Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25, 2012[53] and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day.[54] However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (a variant for European markets which lacks bundled media players to comply with an antitrust ruling) leaked online, followed by leaks of the final versions of Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise a few days later.[55][56] On August 15, 2012, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers.[57] Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16, 2012.[58] Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised.[59] Windows 8 became generally available for download to all MSDN and TechNet customers on August 15 and for retail purchase on October 26, 2012.

Relatively few changes were made from the Release Preview to the final version; these included updated versions of its pre-loaded apps, the renaming of Windows Explorer to File Explorer, the replacement of the Aero Glass theme from Windows Vista and 7 with a new flat and solid-color theme as seen in build 8432, and the addition of new background options for the Start screen, lock screen, and desktop.[60] Prior to its general availability on October 26, 2012, updates were released for some of Windows 8's bundled apps, and a "General Availability Cumulative Update" (which included fixes to improve performance, compatibility, and battery life) was released on Tuesday, October 9, 2012. Microsoft indicated that due to improvements to its testing infrastructure, general improvements of this nature are to be released more frequently through Windows Update instead of being relegated to OEMs and service packs only.[61][62]

Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012.[7] Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95.[63] As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls to showcase the Surface product line, provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.[64] All Windows 7 PCs plan to offer a new Windows 8 upgrade on December 31, 2012, and Microsoft upgraded it as a product of currently supported Windows 7 PCs in January 2013 via Windows Update.

Windows 8 Pro DVD case, containing a 32-bit and a 64-bit installation disc

In May 2013, Microsoft launched a new television campaign for Windows 8 illustrating the capabilities and pricing of Windows 8 tablets in comparison to the iPad, which featured the voice of Siri remarking on the iPad's limitations in a parody of Apple's "Get a Mac" advertisements.[65][66] On June 12, 2013 during game 1 of the 2013 Stanley Cup Finals, Microsoft premiered the first ad in its "Windows Everywhere" campaign, which promoted Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, and the company's suite of online services as an interconnected platform.[67][68]

New and changed features[edit]

Main article: Features new to Windows 8

New features and functionality in Windows 8 include a faster startup through UEFI integration and the new "Hybrid Boot" mode (which hibernates the Windows kernel on shutdown to speed up the subsequent boot),[69] a new lock screen with a clock and notifications,[70] and the ability for enterprise users to create live USB variants of Windows (known as Windows To Go).[71][72] Windows 8 also adds native support for USB 3.0 devices, which allow for faster data transfers and improved power management with compatible devices,[73][74] and hard disk 4KB Advanced Format support,[75] as well as support for near field communication to facilitate sharing and communication between devices.[76]

Windows Explorer, which has been renamed File Explorer, now includes a ribbon in place of the command bar. File operation dialog boxes have been updated to provide more detailed statistics, the ability to pause file transfers, and improvements in the ability to manage conflicts when copying files.[77] A new "File History" function allows incremental revisions of files to be backed up to and restored from a secondary storage device,[78] while Storage Spaces allows users to combine different sized hard disks into virtual drives and specify mirroring, parity, or no redundancy on a folder-by-folder basis.[79] For easier management of files and folders, Windows 8 introduces the ability to move selected files or folders via drag and drop from a parent folder into a subfolder listed within the breadcrumb hierarchy of the address bar in File Explorer.[80]

Task Manager has been redesigned, including a new processes tab with the option to display fewer or more details of running applications and background processes, a heat map using different colors indicating the level of resource usage, network and disk counters, grouping by process type (e.g. applications, background processes and Windows processes), friendly names for processes and a new option which allows users to search the web to find information about obscure processes.[81] Additionally, the Blue Screen of Death has been updated with a simpler and modern design with less technical information displayed.[82][83]

Safety and security[edit]

New security features in Windows 8 include two new authentication methods tailored towards touchscreens (PINs and picture passwords),[84] the addition of antivirus capabilities to Windows Defender (bringing it in parity with Microsoft Security Essentials).[85]SmartScreen filtering integrated into Windows,[86]Family Safety offers Parental controls, which allows parents to monitor and manage their children's activities on a device with activity reports and safety controls.[87][88][89] Windows 8 also provides integrated system recovery through the new "Refresh" and "Reset" functions,[90] including system recovery from USB drive.[91] Windows 8's first security patches would be released on November 13, 2012; it would contain three fixes deemed "critical" by the company.[92]

Windows 8 supports a feature of the UEFI specification known as "Secure boot", which uses a public-key infrastructure to verify the integrity of the operating system and prevent unauthorized programs such as bootkits from infecting the device's boot process.[93] Some pre-built devices may be described as "certified" by Microsoft; these must have secure boot enabled by default, and provide ways for users to disable or re-configure the feature. ARM-based Windows RT devices must have secure boot permanently enabled.[94][95][96]

Online services and functionality[edit]

Windows 8 provides heavier integration with online services from Microsoft and others. A user can now log into Windows with a Microsoft account, which can be used to access services and synchronize applications and settings between devices. Windows 8 also ships with a client app for Microsoft's SkyDrivecloud storage service, which also allows apps to save files directly to SkyDrive. A SkyDrive client for the desktop and File Explorer is not included in Windows 8, and must be downloaded separately.[97] Bundled multimedia apps are provided under the Xbox brand, including Xbox Music, Xbox Video, and the Xbox SmartGlass companion for use with an Xbox 360 console. Games can integrate into an Xbox Live hub app, which also allows users to view their profile and Gamerscore.[98] Other bundled apps provide the ability to link Flickr and Facebook.[99] Due to Facebook Connect service changes, Facebook support is disabled in all bundled apps effective June 8, 2015.[100]

Internet Explorer 10 is included as both a desktop program and a touch-optimized app, and includes increased support for HTML5, CSS3, and hardware acceleration. The Internet Explorer app does not support plugins or ActiveX components, but includes a variant of Adobe Flash Player that is optimized for touch and low power usage. Initially, Adobe Flash would only work on sites included on a "Compatibility View" whitelist; however, after feedback from users and additional compatibility tests, an update in March 2013 changed this behavior to use a smaller blacklist of sites with known compatibility issues instead, allowing Flash to be used on most sites by default.[101] The desktop variant does not contain these limitations.[102]

Windows 8 also incorporates improved support for mobile broadband; the operating system can now detect the insertion of a SIM card and automatically configure connection settings (including APNs and carrier branding), and reduce its Internet usage to conserve bandwidth on metered networks. Windows 8 also adds an integrated airplane mode setting to globally disable all wireless connectivity as well. Carriers can also offer account management systems through Windows Store apps, which can be automatically installed as a part of the connection process and offer usage statistics on their respective tile.[103]

Windows Store apps[edit]

Snap feature: Xbox Music, alongside Photos snapped into a sidebarto the right side of the screen
Snap feature: Desktop, along Wikipedia Appsnapped into a sidebar to the right side of the screen. In Windows 8, desktop and everything on it is treated as one Metro-style app.

Windows 8 introduces a new style of application, Windows Store apps. According to Microsoft developer Jensen Harris, these apps are to be optimized for touchscreen environments and are more specialized than current desktop applications. Apps can run either in a full-screen mode or be snapped to the side of a screen.[104] Apps can provide toast notifications on screen or animate their tiles on the Start screen with dynamic content. Apps can use "contracts"; a collection of hooks to provide common functionality that can integrate with other apps, including search and sharing.[104] Apps can also provide integration with other services; for example, the People app can connect to a variety of different social networks and services (such as Facebook, Skype, and People service), while the Photos app can aggregate photos from services such as Facebook and Flickr.[99]

Windows Store apps run within a new set of APIs known as Windows Runtime, which supports programming languages such as C, C++, Visual Basic .NET, C#, along with HTML5 and JavaScript.[104] If written in some "high-level" languages, apps written for Windows Runtime can be compatible with both Intel and ARM variants of Windows,[105] otherwise they are not binary code compatible. Components may be compiled as Windows Runtime Components, permitting consumption by all compatible languages.[106] To ensure stability and security, apps run within a sandboxed environment, and require permissions to access certain functionality, such as accessing the Internet or a camera.[107]

Retail variants of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store — a namesake distribution platform that offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8.[105][107] A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.[108]

The term "Immersive app" had been used internally by Microsoft developers to refer to the apps prior to the first official presentation of Windows 8, after which they were referred to as "Metro-style apps" in reference to the Metro design language. The term was phased out in August 2012; a Microsoft spokesperson denied rumors that the change was related to a potential trademark issue, and stated that "Metro" was only a codename that would be replaced prior to Windows 8's release.[23][109] Following these reports, the terms "Modern UI-style apps",[110] "Windows 8-style apps"[111] and "Windows Store apps" began to be used by various Microsoft documents and material to refer to the new apps. In an interview on September 12, 2012, Soma Somasegar (vice president of Microsoft's development software division) confirmed that "Windows Store apps" would be the official term for the apps.[112] An MSDN page explaining the Metro design language uses the term "Modern design" to refer to the language as a whole.[113]

Web browsers[edit]

Exceptions to the restrictions faced by Windows Store apps are given to web browsers. The user's default browser can distribute a Metro-style web browser in the same package as the desktop variant, which has access to functionality unavailable to other apps, such as being able to permanently run in the background, use multiple background processes, and use Windows API code instead of WinRT (allowing for code to be re-used with the desktop variant, while still taking advantage of features available to Windows Store apps, such as charms). Microsoft advertises this exception privilege "New experience enabled" (formerly "Metro-style enabled").

The developers of both Chrome and Firefox committed to developing Metro-style variants of their browsers; while Chrome's "Windows 8 mode" (discontinued on Chrome version 49) uses a full-screen version of the existing desktop interface, Firefox's variant (which was first made available on the "Aurora" release channel in September 2013) uses a touch-optimized interface inspired by the Android variant of Firefox. In October 2013, Chrome's app was changed to mimic the desktop environment used by Chrome OS.[114][115][116][117][118][119] Development of the Firefox app for Windows 8 has since been cancelled, citing a lack of user adoption for the beta versions.[120]

Interface and desktop[edit]

Windows 8 introduces significant changes to the operating system's user interface, many of which are aimed at improving its experience on tablet computers and other touchscreen devices. The new user interface is based on Microsoft's Metro design language and uses a Start screen similar to that of Windows Phone 7 as the primary means of launching applications. The Start screen displays a customizable array of tiles linking to various apps and desktop programs, some of which can display constantly updated information and content through "live tiles".[104] As a form of multi-tasking, apps can be snapped to the side of a screen.[104] Alongside the traditional Control Panel, a new simplified and touch-optimized settings app known as "PC Settings" is used for basic configuration and user settings. It does not include many of the advanced options still accessible from the normal Control Panel.[121]

A vertical toolbar known as the charms[122] (accessed by swiping from the right edge of a touchscreen, swiping from the right edge of a touchpad, or pointing the cursor at hotspots in the right corners of a screen) provides access to system and app-related functions, such as search, sharing, device management, settings, and a Start button.[122][123] The traditional desktop environment for running desktop applications is accessed via a tile on the Start screen. The Start button on the taskbar from previous versions of Windows has been converted into a hotspot (or "hot corner") in the lower-left corner of the screen, which displays a large tooltip displaying a thumbnail of the Start screen. However, Windows 8.1 added the start button back to the taskbar after many complaints, but removed the preview thumbnail.[124][125] Swiping from the left edge of a touchscreen or clicking in the top-left corner of the screen allows one to switch between apps and Desktop. Pointing the cursor in the top-left corner of the screen and moving down reveals a thumbnail list of active apps.[125] Aside from the removal of the Start button and the replacement of the Aero Glass theme with a flatter and solid-colored design, the desktop interface on Windows 8 is similar to that of Windows 7.[126]

Removed features[edit]

Main article: List of features removed in Windows 8

Several notable features were removed in Windows 8; support for playing DVD-Video was removed from Windows Media Player due to the cost of licensing the necessary decoders (especially for devices which do not include optical disc drives at all) and the prevalence of online streaming services. For the same reasons, Windows Media Center is not included by default on Windows 8, but Windows Media Center and DVD playback support could be purchased in the "Pro Pack" (which upgrades the system to Windows 8 Pro) or "Media Center Pack" add-on for Windows 8 Pro. As with prior versions, third-party DVD player software can still be used to enable DVD playback.[127]

Backup and Restore, the backup component of Windows, was deprecated. It still shipped with Windows 8 and continues to work on preset schedules, but it was pushed to the background and can only be accessed through a Control Panel applet called "Windows 7 File Recovery".[128]: 76 Shadow Copy, a component of Windows Explorer that once saved previous versions of changed files, no longer protects local files and folders. It can only access previous versions of shared files stored on a Windows Server computer.[128]: 74  The subsystem on which these components worked, however, is still available for other software to use.[128]: 74 

Hardware requirements[edit]

PCs[edit]

The minimum system requirements for Windows 8 are slightly higher than those of Windows 7. The CPU must support the Physical Address Extension (PAE), NX bit, and SSE2. Windows Store apps require a screen resolution of 1024×768 or higher to run; a resolution of 1366×768 or higher is required to use the snap functionality.[129] To receive certification, Microsoft requires candidate x86 systems to resume from standby in 2 seconds or less.[130]

Microsoft's Connected Standby specification, which hardware vendors may optionally comply with, sets new power consumption requirements that extend above the above minimum specifications.[134] Included in this standard are a number of security-specific requirements designed to improve physical security, notably against Cold Boot Attacks.

32-bit SKUs of Windows 8 only support a maximum of 4 GB of RAM. 64-bit SKUs, however support more: Windows 8 x64 supports 128 GB while Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise x64 support 512 GB.[135]

In January 2016, Microsoft announced that it would no longer support Windows 8.1 or 7 on devices using Intel's Skylake CPU family effective July 17, 2018, and that all future CPU microarchitectures, as well as Skylake systems after this date, would only be supported on Windows 10. After the deadline, only critical security updates were to be released for users on these platforms.[136][137][138][139] After this new policy faced criticism from users and enterprise customers, Microsoft partially retracted the change and stated that both operating systems would remain supported on Skylake hardware through the end of their Extended support lifecycle. Windows 8.1 remains officially unsupported on all newer CPU families, and neither AMD or Intel will provide official chipset drivers for Windows operating systems other than Windows 10.[140][141] However, on August 2016, Microsoft again extended the Skylake support policy until the end of support for Windows 7 and 8.1 (2020 and 2023, respectively).[142][141]

Tablets and convertibles[edit]

Microsoft released minimum hardware requirements for tablet and laplet devices to be "certified" for Windows 8 and defined a convertible form factor as a standalone device that combines the PC, display, and rechargeable power source with a mechanically attached keyboard and pointing device in a single chassis. A convertible can be transformed into a tablet where the attached input devices are hidden or removed leaving the display as the only input mechanism.[143][144] On March 12, 2013, Microsoft amended its certification requirements to only require that screens on tablets have a minimum resolution of 1024×768 (down from the previous 1366×768). The amended requirement is intended to allow "greater design flexibility" for future products.[145]

Graphics cardDirectX 10 graphics device with WDDM 1.2 or higher driver
Storage10 GB free space, after the out-of-box experience completes
Standard buttons , , , ,
ScreenTouch screen supporting a minimum of 5-point digitizers and resolution of at least 1024×768. The physical dimensions of the display panel must match the aspect ratio of the native resolution. The native resolution of the panel can be greater than 1024 (horizontally) and 768 (vertically). Minimum native color depth is 32-bits. If the display is under 1366×768, disclaimers must be included in documentation to notify users that the Snap function is not available.[145]
Camera Minimum 720p
Accelerometer3 axes with data rates at or above 50 Hz
USB 2.0At least one controller and exposed port.
Connect Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.0 + LE (low energy)
Other Speaker, microphone, magnetometer and gyroscope.

If a mobile broadband device is integrated into a tablet or convertible system, then an assisted GPS radio is required. Devices supporting near field communication need to have visual marks to help users locate and use the proximity technology. The new button combination for Ctrl + Alt + Del is Windows Key + Power.

Updated certification requirements were implemented to coincide with Windows 8.1. As of 2014, all certified devices with integrated displays must contain a 720p webcam and higher quality speakers and microphones, while all certified devices that support Wi-Fi must support Bluetooth as well. As of 2015, all certified devices must contain Trusted Platform Module 2.0 chips.[147][148]

Editions[edit]

Main article: Windows 8 editions

Windows 8 is available in three different editions, of which the lowest edition, branded simply as Windows 8, and Windows 8 Pro, were sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Each edition of Windows 8 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and add additional features oriented towards their market segments. For example, Pro added BitLocker, Hyper-V, the ability to join a domain, and the ability to install Windows Media Center as a paid add-on. Users of Windows 8 can purchase a "Pro Pack" license that upgrades their system to Windows 8 Pro through Add features to Windows. This license also includes Windows Media Center.[149][150][151]Windows 8 Enterprise contains additional features aimed towards business environments, and is only available through volume licensing.[151] A port of Windows 8 for ARM architecture, Windows RT, is marketed as an edition of Windows 8, but was only included as pre-loaded software on devices specifically developed for it.[151]

Windows 8 was distributed as a retail box product on DVD, and through a digital download that could be converted into DVD or USB install media. As part of a launch promotion, Microsoft offered Windows 8 Pro upgrades at a discounted price of US$39.99 online, or $69.99 for retail box from its launch until January 31, 2013; afterward the Windows 8 price has been $119.99 and the Pro price $199.99.[152][153] Those who purchased new PCs pre-loaded with Windows 7 Home Basic, Home Premium, Professional, or Ultimate between June 2, 2012 and January 31, 2013 could digitally purchase a Windows 8 Pro upgrade for US$14.99.[154] Several PC manufacturers offered rebates and refunds on Windows 8 upgrades obtained through the promotion on select models, such as Hewlett-Packard (in the U.S. and Canada on select models), and Acer (in Europe on selected Ultrabook models).[155][156] During these promotions, the Windows Media Center add-on for Windows 8 Pro was also offered for free.[149]

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows 8 was distributed at retail in "Upgrade" licenses only, which require an existing version of Windows to install. The "full version software" SKU, which was more expensive but could be installed on computers without an eligible OS or none at all, was discontinued. In lieu of full version, a specialized "System Builder" SKU was introduced. The "System Builder" SKU replaced the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) SKU, which was only allowed to be used on PCs meant for resale but added a "Personal Use License" exemption that officially allowed its purchase and personal use by users on homebuilt computers.[157][158][159]

Retail distribution of Windows 8 has since been discontinued in favor of Windows 8.1. Unlike 8, 8.1 is available as "full version software" at both retail and online for download that does not require a previous version of Windows in order to be installed. Pricing for these new copies remain identical.[160] With the retail release returning to full version software for Windows 8.1, the "Personal Use License" exemption was removed from the OEM SKU, meaning that end users building their own PCs for personal use must use the full retail variant in order to satisfy the Windows 8.1 licensing requirements.[157]Windows 8.1 with Bing is a special OEM-specific SKU of Windows 8.1 subsidized by Microsoft's Bing search engine.[161]

Software compatibility[edit]

The three desktop editions of Windows 8 support 32-bit and 64-bit architectures; retail copies of Windows 8 include install DVDs for both architectures, while the online installer automatically installs the variant corresponding with the architecture of the system's existing Windows installation.[149][162] The 32-bit variant runs on CPUs compatible with x86 architecture 3rd generation (known as IA-32) or newer, and can run 32-bit and 16-bitapplications, although 16-bit support must be enabled first.[163][164] (16-bit applications are developed for CPUs compatible with x86 2nd generation, first conceived in 1978. Microsoft started moving away from this architecture after Windows 95.[163])

The 64-bit variant runs on CPUs compatible with x86 8th generation (known as x86-64, or x64) or newer, and can run 32-bit and 64-bit programs. 32-bit programs and operating system are restricted to supporting only 4 gigabytes of memory while 64-bit systems can theoretically support 2048 gigabytes of memory.[165] 64-bit operating systems require a different set of device drivers than those of 32-bit operating systems.[165]

Windows RT, the only edition of Windows 8 for systems with ARM processors, only supports applications included with the system (such as a special variant of Office 2013), supplied through Windows Update, or Windows Store apps, to ensure that the system only runs applications that are optimized for the architecture. Windows RT does not support running IA-32 or x64 applications.[166] Windows Store apps can either support both the x86 and ARM architectures, or compiled to support a specific architecture.[167]

Reception[edit]

Pre-release[edit]

Following the unveiling of Windows 8, Microsoft faced criticism (particularly from free software supporters) for mandating that devices receiving its optional certification for Windows 8 have secure boot enabled by default using a key provided by Microsoft. Concerns were raised that secure boot could prevent or hinder the use of alternate operating systems such as Linux. In a post discussing secure boot on the Building Windows 8 blog, Microsoft developer Tony Mangefeste indicated that vendors would provide means to customize secure boot, stating that "At the end of the day, the customer is in control of their PC. Microsoft's philosophy is to provide customers with the best experience first, and allow them to make decisions themselves."[94][168] Microsoft's certification guidelines for Windows 8 ultimately revealed that vendors would be required to provide means for users to re-configure or disable secure boot in their device's UEFI firmware. It also revealed that ARM devices (Windows RT) would be required to have secure boot permanently enabled, with no way for users to disable it. However, Tom Warren of The Verge noted that other vendors have implemented similar hardware restrictions on their own ARM-based tablet and smartphone products (including those running Microsoft's own Windows Phone platform), but still argued that Microsoft should "keep a consistent approach across ARM and x86, though, not least because of the number of users who'd love to run Android alongside Windows 8 on their future tablets."[95][96][169] No mandate is made regarding the installation of third-party certificates that would enable running alternative programs.[170][171][172]

Several notable video game developers criticized Microsoft for making its Windows Store a closed platform subject to its own regulations, as it conflicted with their view of the PC as an open platform. Markus "Notch" Persson (creator of the indie gameMinecraft),[173]Gabe Newell (co-founder of Valve and developer of software distribution platform Steam),[174] and Rob Pardo from Activision Blizzard voiced concern about the closed nature of the Windows Store.[175] However, Tom Warren of The Verge stated that Microsoft's addition of the Store was simply responding to the success of both Apple and Google in pursuing the "curated application store approach."[176]

Critical reception[edit]

Reviews of the various editions of Windows 8 were mixed to negative. Tom Warren of The Verge said that although Windows 8's emphasis on touch computing was significant and risked alienating desktop users, he felt that Windows 8 tablets "[make] an iPad feel immediately out of date" due to the capabilities of the operating system's hybrid model and increased focus on cloud services.[176] David Pierce of The Verge described Windows 8 as "the first desktop operating system that understands what a computer is supposed to do in 2012" and praised Microsoft's "no compromise" approach and the operating system's emphasis on Internet connectivity and cloud services. Pierce also considered the Start Screen to be a "brilliant innovation for desktop computers" when compared with "folder-littered desktops on every other OS" because it allows users to interact with dynamic information.[177] In contrast, an ExtremeTech article said it was Microsoft "flailing"[178] and a review in PC Magazine condemned the Metro-style user interface.[179] Some of the included apps in Windows 8 were considered to be basic and lacking in functionality, but the Xbox apps were praised for their promotion of a multi-platform entertainment experience. Other improvements and features (such as File History, Storage Spaces, and the updated Task Manager) were also regarded as positive changes.[176] Peter Bright of Ars Technica wrote that while its user interface changes may overshadow them, Windows 8's improved performance, updated file manager, new storage functionality, expanded security features, and updated Task Manager were still positive improvements for the operating system. Bright also said that Windows 8's duality towards tablets and traditional PCs was an "extremely ambitious" aspect of the platform as well, but criticized Microsoft for emulating Apple's model of a closed distribution platform when implementing the Windows Store.[180]

The interface of Windows 8 has been the subject of negative reaction. Bright wrote that its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides). Despite this "stumbling block", Bright said that Windows 8's interface worked well in some places, but began to feel incoherent when switching between the "Metro" and desktop environments, sometimes through inconsistent means.[180] Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store.[176] Others, such as Adrian Kingsley-Hughes from ZDNet, considered the interface to be "clumsy and impractical" due to its inconsistent design (going as far as considering it "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together"), and concluded that "Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets – that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad."[181]

In 2013, Frank X. Shaw, a Microsoft corporate vice president, said that while many of the negative reviews were extreme, it was a "good thing" that Microsoft was "listening to feedback and improving a product".[182]

The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) reported a decline in Microsoft's customer satisfaction, the lowest it has been since Windows Vista.[183]

Market share and sales[edit]

Microsoft says that 4 million users upgraded to Windows 8 over the weekend after its release,[184][185] which CNET says was well below Microsoft's internal projections and was described inside the company as disappointing.[186]

On November 27, 2012, Microsoft announced that it had sold 40 million licenses of Windows 8 in the first month, surpassing the pace of Windows 7.[187]

However, according to research firm NPD, sales of devices running Windows in the United States had declined 21 percent compared to the same time period in 2011.[188] As the holiday shopping season wrapped up, Windows 8 sales continued to lag, even as Apple reported brisk sales.[189] The market research firm IDC reported an overall drop in PC sales for the quarter, and said the drop may have been partly due to consumer reluctance to embrace the new features of the OS and poor support from OEM for these features.[190] This capped the first year of declining PC sales to the Asia Pacific region, as consumers bought more mobile devices than Windows PCs.[191]

Windows 8 surpassed Windows Vista in market share with a 5.1% usage rate according to numbers posted in July 2013 by Net Applications, with usage on a steady upward trajectory.[192] However, intake of Windows 8 still lagged behind that of Windows Vista and Windows 7 at the same point in their release cycles. Windows 8's tablet market share also grew steadily, with 7.4% of tablets running Windows in Q1 2013 according to Strategy Analytics, up from nothing just a year before. However, this was still well below Android and iOS, which posted 43.4% and 48.2% market share respectively, although both operating systems had been on the market much longer than Windows 8.[193] Strategy Analytics also noted "a shortage of top tier apps" for Windows tablets despite Microsoft strategy of paying developers to create apps for the operating system (in addition to for Windows Phone).[193]

In March 2013, Microsoft also amended its certification requirements to allow tablets to use the 1024×768 resolution as a minimum; this change is expected to allow the production of certified Windows 8 tablets in smaller form factors—a market which is currently dominated by Android-based tablets.[145] Despite the reaction of industry experts, Microsoft reported that they had sold 100 million licenses in the first six months. This matched sales of Windows 7 over a similar period.[194] This statistic includes shipments to channel warehouses which now need to be sold in order to make way for new shipments.[195]

In January 2014, Hewlett-Packard began a promotion for desktops running Windows 7, saying that it was "back by popular demand". Outside sources have suggested that this might be because HP or its customers thought the Windows 8 platform would be more appropriate for mobile computing than desktop computing, or that they were looking to attract customers forced to switch from XP who wanted a more familiar interface.[196][197]

In February 2014, Bloomberg reported that Microsoft would be lowering the price of Windows 8 licenses by 70% for devices that retail under US$250; alongside the announcement that an update to the operating system would allow OEMs to produce devices with as little as 1 GB of RAM and 16 GB of storage, critics felt that these changes would help Windows compete against Linux-based devices in the low-end market, particularly those running Chrome OS. Microsoft had similarly cut the price of Windows XP licenses to compete against the early waves of Linux-based netbooks.[198][199] Reports also indicated that Microsoft was planning to offer cheaper Windows 8 licenses to OEMs in exchange for setting Internet Explorer's default search engine to Bing. Some media outlets falsely reported that the SKU associated with this plan, "Windows 8.1 with Bing", was a variant which would be a free or low-cost variant of Windows 8 for consumers using older versions of Windows.[200] On April 2, 2014, Microsoft ultimately announced that it would be removing license fees entirely for devices with screens smaller than 9 inches,[201] and officially confirmed the rumored "Windows 8.1 with Bing" OEM SKU on May 23, 2014.[161]

On the information gathered by Net Applications, adoption rate in March 2015 for Windows 8.1 was at 10.55%, while the original Windows 8 was at 3.52%.[202]

Chinese government ban[edit]

In May 2014, the Government of China banned the internal purchase of Windows 8-based products under government contracts requiring "energy-efficient" devices. The Xinhua News Agency claimed that Windows 8 was being banned in protest of Microsoft's support lifecycle policy and the end of support for Windows XP (which, as of January 2014, had a market share of 49% in China), as the government "obviously cannot ignore the risks of running an OS without guaranteed technical support." However, Ni Guangnan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences had also previously warned that Windows 8 could allegedly expose users to surveillance by the United States government due to its heavy use of Internet-based services.[203][204][205][206]

In June 2014, state broadcasterChina Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security. The story featured an interview with Ni Guangnan, who stated that operating systems could aggregate "sensitive user information" that could be used to "understand the conditions and activities of our national economy and society", and alleged that per documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government had worked with Microsoft to retrieve encrypted information. Yang Min, a computer scientist at Fudan University, also stated that "the security features of Windows 8 are basically to the benefit of Microsoft, allowing them control of the users' data, and that poses a big challenge to the national strategy for information security." Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data.[207][208][209]

Windows 8.1[edit]

Main article: Windows 8.1

A feature update to Windows 8 known as Windows 8.1 was officially announced by Microsoft on May 14, 2013.[210][211] Following a presentation devoted to it at Build 2013, a public beta version of the upgrade was released on June 26, 2013.[212][213] Windows 8.1 was released to OEM hardware partners on August 27, 2013, and released publicly as a free upgrade through Windows Store on October 17, 2013.[160][214][215] Volume license customers and subscribers to MSDN Plus and TechNet Plus were initially unable to obtain the RTM version upon its release; a spokesperson said the policy was changed to allow Microsoft to work with OEMs "to ensure a quality experience at general availability."[216][217] However, after criticism, Microsoft reversed its decision and released the RTM build on MSDN and TechNet on September 9, 2013.[218]

Windows 8.1 addressed a number of criticisms faced by Windows 8 upon its release, with additional customization options for the Start screen, the restoration of a visible Start button on the desktop, the ability to snap up to four apps on a single display, and the ability to boot to the desktop instead of the Start screen. Windows 8's stock apps were also updated, a new Bing-based unified search system was added, SkyDrive was given deeper integration with the operating system, and a number of new stock apps, along with a tutorial, were added.[11][219][220][221] Windows 8.1 also added support for 3D printing,[222][223]Miracast media streaming, NFC printing, and Wi-Fi Direct.[224]

Microsoft marketed Windows 8.1 as an "update" rather than as a "service pack", as it had done with such revisions on previous versions of Windows.[225] Nonetheless, Microsoft's support lifecycle policy treats Windows 8.1 similarly to previous Windows service packs: upgrading to 8.1 has been required to maintain access to mainstream support and updates after January 12, 2016.[4][226][227] Although Windows 8 RTM is unsupported, Microsoft released an emergency security patch in May 2017 for Windows 8 RTM, as well as other unsupported versions of Windows (including Windows XP and Windows Server 2003), to address a vulnerability that was being leveraged by the WannaCry ransomware attack.[228][229] Updates to apps published on Windows Store after July 1, 2019 will not be available to Windows 8 RTM users.[230]

Retail and OEM installations of Windows 8, Windows 8 Pro, and Windows RT can be upgraded through Windows Store free of charge. However, volume license customers, TechNet or MSDN subscribers and users of Windows 8 Enterprise must acquire a standalone installation media for 8.1 and install through the traditional Windows setup process, either as an in-place upgrade or clean install. This requires an 8.1 specific product key.[231][232][233][234]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Shared Source Initiative". microsoft.com. Microsoft. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  2. ^Windows 8 has reached the RM milestone. August 1, 2012
  3. ^"Windows reimagined. #Windows8". Blogging Windows. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012.
  4. ^ ab"Microsoft Support Lifecycle, Windows 8". Microsoft. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
  5. ^ abc"Product lifecycle Windows 8 Embedded". support.microsoft.com. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
  6. ^"Windows 8's delivery date: October 26". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. July 18, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
  7. ^ ab"Windows Reimagined". All Things Digital. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  8. ^"How to Take Screenshots in Windows 10, 8, and 7".
  9. ^Foley, Mary Jo (January 8, 2013). "Microsoft: 60 million Windows 8 licenses sold to date". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
  10. ^Waters, Richard (May 7, 2013). "Microsoft prepares rethink on Windows 8 flagship software". Financial Times.
  11. ^ abRodgers, Evan (June 26, 2013). "Windows 8.1: a first look at what Microsoft is changing". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  12. ^"Nearly 370M IE users have just 6 weeks to upgrade". Computerworld. IDG. December 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  13. ^"Beginning January 12, 2016, only the most current version of Internet Explorer available for a operating system will receive technical support and security updates".
  14. ^"Internet Explorer Support Lifecycle Policy FAQ". Microsoft Lifecycle Support Website. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  15. ^"Desktop Windows Version Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  16. ^Greenberg, Andy (August 13, 2019). "DejaBlue: New BlueKeep-Style Bugs Renew The Risk Of A Windows worm". wired. Retrieved November 8, 2019.
  17. ^Seals, Tara (August 14, 2019). "20-Year-Old Bug in Legacy Microsoft Code Plagues All Windows Users". ThreatPost.com. Retrieved November 8, 2019.
  18. ^"Steven Sinofsky, Tami Reller, Julie Larson-Green, Antoine Leblond, and Michael Angiulo: Windows 8 Consumer Preview". News Center. Microsoft. February 29, 2012. Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
  19. ^"Microsoft confirms ARM support is coming in Windows, will play nice with SoCs too". Engadget. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
  20. ^"CES: Windows to run on ARM chips, says Microsoft". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  21. ^"Microsoft Announces Support of System on a Chip Architectures From Intel, AMD, and ARM for Next Version of Windows" (Press release). Microsoft. January 5, 2011. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  22. ^Rosoff, Matt (January 5, 2011). "OK, So Windows 8 Is Coming To ARM Tablets...someday. (MSFT)". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications. Business Insider. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  23. ^ ab"More on Microsoft 'Jupiter' and what it means for Windows 8". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  24. ^"Windows 7 post RTM build 7700 spotted". Neowin. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  25. ^""Wind": Windows 8 mit neuer 3D-Oberfläche?". winfuture.de (in German). December 9, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  26. ^Sams, Brad (April 12, 2012). "Windows 8 Build 7850 has leaked". Neowin. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  27. ^Asad, Taimur (April 12, 2011). "Windows 8 Build 7850 M1 Has Been Leaked". Redmond Pie. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  28. ^Kingsley-Hughes, Adrian (April 27, 2012). "Windows 8 build 7955 sporting new 'Black' Screen of Death". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  29. ^Warren, Tom (April 27, 2012). "Windows 8 Milestone 3 build 7989 leaks". Winrumors. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  30. ^"Live from Microsoft's Windows 8 preview event at Computex 2011". Engadget. AOL. June 1, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  31. ^"Previewing 'Windows 8'" (Press release). Microsoft. June 1, 2011. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  32. ^Sinofsky, Steven (August 15, 2011). "Welcome to Building Windows 8 Blogs". Microsoft. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  33. ^"Windows 8 Developer Preview Guide"(PDF). Microsoft. Archived from the original(PDF) on October 7, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
  34. ^"Home—BUILD". Microsoft. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  35. ^Albanesius, Chloe (September 13, 2011). "Windows 8 Developer Preview Available Tonight". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis, LLC. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  36. ^"Microsoft releases Windows 8 Developer Preview, announces Windows Store (update: it's out early!)". The Verge. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  37. ^Melanson, Donald (September 14, 2011). "Steve Ballmer touts 500,000 Windows 8 downloads in less than 12 hours". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
  38. ^"An update that postpones the expiration date of Windows 8 Developer Preview and Windows 8 Server Developer Preview is available". Microsoft. February 16, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  39. ^"Windows 8 build 8102.101". BetaWiki. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  40. ^"Windows 8 build 8128 (fbl core1 soc partner)". BetaWiki. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  41. ^"Redesigning the Windows Logo". February 17, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  42. ^"Microsoft's Chaitanya Sareen gets candid on the evolution of Windows 8". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  43. ^ ab"Windows 8: Microsoft unveils consumer preview". BBC. February 29, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
  44. ^Heater, Brian (March 1, 2012). "Windows 8 Consumer Preview hits one million downloads in a day". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  45. ^"Windows 8 build 8277". BetaWiki. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  46. ^"Windows 8 build 8250". BetaWiki. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  47. ^Musil, Steven (April 23, 2012). "Windows 8 'release preview' due in early June". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  48. ^Warren, Tom (May 29, 2012). "Windows 8 Release Preview leaks out ahead of official debut". The Verge. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  49. ^Warren, Tom (May 31, 2012). "Windows 8 Release Preview now available to download". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  50. ^LeBlanc, Brandon (May 31, 2012). "The Windows 8 Release Preview & Windows Upgrade Offer". Windows Experience Blog. Microsoft.
  51. ^Warren, Tom (August 1, 2012). "Microsoft completes Windows 8 development, announces release to manufacturing". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  52. ^"Windows 8 has reached the RTM milestone". Microsoft. August 1, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  53. ^Reisinger, Don. "Microsoft: Come 'celebrate' Windows 8 on Oct. 25". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
  54. ^"Windows 8 will be available on…". Microsoft. July 18, 2012. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
  55. ^Keizer, Gregg (August 3, 2012). "Windows 8 Leaked in Final Form". Computerworld. IDG. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  56. ^Crothers, Brooke (August 2, 2012). "Windows 8 final version allegedly leaks out already". CNET. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_8

Comprehensive molecular-genetic analysis of mid-frequency sensorineural hearing loss

Abstract

The genetic heterogeneity of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a major hurdle to the detection of disease-causing variants. We aimed to identify underlying causal genes associated with mid-frequency hearing loss (HL), which contributes to less than about 1% of SNHL cases, by whole exome sequencing (WES). Thirty families segregating mid-frequency SNHL, in whom biallelic GJB2 mutations had been previously excluded, were selected from among 851 families in our DNA repository of SNHL. DNA samples from the probands were subjected to WES analysis and searched for candidate variants associated with SNHL. We were able to identify the genetic aetiology in six probands (20%). In total, we found three pathogenic and three likely pathogenic variants in four genes (COL4A5, OTOGL, TECTA, TMPRSS3). One more proband was a compound heterozygote for a pathogenic variant and a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) in MYO15A gene. To date, MYO15A and TMPRSS3 have not yet been described in association with mid-frequency SNHL. In eight additional probands, eight candidate VUS variants were detected in five genes (DIAPH1, MYO7A, TECTA, TMC1, TSPEAR). Seven of these 16 variants have not yet been published or mentioned in the available databases. The most prevalent gene was TECTA, identified in 23% of all tested families. Furthermore, we confirmed the hypothesis that a substantive portion of cases with this conspicuous audiogram shape is a consequence of a genetic disorder.

Introduction

Hearing loss (HL) is the most common sensory deficit, affecting 466 million people (5% of the world’s population) and with an incidence of 1.45/1000 newborns1,2. At least half of congenital deafness cases is due to genetic factors, the vast majority of which is monogenic. In syndromic HL, a specific phenotype may narrow the selection of candidate genes for targeted genetic analysis. However, in the case of non-syndromic hearing impairment, such preselection of candidate genes is very limited. Non-syndromic hereditary HL is also characterized by extreme genetic heterogeneity. More than 6000 mutations in more than 150 genes have been causally implicated in deafness3. This underscores the importance of the use of massively parallel sequencing for genetic diagnostics of HL.

Pure tone audiometry (0.25–8 kHz) is the gold standard for measuring hearing in older children and adults4. It allows determination of the degree of hearing impairment, assigns it to a specific type of audiometric curve and enables characterization of the distinct shapes of this curve (basocochlear, mediocochlear, pancochlear, apicocochlear, ski slope, etc.). The shape of the audiometric curve may also be indicative of certain diseases which commonly manifest by HL, e.g. the Carhart notch in otosclerosis5, the low-frequency HL found initially in Ménière's disease6 or in children with cytomegalovirus infection7,8.

Based on a detailed analysis of audiograms and the patient’s age, it is sometimes possible to predict the probable genetic cause of hearing impairment in patients with non-syndromic HL9. The high-frequency (basocochlear, descending) and pancochlear (flat) types of the audiometric curve dominate in clinical practice. On the other hand, audiograms characteristic for mid-frequency (mediocochlear, cookie-bite or U-shaped) and low-frequency (apicocochlear or ascending) hearing impairment are rare. Mid-frequency HL accounts for only about 0.7–1% of all SNHL cases10,11,12, and the majority of this HL is believed to have genetic aetiology13.

The aim of our study was to identify causative gene variants associated with mid-frequency hearing loss.

Results

Using WES, we analyzed 30 families with mid-frequency HL, which represented 4.95% of all GJB2 unrelated SNHL cases in our cohort. We established the genetic aetiology of HL in six families (20%) and we assumed the cause of HL based on the detected candidate VUS variants in an additional eight families (27%). A compound heterozygote state of a pathogenic and a VUS variant was observed in one family (Table 1). Sixteen variants were found in total, seven of which are novel, i.e. they are not yet present in available deafness databases or the published literature. All detected variants occurred in genes known to be associated with HL (Table 2).

Full size table

Full size table

Dominant variants

The most prevalent gene was TECTA (NM_005422.4) with five autosomal dominant missense variants (p.Cys650Arg, p.Gly1858Glu, p.Thr1866Met, p.Arg1890Cys, and p.Tyr1942Cys) and one frameshift variant (p.Lys2150Asnfs*9) detected in the heterozygous form in seven families. The pathogenic p.Arg1890Cys variant occurred in two families (FAM571, FAM623) (Fig. 1) and caused mild to moderately-severe HL. Over the years, the audiogram had a tendency to flatten in some of the affected family members. Another pathogenic variant, p.Thr1866Met, and the VUS p.Gly1858Glu variant were identified in families FAM622 and FAM642, respectively. Both families had several family members suffering from HL. They were not available for genetic testing, but the pedigrees suggest the presence of the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In three families (FAM090, FAM200, and FAM417) only the proband’s DNA sample and reliable clinical data were available.

Pedigrees and audiograms of the patients with pathogenic and VUS variants in TECTA gene. The age at examination by pure tone audiometry is indicated. The youngest subject D1360 (born in 2018) from family FAM571 was only investigated by Auditory Steady-State Responses.

Full size image

Dominant variants (all belonging to the VUS category) in other genes were detected in three families (Fig. 2). In family FAM806 we identified a novel p.Gly1197Asp variant in the DIAPH1 gene (NM_005219.5) in several family members. Hearing impairment in this family manifested in the age ranging from 2 to 15 years. A novel p.Pro650Leu variant in the TMC1 (NM_138691.3) gene was identified in an adult patient who self-reported HL onset by the age of 30 years. His twelve-year-old daughter, who also carries the p.Pro650Leu variant, still has normal hearing but may develop HL in the future, similarly as the proband. The last dominant p.Arg1338His variant in the MYO7A gene (NM_000260.4) was found in family FAM411, with late HL onset.

Pedigrees and audiograms of the patients with dominant variants in genes DIAPH1, MYO7A, TMC1, recessive variants in genes MYO15A, OTOGL, TMPRSS3, TSPEAR and variant with X-linked inheritance (COL4A5). The age at examination by pure tone audiometry is indicated.

Full size image

Recessive variants

We detected six recessive variants in genes MYO15A, OTOGL, TMPRSS3 and TSPEAR in four families (27%) (Fig. 2). Three families (FAM253, FAM834 and FAM837) were characterized by sporadic HL. Familial HL occurred in FAM174, with two affected siblings. We identified a pathogenic and VUS variant in the MYO15A gene (NM_016239.4) in family FAM837, which was characterized with early-onset HL. Due to rapid HL progression, the proband received a cochlear implant at the age of 9 years with excellent early outcomes (a free field pure tone average 38.75 dB at 10 months post-implantation). One pathogenic variant and one likely pathogenic variant in the OTOGL gene (NM_173591.5) were detected in the proband D1315 (family FAM834), who had congenital HL. In both families, it would be appropriate to investigate the genotype of the parents to exclude the cis form of the variants in the probands.

The two remaining families carrying homozygous variants are of Roma ethnicity. In family FAM253, with perilingual HL, we detected the known p.Arg106Cys variant in the TMPRSS3 gene (NM_024022.3). From a clinical point of view, the proband’s hearing gradually deteriorated to deafness between the 4th and 14th year of life. In the last family, FAM174, we detected VUS variant p.Glu624* in the TSPEAR gene (NM_144991.3). The proband’s sister (D1032) is also affected by HL but interestingly was found to only be a heterozygous carrier of the p.Glu624* variant. The HL phenotype was similar in both siblings.

X-linked

In family FAM618 we identified a novel variant p.Gly472Glu in the COL4A5 gene (NM_000495.5) in two affected siblings (D815, D817), both of whom showed a clinical picture of Alport syndrome. In addition to HL, they had both suffered from microscopic haematuria since childhood as well as symptoms of chronic glomerulonephritis. In subject D817, Alport syndrome was confirmed by kidney biopsy and the condition has progressively led to end-stage kidney failure with the need for haemodialysis.

Discussion

Mutations in GJB2 have been reported as the most frequent cause of hereditary HL14,15. For this reason, we first analyzed the GJB2 gene by Sanger sequencing in all 851 probands. Using this method, we determined the genetic aetiology in 245 (29%) of the probands, who were then excluded from further analyses.

In the next step, the remaining probands were selected based on the clinical phenotype. Although we focused on a relatively uniform group of patients from the audiological point of view (mid-frequency HL), the number of potentially involved genes was large (> 226). Moreover, the spectrum of the genes responsible for this particular form of HL is mostly unknown. It is not practical to analyze each gene separately in such a case. Therefore, next generation sequencing (NGS) allowing the analysis of many genes simultaneously seemed to be the best solution16,17.

Using WES, we identified the genetic aetiology in six of the 30 probands (20%) with mid-frequency HL. Additionally, novel candidate variants (VUS) were found in eight probands. A compound heterozygous pathogenic and a VUS variant were observed in one proband. The detected variants were found in nine genes (COL4A5, DIAPH1, MYO7A, MYO15A, OTOGL, TECTA, TMC1, TMPRSS3, TSPEAR) harbouring four pathogenic variants, three likely pathogenic variants and nine VUS variants associated with hearing impairment. Seven of these variants have not yet been described in the literature or have not yet been submitted to deafness databases (Table 2). Five of the identified genes (MYO7A, MYO15A, TMC1, TMPRSS3 and TSPEAR) have not yet been reported as a cause of mid-frequency SNHL. Other genes which are known to cause non-syndromic mid-frequency HL but were not detected in our cohort include: CCDC5018, COL11A119, COL11A220,21, EYA422, KCNQ423, OTOA24 and POU4F325. Among these genes, we were able to identify three distinct groups based on the site of their expression and their function18,26,27,28,29.

Glycoproteins expressed in the tectorial membrane

The tectorial membrane (TM) of the cochlea is a ribbon-like strip of extracellular matrix that contacts the tips of the sensory hair bundles of the outer hair cells. Sound induces movement of these hair cells relative to the TM, deflects the stereocilia, and leads to fluctuations in hair-cell membrane potential, transducing sound into electrical signals30,31.

The TECTA gene encodes a protein called alpha-tectorin. Mutations in TECTA account for 2–4% of all autosomal dominant non-syndromic SNHL characterized by mild prelingual HL from a clinical point of view15,32,33,34. TECTA contains several extracellular matrix (ECM)-interacting domains, including a nidogen-like domain and von Willebrand factor type D domains (vWFDs), which may allow binding to collagens and other glycoproteins, and a zona pellucida (ZP) domain important for the multimerization and stability of the protein. Missense mutations in different Tecta domains are known to cause different phenotypes with distinct changes in the structure of the tectorial membrane. Mutations in the zona pellucida domain cause mid-frequency HL with a typical U-shaped or shallow U-shaped audiogram, whereas mutations in the zonadhesin-like domain comprising vWFD1, vWFD2 and trypsin inhibitor-like (TIL) repeats lead to high-frequency HL35,36,37. Our results are in agreement with the findings of previous studies: four of our variants (p.Gly1858Glu, p.Thr1866Met, p.Arg1890Cys and p.Tyr1942Cys) located in the ZP domain were identified in probands with a U-shaped audiogram. However, the p.Cys650Arg variant identified in the cysteine-rich TIL1 domain is responsible for mild HL, which became clinically manifest at the age of 16 years. The audiometric curve has a shallow U-shape profile. Similarly, Yasukawa et al.37 identified the likely pathogenic p.Cys606Gly variant in the TIL1 domain in a proband with mid-frequency HL. Variant p.Lys2150Asnfs*9 is located in the last exon and causes replacement of the last six amino acids and extension of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchorage of TECTA protein by two amino acids. It has been shown that GPI-dependent release of TECTA is required for elongation and bundled organization of collagen fibrils on the apical surface of inner supporting cells during formation of the TM38. Therefore, any change in the conformation or length of the GPI anchorage may impair this process and lead to a clinical phenotype. However, further study of these mechanisms is required. In our study, 10% of all probands with a U-shaped audiogram carried pathogenic variants in TECTA, and when we also take into account all the identified VUS variants, the theoretical contribution of TECTA to hearing impairment in our cohort may be as high as 47%. This is more than the published prevalence of TECTA in patients with U-shaped audiograms, for example in Japan, where 6% of patients with U-shaped audiograms could be attributed to TECTA36. The difference may be explained by high variability in the prevalence of causal deafness variants and genes among different ethnic populations as a well-known phenomenon in hereditary HL39.

The OTOGL gene encodes an otogelin-like protein, which has structural similarities to the epithelial-secreted mucin protein family40. Its mutations lead to non-syndromic prelingual HL, which is mild to moderate and stable, with autosomal recessive inheritance41. The 2,343-amino acid protein contains an N-terminal signal peptide, four paired von Willebrand factor (VWF) and cysteine-rich (C8) domains, four trypsin inhibitor-like (TIL) domains, and a C-terminal cystine knot motif40. We identified two heterozygous variants in proband D1315. The first is the known pathogenic nonsense variant p.Gln520* in vWFD242. The second likely pathogenic variant, c.4032_4054+30del, has not yet been published. It is located at the interface of the 34th exon and 34th intron and, according to HSF and MaxEnt, it can cause an alteration of splicing due to activation of several cryptic acceptor and donor sites. However, we cannot rule out exon skipping, which may result in a more significant shortening of the protein sequence located between domains vWFD3 and vWFD4. The exon skipping does not lead to a frameshift, and therefore, according to Abou Tayoun et al.43, only the PVS1_strong classification criterion can be applied. On the other hand, vWFD domains containing the multimerization consensus site CGLC are essential for the multimer assembly of proteins expressed in the tectorial membrane (like α-tectorin, otogelin or otogelin-like protein) to form a filament and higher order structures. Although little is known about these domains in OTOGL, mutations in the vWFDs of TECTA have been clearly connected with hearing impairment37,44. Moreover, the shape of the audiometric curve observed in our proband is almost identical to the audiogram obtained from the compound heterozygous patient carrying mutations p.Gln520* and p.Arg925* reported by Bonnet et al.42. The vestibular hypofunction observed in patients by Oonk et al.45 was not diagnosed in our proband.

Collagens expressed in the cochlea

The collagen superfamily comprises 28 types (I–XXVIII) in vertebrates46. Collagens are fibrous structural proteins involved in the construction of skin, cartilage, bone, eye, and other tissues47. All collagen molecules are comprised of one, two, or three different types of α-chain subunits tightly wrapped into a triple helix. A single missense mutation of a glycine to another residue in the triple helix can result in almost 40 genetic diseases46. Collagens encoded by genes COL2A1, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5, COL4A6, COL9A1, COL9A3, COL11A1 and COL11A2 are essential for proper auditory function. Mutations in these genes are linked to non-syndromic or syndromic HL (Marshall syndrome, fibrochondrogenesis, Alport syndrome, Stickler syndrome)19,48. In this study, we present a novel variant in the COL4A5 gene. Variants in this gene are associated with X-linked Alport syndrome49. In 80% of all cases, Alport syndrome is caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene50. The disorder shows considerable heterogeneity in the age of onset of end-stage renal disease and the occurrence of deafness among particular families51. Most patients have mid-frequency HL, although high frequency and flat SNHL curves may be present, as well. SNHL in males may first manifest around the age of 10 years and usually gets progressively worse49,52. In family FAM618 we identified the variant p.Gly472Glu, which interrupts the Gly-Val-Lys triplet in the α-chain and results in disruption of the triple helix’s function, changing the scaffolding and flexibility of collagen IV46. This results in an Alport syndrome phenotype in both siblings (D815, D817).

Genes expressed in hair cells

Myosins play an important role in the cellular organization of the cochlea. In general, myosins are motor proteins, and based on their variable C-terminal binding domains, they are included in conventional myosins (class II) and unconventional myosins (classes I and III to XV)53. Unconventional myosins IA, IIIA, VI, VIIA and XVA occur in the cochlea. MYO7A and MYO15A, encoding unconventional myosins, are expressed in the outer and inner hair cells of the Organ of Corti54,55.

MYO15A is known to be the third-most mutated gene causing severe to profound ARNSHL, after GJB2 and SLC26A4 mutations. Mutations in this gene cause both pre- and post-lingual forms of progressive HL41,56. Our patient D1321 clinically manifests profound non-syndromic HL. Interestingly, she passed the neonatal hearing screening, and her HL became apparent at the age of 1.5 years. We identified two variants, c.5693G>A and c.8050T>C, the latter of which was previously described in trans with other pathogenic variants57,58, whereas c.5693G>A variant was submitted only to the ClinVar archive and to the Deafness Variation Database (https://deafnessvariationdatabase.org/)59. It is located in the myosin motor domain of the MYO15A protein. This domain consists of ATP- and actin-binding sites, which can generate force and move actin filaments; therefore, motor domain dysfunction results in shorter stereocilia with an ectopic staircase structure of stereocilia associated with a severe deafness phenotype60.

The MYO7A tail contains a pair of myosintail homology 4-protein 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (MyTH4-FERM) tandems separated by an SH3 domain. Mutations in the head and tail regions of MYO7A lead to defects in mechanotransduction and result in Usher syndrome 1B (USH1B), an autosomal recessive disorder with sensory impairment61. In addition to syndromic conditions, mutations in MYO7A can cause dominant (DFNA11)62 and recessive (DFNB2)63 non-syndromic HL. The p.Arg1338His variant detected in FAM411 is located in the FERM 1 domain of the tail of the myosin VIIA protein. The nonsense variants p.Arg1338AlafsTer61, p.Gln1336Ter or p.Glu1337SerfsTer62, linked to Usher syndrome, were identified close to our identified p.Arg1338His variant. VUS missense variants p.Arg1338Ser or p.Arg1338Cys with unclear clinical phenotype were also identified (https://deafnessvariationdatabase.org/). Our proband had HL onset at the age of 22 years with mild progression of hearing impairment and a U-shape audiogram. Moreover, no retinal abnormalities were recorded, indicating the dominant non-syndromic HL.

Transmembrane channel-like protein 1 is a protein encoded by the TMC1 gene. The predicted structure of TMC1 shows a dimeric channel with 10 transmembrane domains (S1–S10) and intracellular amino- and carboxyl-termini in each monomer. Transmembrane helices S4–S7 form a groove that lines the pore of sensory transduction channels64. The transmembrane channels are proteins necessary for hair cell mechanotransduction65. Dominant mutations in TMC1 cause the late-onset progressive HL phenotype, whereas ARSNHL cases are linked to congenital severe-to-profound HL66,67. We identified a missense variant, c.1949C>T, which is predicted to substitute a conserved proline at position 650 for leucine, which may influence the correct folding or assembly of TMC1 into multimers. It is located in the helical S9 domain. Two pathogenic autosomal recessive variants were previously identified in close proximity to our variant: p.Met654Val68 and p.Ser647Pro69. However, according to the phenotype observed in FAM416, we cannot rule out the dominant character of inheritance of the p.Pro650Leu variant or a yet undetected causal variant in a different gene. One young family member, D1337, showed still normal hearing, although she carried the same variant as her father, thus supporting the possibility of late-onset HL.

The TMPRSS3 gene encodes a member of the serine protease family. Transmembrane Serine Protease 3 is linked to hair cell sterocilia mechanics and to actin network formation, which supports cell motility and integrity. Apart from hair cells, the TMPRSS3 gene is also expressed in the inner and outer pillar cells and the Deiters cells, stria vascularis or ganglion spirale70,71. This gene was identified by its association with childhood onset of an autosomal recessive deafness. The hearing impairment in families with mutations in the TMPRSS3 gene has a prelingual to postlingual onset. A common feature of patients with TMPRSS3 mutations is progressive HL beginning in high frequencies and often leading to partial or complete deafness. However, Sasamori et al.72 reported a case of progressive mid- to low-frequency sensorineural HL associated with mutation of the TMPRSS3 gene. We identified a likely pathogenic variant, p.Arg106Cys, which is located within exon 4 and causes the negatively charged residue arginine to change to a neutral hydrophobic cysteine at position 106. This change can result in the loss of hydrogen bonds and/or disturb the correct folding of TMPRSS3. It has been observed in the compound heterozygote state with p.(Phe13Serfs∗12) and p.Ala306Thr, where it cosegregated with prelingual profound hearing impairment or postlingual milder hearing impairment, respectively70. The homozygous form observed in proband D298 has not previously been observed. Although Gao et al.70 predicted a very subtle or no effect on auditory function of homozygous p.Arg106Cys, we have shown that it is associated with moderate to severe perilingual progressive HL with a typical U-shape audiogram.

The DIAPH1 gene encodes human protein DIA1, a formin that elongates unbranched actin73,74. The correct polymerization of actin is critical for the formation and elongation of stereocilia on the apical surface of cochlear hair cells75. Expression of DIAPH1 in the Organ of Corti has been proven in the inner pillar hair cells as well as at the base of the outer hair cells and in the outer pillar cells76. DIA1 consists of the GTPase-binding domain (GBD), a partially overlapping N-terminal diaphanous inhibitory domain (DID), formin homology (FH) domains FH1 and FH2, and the C-terminal DAD. It is held inactive in the resting state through an autoinhibitory intramolecular interaction between the DID and the DAD, which is regulated by Rho family GTPases74. In this study, we identified the VUS variant p.Gly1197Asp which, according to the Human Splicing Finder, has no significant impact on splicing signals. It is located in close proximity to the MDxLLxxL recognition site (1199-1206aa), which presents the central consensus motif of the DAD domain and is essential for binding to the DID domain. We hypothesize that our missense c.3590G>A variant results in a change from a small, uncharged amino acid glycine to a larger, charged residue aspartate. This may have a profound effect on the conformation of the amphipathic helix of the DAD domain and subsequently impair interaction with the acidic groove of the DID. Disruption of the autoinhibitory intramolecular DID-DAD interaction and consequent activation of DIA1 may explain the DFNA1 pathology74. DIAPH1 mutations have been associated with initially mild, low-frequency SNHL, characterized by progressive deafness starting in childhood73. In contrast, some described variants showed hearing impairment beginning in the high-frequency range and progressing to deafness involving all frequencies74. Audiograms of our proband and family members showed a typical U-shape. Autosomal dominant deafness caused by mutations in the DIAPH1 gene can be associated with thrombocytopenia76,77. However, in the affected family members D1248, D1249 and D1250 no thrombocytopenia was confirmed suggesting non-syndromic HL. The only pathological finding identified by differential blood count analysis was neutropenia in the family member D1250.

The TSPEAR gene encodes the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats protein (TSPEAR), which was detected at the basal region of the stereocilia of hair cells. Mutations in TSPEAR cause non-syndromic SNHL with prelingual onset78. We identified the nonsense variant p.Glu624* in exone 12 resulting in a loss of the EAR7 repeat. Seven epilepsy-associated repeats (EARs) of TSPEAR are predicted to form a beta-propeller structure, function as part of a ligand-binding domain and mediate protein–protein interactions79. Delmaghani et al.78 identified in 3 affected brothers from a consanguineous Iranian family segregating autosomal recessive nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness a homozygous frame-shift mutation (c.1726G>T+c.1728delC) that was predicted to result in termination of translation in the EAR6 repeat, connected with defective secretion of the mutant protein and congenital profound sensorineural deafness. As both affected siblings in our family FAM174 segregated a similar HL phenotype, but only one of them carried the homozygous variant in TSPEAR, we may assume that in addition to the identified p.Glu624* variant in the TSPEAR gene a second, yet unknown gene may contribute to HL in this family.

In general, autosomal recessive variants are mainly responsible for prelingual forms of severe to profound hearing impairment, whereas autosomal dominant variants cause HL that usually appears later and is often mild or moderate. Exceptions comprising postlingual HL include recessive variants in the TMPRSS3 gene; prelingual include dominant variants in the TECTA gene32.

The precise data on the prevalence of pathogenic variants in the genes described above in the general and hearing impaired populations in Slovakia are not yet available. Most of the variants were found in single families, although pathogenic variants in TMPRSS3 were also identified in two probands with typical ski-slope audiograms (unpubl. data).

Conclusions

This study confirms the genetic background in at least 20% of patients with mid-frequency SNHL. Two of the identified genes (TMPRSS3 and MYO15A) are reported in association with this audiogram configuration for the first time. Moreover, we attempted to narrow the spectrum of candidate genes in this specific and rare SNHL form to 3 distinct groups based on the site of their expression and their function in the cochlea. In our opinion, Sanger sequencing of TECTA or WES are currently two cost-effective options for DNA analysis of mid-frequency SNHL.

Methods

Patients recruitment

Patients with mid-frequency HL were selected from among 851 families (1074 hearing impaired individuals) with bilateral SNHL with onset before the age of 60 years whose DNA samples and clinical data were collected throughout the whole Slovak Republic over the last decade. The subjects were referred from major ENT departments in Bratislava or recruited at boarding schools for hearing-disabled children and in selected isolated Roma communities. Peripheral blood and/or buccal swabs were taken for DNA isolation. The GJB2 gene was analyzed in all probands first to exclude the most frequent cause of hereditary HL. Only non-GJB2 associated cases (71% of all probands) were considered for further analyses. All individuals or their legal representatives (in subjects under 18 years of age) signed informed consent to genetic testing and the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of University Hospital in Bratislava.

Mediocochlear HL was defined by the highest pure tone thresholds in mid-frequencies (1–4 kHz). In typical cases, the difference between the worst mid-frequency threshold and the high- and low-frequency thresholds was at least 20 dB. However, individual variability of the audiometric curve shapes was relatively common among the patients and sometimes also between the two ears of the same individual. Borderline cases with shallow curves were included only if the mid-frequency HL was confirmed to be reproducible during the audiometric follow-up. Preschool children and subjects in whom reliable audiometric data were not available were excluded from the study. Based on the criteria mentioned above, we selected 30 probands (27 of Caucasian and 3 of Roma ethnicity) with mid-frequency HL of yet unknown aetiology.

Whole exome sequencing

Probands meeting the inclusion criteria were selected for WES analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood using standard procedures. WES was performed by service providers: BGI, Hong Kong, and Theragen, Republic of Korea. A DNA library was prepared using the BGI 59M Human Exome kit (probands D527, D753, D815, D821 and D822) and the SureSelect XT V6 kit (all remaining probands), respectively. Sequencing data were processed by the provider’s standard bioinformatics pipeline, which encompassed base calling and alignment of generated reads to the GRCh38 reference genome without the unplaced or alternate loci. Variant calling was routinely performed in-house using The Genetic Analysis Tool Kit (GATK) HaplotypeCaller, combined with the GATK UnifiedGenotyper in the case of BGI samples80.

Aligned reads and called variants were obtained in standard bioinformatics formats and subjected to the following bioinformatics pipeline. Variants were decomposed and normalized using vt81. Variant effect predictor82 was used to annotate the variants with respect to their potential effects on genes and transcripts and to add scores from in silico prediction algorithms PolyPhen and SIFT83. Finally, the Gemini framework84 was used for submitting variants into a newly created SQLite database and for annotating variants with additional data from genome annotation databases, e.g. the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNP)85, Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) (The ENCODE Project Consortium), ClinVar86, 1000 Genomes (The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium), the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) (http://evs.gs.washington.edu/EVS/), Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) and the Genome Aggregation Database gnomAD87. Afterwards, variant prioritization and filtering were carried out by removing those variants with an MAF ≥ 0.01 (based on maximal MAF in all used population databases), and the resulting variant set was first narrowed down by removing variants not lying inside the regions of 226 genes with known association with SNHL. The set of evaluated SNHL genes was based mainly on the webpage https://hereditaryhearingloss.org/. In the case that no candidate variants were found among the virtual panel of 226 genes, the whole exome was evaluated. Candidate variants were clinically classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines88 adapted by Oza et al.89, with modification for the PVS1 criterion according to Abou Tayoun et al.43. The VUS variants were selected as candidates only if they belonged to previously reported deafness genes. The limited number of available family members needed for cosegregation analysis makes it difficult to classify new gene variants among novel genes. Moreover, the further classification of VUS variant in unknown genes would be inconclusive without functional studies.

Sanger sequencing

Sanger sequencing was performed to verify variants identified by WES and to determine co-segregation of the candidate variants with HL in all participating family members. The primers were designed using the program Primer Blast90. The resulting PCR products were sequenced using the Big Dye Terminator v3.1 kit and analyzed with the ABI3500 Genetic Analyzer. Sequence chromatograms were analyzed by Sequence Scanner Software 2.0 (available from http://www.thermofisher.com/).

All methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations. Copy Number Variants (CNV) were not investigated. Some of the unsolved families could be due to CNVs.

References

  1. 1.

    Kral, A. & O’Donoghue, G. M. Profound deafness in childhood. N. Engl. J. Med.363, 1438–1450. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra0911225 (2010).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  2. 2.

    Schmucker, C., Kapp, P., Motschall, E., Loehler, J. & Meerpohl, J. J. Prevalence of hearing loss and use of hearing aids among children and adolescents in Germany: a systematic review. BMC Public Health19, 1277. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7602-7 (2019).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  3. 3.

    Sloan-Heggen, C. M. et al. Comprehensive genetic testing in the clinical evaluation of 1119 patients with hearing loss. Hum. Genet.135, 441–450. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-016-1648-8 (2016).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  4. 4.

    Barbour, D. L. et al. Online machine learning audiometry. Ear Hear.40, 918–926. https://doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000669 (2019).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  5. 5.

    Sabbe, A., Verhaert, N., Joossen, I., Lammens, A. & Debruyne, F. Otosclerosis: shift in bone conduction after stapedotomy. B-ENT11, 183–189 (2015).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  6. 6.

    Ghazavi, H. & Asadpour, L. Hearing LOSS in Meniere’s disease. Am. J. Otolaryngol.38, 367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2017.01.025 (2017).

    ArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  7. 7.

    McCollister, F. P. et al. Hearing loss and congenital symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection: a case report of multidisciplinary longitudinal assessment and intervention. J. Am. Acad. Audiol.7, 57–62 (1996).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  8. 8.

    Misono, S. et al. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in pediatric hearing loss. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.137, 47–53. https://doi.org/10.1001/archoto.2010.235 (2011).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  9. 9.

    Taylor, K. R. et al. AudioGene: predicting hearing loss genotypes from phenotypes to guide genetic screening. Hum. Mutat.34, 539–545. https://doi.org/10.1002/humu.22268 (2013).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  10. 10.

    Shah, R. K., Blevins, N. H. & Karmody, C. S. Mid-frequency sensorineural hearing loss: aetiology and prognosis. J. Laryngol. Otol.119, 529–533. https://doi.org/10.1258/0022215054352216 (2005).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  11. 11.

    Demeester, K. et al. Audiometric shape and presbycusis. Int. J. Audiol.48, 222–232. https://doi.org/10.1080/14992020802441799 (2009).

    ArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  12. 12.

    Birkenbeuel, J. et al. Characteristics of mid-frequency sensorineural hearing loss progression. Otol. Neurotol.40, e497–e502. https://doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000002232 (2019).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  13. 13.

    Wong, L. & Bance, M. Are all cookie-bite audiograms hereditary hearing loss?. J. Otolaryngol.33, 390–392. https://doi.org/10.2310/7070.2004.00390 (2004).

    ArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  14. 14.

    Taniguchi, M. et al. Carrier frequency of the GJB2 mutations that cause hereditary hearing loss in the Japanese population. J. Hum. Genet.60, 613–617. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2015.82 (2015).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  15. 15.

    Vona, B., Doll, J., Hofrichter, M. A. H. & Haaf, T. Non-syndromic hearing loss: clinical and diagnostic challenges. Med. Gen.32(2), 117–129. https://doi.org/10.1515/medgen-2020-2022 (2020).

    Article Google Scholar

  16. 16.

    Choi, M. et al. Genetic diagnosis by whole exome capture and massively parallel DNA sequencing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA106, 19096–19101. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910672106 (2009).

    ADSArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  17. 17.

    Yan, D., Tekin, M., Blanton, S. H. & Liu, X. Z. Next-generation sequencing in genetic hearing loss. Genet. Test Mol. Biomark.17, 581–587. https://doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2012.0464 (2013).

    CASArticle Google Scholar

  18. 18.

    Modamio-Hoybjor, S. et al. A mutation in CCDC50, a gene encoding an effector of epidermal growth factor-mediated cell signaling, causes progressive hearing loss. Am. J. Hum. Genet.80, 1076–1089. https://doi.org/10.1086/518311 (2007).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  19. 19.

    Booth, K. T. et al. Splice-altering variant in COL11A1 as a cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNA37. Genet. Med.21, 948–954. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0285-0 (2019).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  20. 20.

    McGuirt, W. T. et al. Mutations in COL11A2 cause non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNA13). Nat. Genet.23, 413–419. https://doi.org/10.1038/70516 (1999).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  21. 21.

    Chen, W. et al. Mutation of COL11A2 causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss at the DFNB53 locus. J. Med. Genet.42, e61. https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2005.032615 (2005).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  22. 22.

    van Beelen, E. et al. Audiometric characteristics of a Dutch DFNA10 family with mid-frequency hearing impairment. Ear Hear.37, 103–111. https://doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000217 (2016).

    ArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  23. 23.

    Jung, J. et al. Whole-exome sequencing identifies two novel mutations in KCNQ4 in individuals with nonsyndromic hearing loss. Sci. Rep.8, 16659. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34876-9 (2018).

    ADSCASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  24. 24.

    Sugiyama, K. et al. Mid-frequency hearing loss is characteristic clinical feature of OTOA-associated hearing loss. Genes (Basel).https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090715 (2019).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  25. 25.

    Kitano, T. et al. POU4F3 mutation screening in Japanese hearing loss patients: Massively parallel DNA sequencing-based analysis identified novel variants associated with autosomal dominant hearing loss. PLoS ONE12, e0177636. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177636 (2017).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  26. 26.

    Kharkovets, T. et al. Mice with altered KCNQ4 K+ channels implicate sensory outer hair cells in human progressive deafness. EMBO J.25, 642–652. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7600951 (2006).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  27. 27.

    Wang, L. et al. Eya4 regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase is required for sensory system development in zebrafish. Development135, 3425–3434. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.012237 (2008).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  28. 28.

    Kim, B. J. et al. Clarification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchorage of OTOANCORIN and human OTOA variants associated with deafness. Hum. Mutat.40, 525–531. https://doi.org/10.1002/humu.23719 (2019).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  29. 29.

    Xu, F., Yan, W. & Cheng, Y. Pou4f3 gene mutation promotes autophagy and apoptosis of cochlear hair cells in cisplatin-induced deafness mice. Arch. Biochem. Biophys.680, 108224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2019.108224 (2020).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  30. 30.

    Goodyear, R. J. & Richardson, G. P. Extracellular matrices associated with the apical surfaces of sensory epithelia in the inner ear: molecular and structural diversity. J. Neurobiol.53, 212–227. https://doi.org/10.1002/neu.10097 (2002).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  31. 31.

    Richardson, G. P., Lukashkin, A. N. & Russell, I. J. The tectorial membrane: one slice of a complex cochlear sandwich. Curr. Opin. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.16, 458–464. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOO.0b013e32830e20c4 (2008).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  32. 32.

    Shearer, A. E., Hildebrand, M. S. & Smith, R. J. H. In GeneReviews((R)) (eds M. P. Adam et al.) (1993).

  33. 33.

    Hildebrand, M. S. et al. DFNA8/12 caused by TECTA mutations is the most identified subtype of nonsyndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss. Hum. Mutat.32, 825–834. https://doi.org/10.1002/humu.21512 (2011).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  34. 34.

    Moteki, H. et al. TECTA mutations in Japanese with mid-frequency hearing loss affected by zona pellucida domain protein secretion. J. Hum. Genet.57, 587–592. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2012.73 (2012).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  35. 35.

    Legan, P. K. et al. Three deaf mice: mouse models for TECTA-based human hereditary deafness reveal domain-specific structural phenotypes in the tectorial membrane. Hum. Mol. Genet.23, 2551–2568. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt646 (2014).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  36. 36.

    Yamamoto, N. et al. Prevalence of TECTA mutation in patients with mid-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Orphanet. J. Rare Dis.12, 157. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13023-017-0708-z (2017).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  37. 37.

    Yasukawa, R. et al. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of TECTA-associated autosomal dominant hearing loss. Genes (Basel).https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10100744 (2019).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  38. 38.

    Kim, D. K. et al. The release of surface-anchored alpha-tectorin, an apical extracellular matrix protein, mediates tectorial membrane organization. Sci. Adv.https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay6300 (2019).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  39. 39.

    Masindova, I. et al. MARVELD2 (DFNB49) mutations in the hearing impaired Central European Roma population–prevalence, clinical impact and the common origin. PLoS ONE10, e0124232. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124232 (2015).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  40. 40.

    Yariz, K. O. et al. Mutations in OTOGL, encoding the inner ear protein otogelin-like, cause moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Am. J. Hum. Genet.91, 872–882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.09.011 (2012).

    CASArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  41. 41.

    Oonk, A. M., Huygen, P. L., Kunst, H. P., Kremer, H. & Pennings, R. J. Features of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment: a review to serve as a reference. Clin. Otolaryngol.41, 487–497. https://doi.org/10.1111/coa.12567 (2016).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  42. 42.

    Bonnet, C. et al. Biallelic nonsense mutations in the otogelin-like gene (OTOGL) in a child affected by mild to moderate hearing impairment. Gene527, 537–540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.06.044 (2013).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  43. 43.

    Abou Tayoun, A. N. et al. Recommendations for interpreting the loss of function PVS1 ACMG/AMP variant criterion. Hum. Mutat.39, 1517–1524. https://doi.org/10.1002/humu.23626 (2018).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  44. 44.

    Pfister, M. et al. A genotype-phenotype correlation with gender-effect for hearing impairment caused by TECTA mutations. Cell Physiol. Biochem.14, 369–376. https://doi.org/10.1159/000080347 (2004).

    CASArticlePubMed Google Scholar

  45. 45.

    Oonk, A. M. et al. Similar phenotypes caused by mutations in OTOG and OTOGL. Ear Hear.35, e84-91. https://doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000008 (2014).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  46. 46.

    Fidler, A. L., Boudko, S. P., Rokas, A. & Hudson, B. G. The triple helix of collagens—an ancient protein structure that enabled animal multicellularity and tissue evolution. J. Cell Sci.https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.203950 (2018).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  47. 47.

    Ricard-Blum, S. The collagen family. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol.3, a004978. https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a004978 (2011).

    ArticlePubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  48. 48.

    Shpargel, K. B., Makishima, T. & Griffith, A. J. Col11a1 and Col11a2 mRNA expression in the developing mouse cochlea: implications for the correlation of hearing loss phenotype with mutant type XI collagen genotype. Acta Otolaryngol.124, 242–248. https://doi.org/10.1080/00016480410016162 (2004).

    CASArticlePubMed

Источник: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-01876-1
Download Now

Tags:bicfic, cracked pc software, extreme picture finder alternative, extreme picture finder download, extreme picture finder portable, extreme picture finder templates, free download extreme picture finder full version

About The Author

Cook
Источник: https://crackkeywin.com/extreme-picture-finder-crack/

Extreme Picture Finder Crack 2021

Picture Finder Archives - Download Free PC Software

Extreme Picture Finder Crackmay be a powerful software for downloading images from websites. With the assistance of this Software, you’ll download photos, music, videos, from Websites. Extreme Picture Finder Crack includes an enormous database of thousands of photos and music. You don’t get to search for such files it’s already prepared for you to download them on your computer. you’ll also look for a keyword with the specified photo size and Extreme Picture Finder starts to download your files. Now you’ll download the newest version of utmost Picture Finder With Registration Key

Extreme Picture Finder Key Features:

Automatic downloads of all kinds of files, like music, video, and photos
Download from password-protected sites like TGP
Has downloaded Url list
Has the power to seek out images
Has a huge database
User-friendly interface
Beautiful view with thumbnail images
Online projects database with many ready-to-use projects
Download your choice of images, music, video, or other files from websites automatically
Download from TGP and password-protected sites
Built-in web picture finder
Download from imagefap.com, imgsrc.ru, imgur.com, xhamster.com, and other popular image and video hosts
Download list of URLs (fusker links)
Up to 30 simultaneous downloads – you’ll have your files in no time
Online project templates library with optimal download settings for many popular websites
Built-in picture viewer with thumbnails and slide-show mode
A user-friendly interface was translated into many languages

Extreme Picture Finder 3.55.1 Free Download - FileCR

How to Crack, Activate, or Register Extreme Picture Finder Key?

Uninstall the Previous Version With IObit Uninstaller
Turn Off Your Virus Guard
InstallProgram & Don’t Run It (If Running Then Quit)
Run Crack
Click On Crack
Done!

Extreme Picture Finder 3.53.4 Full Download

Category: InternetOffline BrowsersWindowsTags: extreme picture finder 3 registration key, extreme picture finder 3.44 crack, extreme picture finder 3.47, extreme picture finder 3.49, extreme picture finder 3.49.1.0, extreme picture finder 3.51, extreme picture finder 3.51.3, extreme picture finder 3.51.4, extreme picture finder 3.52, extreme picture finder 3.53 6, extreme picture finder 3.53.2, extreme picture finder alternative, extreme picture finder android, extreme picture finder project, extreme picture finder registration key, extreme picture finder review, extreme picture finder templates, extreme picture finder tutorialИсточник: https://softisoft.com/extreme-picture-finder-crack/

19 Best Photo Editing Software for Mac & PC in 2021

If you’re a photographer looking for the best photo editing software, you’re definitely on the right track.

After all, taking pictures is only half the battle – whether you’re shooting on your phone or the latest mirrorless camera, we all need to edit our photos to make them look amazing.

In the right hands, the best photo editing software can take a dull image to something that can amaze your friends, or even win an award.

At a glance:

In the past, photographers used a dark room to ‘push and pull’ their film as a way to reveal every shadow and highlight, to create their final masterpiece.

Nowadays, with digital, the process is replaced with photo editing software, and there are plenty of options for Mac and PC to choose from.

This is a guide to the best photo editing software in 2021 for photographers of all levels.

(Use the table of contents below to skip straight to your chosen product review.)

Paid Editors

 

1. Adobe Lightroom

Check current price

Despite its rather confusing naming convention, Adobe Lightroom Classic is still our number pick as the best photo editing software here in 2021.

Even with all the competition out there, no one’s been able to match its organisation and photo editing tools, which remain the benchmark for most other photo editing programs.

If you’re a photographer with a high-volume workflow, Lightroom’s ability to batch edit and set import/export presets really can’t be beaten.

For those of us who use metadata (stock photographers, bloggers, website designers, etc.), Lightroom’s options are hard to match, including being able to set import presets – a huge time saver.

This focus on metadata also allows for incredibly useful image search features – you can search by just about anything, including lens type, camera type, and location.

Another star feature of Lightroom Classic is the ability to seamlessly edit in other programs (both Adobe and third party), and then return to Lightroom to finalise the image.

Need to dip into Photoshop for some intensive editing? No problem. Want to add in a new sky using Luminar? Easy!

While other professional photo editing software offer plugin support, many often just send you out to the other program, offering no easy way back.

easy to use UI

Applying Profiles and Presets to photos in Lightroom allows you to improve their appearance in one click.

Most photographers rely on ‘Presets’ to edit their images – the ability to apply a ‘look’ to a series of photos with one click is a big time-saver, and benefits editing consistency.

Many Lightroom presets are available for free, (with some great ones included in the software), and many other paid presets are downloadable from various industry sites.

A new feature called ‘Profiles’ brings further editing efficiency to the process, with the Profile Browser providing a quick and easy way to sample the various styles.

Other top-of-the-line photo editing features include profile-based lens corrections, a powerful dehaze tool, a Healing Brush that works as well as Photoshop’s, and noise and chromatic aberration adjustments.

There’s also HDR and panorama integration, face recognition, optional cloud storage, and a mobile app.

In fact, Lightroom Classic’s integration with ‘Lightroom’, (formerly known as ‘Lightroom CC’ – I told you the names were confusing!), is another top drawcard for this impressive photo editing software.

By subscribing to one of the Creative Cloud Photography Plans, users benefit from a regular desktop-focused workflow with Lr Classic, as well as a cloud-based mobile workflow with Lightroom and its free mobile app.

Being able to start editing a photo in Lightroom on your computer, then continue on a tablet or mobile phone, (with everything backed up to the cloud), is a revolutionary workflow which justifies an Adobe subscription, whether for professional or amateur photographers.

With recent updates to the Lightroom Mobile app, users can even import images directly to their tablet or phone, right from their camera’s memory card, to edit, organise and share them immediately.

The Lightroom app also features a built-in camera, which benefits anyone who uses their phone to take photos. Every image is immediately backed up to the cloud, meaning you can cancel any additional iCloud/Google Drive subscriptions.

The Lightroom mobile app is the best way to free yourself from your computer as a photographer, and definitely worth an upgrade if you’re an existing user of Lightroom 6.

mobile app

Editing images on a phone or tablet using the free Lightroom app is convenient and fun.

Any edit you make on a mobile device will be waiting for you when you return to your computer, with everything kept in perfect sync – this is the future of image editing!

Also included with Lightroom is Adobe Photoshop, a powerful photo editing software for more intensive photo manipulation.

As mentioned previously, Photoshop works seamlessly with Lightroom, and also features an excellent iOS and Android tablet app, perfect for those wanting to edit a photo on the go.

There are several plans to choose from (learn how to buy Lightroom here), but the fact remains – Adobe’s move to a subscription model upset many photographers, hence the various alternatives that popped up.

While affordable, the plan tethers you to monthly or yearly payments, which may not suit everyone.

However, the combination of Photoshop and Lightroom as part of the Creative Cloud plan is unbeatable, especially if you consider the enormous benefits of a truly mobile workflow.

2. ON1 Photo RAW 2022

Check current price

ON1 Photo RAW Discount Code: Save 20% with coupon code SHOTKIT

On1 is another company that jumped into the Lightroom-alternative melee. Originally known for its special effects and amazing Portrait plugin, it’s since become a full-fledged piece of RAW photo editing software.

Offered as both a standalone program and a Lightroom/Photoshop/Apple Photos plugin, the newest edition of ON1 Photo Raw 2022 now includes various AI-powered features that make image editing much more powerful.

These new features include:

Sky Swap AI, Time-Lapse Creation, Integration of ON1 NoNoise AI, Photoshop Plugin Support, Newly Retooled Export, Line Mask Tool, Backup and Restore, Favorites in Browse, Customizable Thumbnails, Gesture Support View and Apple Silicon Native Support.

Existing features include AI Match and AI Auto, Effects (Weather, Sun Flare, Color Balance and Channel Mixer), improved decoding of RAW files (especially for Fujifilm), custom camera profiles with X-Rite, SmugMug integration, improved noise reduction, a map view, a Print Module, speed/performance enhancements, and more.

On1 Photo RAW‘s performance is snappy, especially start up time, which is noticeably quicker than the other photo editing software we tested.

ON1’s Digital Asset Management (DAM) is similar to Luminar but provides keyword, metadata, and advanced search options.

In our review, we noted that the ON1 Photo Raw interface looks very similar to Lightroom’s. Most of the adjustment sliders have the same names, the placement of the editing tools is very similar, and many of the keyboard shortcuts are the same.

Luminar 4’s interface is much sleeker and easier to learn, but the latest version of ON1 Photo Raw made a lot of improvements and now works seamlessly.

Like Photoshop and Luminar, ON1 Photo Raw has layers, blending modes, and masking. The masking options in On1 are superior to Luminar’s, with an AI masking feature and “refine edge” included.

Other features include full integration with Apple Photos, the ability to add text to an image, HDR, panorama photo merging, and the ability to migrate your Lightroom catalogue over to On1’s DAM.

The Timeline Albums feature provides a simple and efficient way to organise photos automatically, with the software organising files by year, month and day, much like in the iPhone photos app.

In an attempt to keep pace with the various cloud-based image editing workflows on offer by other products, ON1 360 in conjunction with On1 Photo Mobile allows users to view, organise, edit and share photos between computers and mobile devices.

 

Map View allows you to explore where your photos were taken and add location metadata to images that don’t already include embedded GPS.

There are presets aplenty in On1, with over 100 new and trending looks and styles curated from recent photographic trends.

The Effects filters are a fun feature, allowing users to experiment with colour balance, weather, channels and even sun flare – although the latter is not as intuitive as Luminar’s AI version.

ON1 Photo Raw also works well on Windows if you have a computer with at least 4GB RAM (8GB when used as a Photoshop plugin), and 1.5 GB disk space for installation.

If you’re a portrait photographer, you’ll love ON1’s legacy portrait plug-in. It provides genuinely excellent skin retouching, eye and mouth controls, and even an automatic face finder that creates a separate mask and adjustment panel for each face.

All of this makes it a cinch to add detail to eyes, whiten teeth, accentuate lips, and improve skin. Many photographers consider the program worth it for the Portrait editing plugin alone.

Instant previews of all editing effects is also a nice touch, allowing users to dial in every setting to taste – there’s a great preview on their sales page here, if you’d like to try yourself before downloading.

At just around $100 for a one-time purchase, you’ll often find ON1 Photo RAW on sale – click the button below to see the latest offer.

3. Luminar AI

Check current price

Luminar AI Discount Code: Save $15 with coupon code SHOTKIT15

I’ll keep this write up short as you can read all my thoughts about Luminar AI in the full review, but suffice to say, it’s a truly impressive piece of software.

Functioning more like a smartphone app than a desktop image editor, Luminar AI is one of the most simple pieces of editing software I’ve ever used, making it perfect for beginners.

There’s virtually no learning curve – you just import your image and the artificial intelligence-powered ‘Templates’ suggest the starting point for the edits, all dependent on the contents of the photo.

From there, you can make further AI-powered edits, or take full control with any of the regular tools – there’s even a masking option if you want to add or remove an effect.

The actual AI features are incredibly powerful, but also a cinch to implement – performing complex edits like slimming a subject’s torsos, changing eye colour or even adding fog to a landscape, are all just a mouse click away.

It certainly feels a lot like cheating! Luminar AI will appeal to anyone who’s more interested in the final result than in the process.

It’s perfect for anyone who doesn’t know the first thing about editing a photo and can allow complete novices to perform professional retouching in seconds.

What it lacks, however, are all the DAM features for pros, as well as intricate export options, layer-based editing and any kind of keywording – for those, you’ll need to use the Lightroom Plugin or wait to see what Luminar Neo offers.

4. Exposure X7

Check current price

Exposure X7 Discount Code: Save 10% with coupon code SHOTKIT217

If you’re looking for an affordable RAW photo editing program with all the core functionality of Lightroom plus a few useful extras, Exposure X7 should definitely be in your sights.

Functioning as a standalone photo editing tool as well as a plugin for Adobe Photoshop and Lightroom, X7 has been a recent favourite of wedding photographers seeking to manage and edit large volumes of images.

While Luminar 4 falls short in the Digital Asset Management stakes, Exposure X7 has bulk image editing and management performance that rivals the best photo editing software available this year.

Its standout feature is the new masking tool, a powerful way to select prominent subjects in your photo, allowing you to perform accurate local edits or remove the background.

Featuring all the core editing features to adjust colour palette, tonal values, composition and more, X6 brings a simple and intuitive workflow to all levels of photographer.

The workspace of Exposure X7 will be familiar for those coming from Lightroom, with panels neatly and logically arranged, and a similar tool naming convention.

However, while Lightroom forces users to hop between various ‘modules’ to edit, organise and share photos, Exposure X7 features just one screen, which vastly improves the entire image handling experience.

An additional benefit over other photo editing software is the ability to fully customise the workspace panels and tools to suit your needs.

file manager easy to use

Panels and tools are customisable to organise the perfect editing workspace.

The ‘Overlays’ feature is similar to a Photoshop layer, allowing users to add various effects and textures to images, such as a light flare or scratch marks and dust for a film look.

Speaking of film, the number of presets available in Exposure X7 is impressive, with numerous options to replicate popular film stock, as well as others for distinct looks and styles.

For those already ingrained in a Lightroom workflow, the migration process is thankfully straightforward, with all edits and metadata being transferred to your new X7 library.

Importing images can be performed in several ways, with the most straightforward being to simply drag and drop them on the main workspace, be it from your computer’s internal storage or external hard drive.

Refreshingly, files aren’t copied or moved from these locations (as they can be with Lightroom), but simply referenced for access via Exposure X7.

Another great feature is the ability to collaborate on images via a cloud-based service such as Dropbox. For the average user, this could mean editing on multiple computers, and for the pro, editing via a team or studio.

You can check our review of Exposure X7 for a deeper dive into whether this is the best photo editing software for you, or just click the button above to download a free trial.

For those who decide to purchase outright, there’s a one-off payment of less than $120 – great value for money, and not a subscription fee in sight ;-)

5. Capture One Pro 21

Check current price

Known for its exceptional Raw conversion, fantastic color adjustment options, and exceptional tethered capture features, Capture One Pro has long been the professional photographer’s choice.

This most current update adds in several much-needed features, including Heal Brush, Clone Brush, Before / After tool, layers and even a Lightroom importer.

As expected, Capture One Pro has many of the same features as Lightroom, some of which are more refined – the colour adjustments, noise reduction, and sharpening features in particular.

However, the photo organisation options, while acceptable, still lag behind Lightroom.

Like Lightroom Classic, Capture One Pro uses a catalogue system, giving you the automatic backup options missing in On1 and Luminar.

This can make a bit of a learning curve for getting started, but once you get used to it, you’ll have more versatility than with programs that use your hard drive’s folder structure.

All the editings tools sit in a singular interface, which allows users to toggle through buttons to change functions.

Everything is fully customisable, which is quite overwhelming at first, but soon becomes an intuitive way to produce a more efficient workflow assigned perfectly to your needs.

The ability to have various tool panels ‘hover’ over the main image viewing area is a neat touch, allowing you to drag and drop items wherever you like, making the most of cramped laptop monitors.

capone

The ability to annotate on images is a unique feature.

Users transitioning from Lightroom can set up their Capture One workspace to mimic it almost exactly. You can even assign the same keyboard shortcuts, to make the migration a lot less painful.

As far as the selection of adjustment tools is concerned, Capture One excels – there’s a macro and micro adjustment for everything any photographer could ever need.

Autocorrect options can be powerful when used judiciously, and the masks and layers tools are almost as powerful as those found in Photoshop.

Using layers allows you to make targeted adjustments to your photos, while still having access to the majority of main image editing tools – not just the ones that apply to the tool you’re using. This allows a much finer level of control during photo manipulation.

One place that Capture One really shines is in its superior RAW conversion – images have noticeably more detail and dynamic range than other photo editing software, right from the intial import.

Other features that make this an exceptional piece of software include the ability to insert annotations, best-in-class tethered camera options, and the fact that it tends to be faster and more stable than Lightroom.

Performance is generally fast and smooth – launching the software for the first time initiates a ‘hardware acceleration’ process, which uses OpenCL/GPU to dedicate memory to things like Previews, sorting, rating, and processing.

You do need a relatively powerful computer to run Capture One Pro smoothly, with at least 8GB of RAM, 10GB of free disk space and an Intel Core i3 (Mac) or Intel or AMD CPU with two cores (Windows), minimum.

The only real strikes against it are the fact that there’s no HDR or panorama options, the steep learning curve, limited plugin support compared to other software, and the price.

The full-fledged version retails at close to $300. There’s also a subscription option at $20/month ($15/month if you prepay for a year) – considerably more expensive than Adobe’s Creative Cloud Photography Plans.

If you’re a Sony or Fujifilm camera user, you can buy the software for around $130, or use a paired-down free version that’s understandably limited.

If you want to give it a try, there’s a free fully functioning 30-day trial available.

6. DxO Photolab 4

Check current price

Best known for its exceptional RAW conversion, noise reduction and sharpening tools, PhotoLab has long been an add-on of choice for many photographers – it does things that other programs simply can’t match.

With the inclusion of a DAM in this newest version of DxO PhotoLab 4 (review), you can now edit photos from start to finish without using any other software.

Like On1 and Luminar, DxO PhotoLab 4 conveniently uses your computer’s hard drive and existing folder hierarchy for its DAM, in contrast to Lightroom, which uses a confusing catalogue structure.

Once your images have been imported into DxO, you can make use of its advanced rating system, add keywords, and/or search for your other files as you see fit.

As a RAW image converter, DxO is hard to beat. Its automatic lens and camera-calibrated corrections manage to achieve results that are a couple of steps above other image editing software – Capture One Pro is the only other photo editing tool that comes close.

Signature tools include DeepPrime for noise-reduction, a Smart Lighting Module, an excellent dehaze tool, the best noise reduction on the market, and Nik’s U-Point local selection technology for spectacularly precise local adjustments.

Other features include tons of presets, customisable workspaces, virtual copies, and excellent metadata and keyword options.

For those who shoot architecture, the keystone corrections in DxO are essential. Portrait and landscape photographers will love the auto-micro contrast, ClearView (for brightening the horizon), and various spot-metering tools.

Where the latest update to DxO PhotoLab 4 shines is in its completely redesigned approach to managing colour, with a new HSL (Hue, Saturation, and Luminance) Tool which can help you produce more creative and natural-looking images. There’s also a neat watermarking preview feature and a completely customisable workspace.

 

The DxO ColorWheel is a new colour adjustment tool that you can use to select colour ranges from eight separate channels, fine-tune values, select replacements, and adjust transitions and tints creative effects.

The Uniformity Slider helps standardise colour variations within a specific range, while the Saturation and Luminance Sliders now work independently of each other, allowing users to convert photos to black and white without the use of complex masks.

Render matching is another useful feature, which allows you to match the rendering of over 60 cameras, meaning your RAWs can look more like the JPEG previews shown on the back of your camera screen.

PhotoLab 4 doesn’t have HDR merging or panorama stitching, but that might come in the next update. The workflow module could also use a bit more work, but overall this is one excellent piece of software.

Offered as both a plugin and a standalone program, DxO PhotoLab 4 comes at two pricing levels:  Essential ($129) and Elite ($199). Essential comes with all the standard features, but if you want to make use of DxO’s excellent noise reduction, dehaze tools, multiple exports and the ability to customise your workspace, you’ll need the Elite version.

Runs on Windows 7, 8, and 10, as well as on Mac OS X – click the button below to learn more about system requirements and see the latest offers.

7. CyberLink PhotoDirector 365

Check current price

Having written a full review of PhotoDirector previously, there’s no need to go too deep into this interesting photo editing software from CyberLink.

What photographers need to know, however, is that PhotoDirector is one of the most fully featured and best value options on the market here in 2021.

Whilst most of the other best photo editing software focus on a few key editing tasks in particular, this multi-faceted photo edit has chosen to include virtually every tool you could ever want… plus a host of others you never even knew existed!

Aside from all the usual editing tools to get the most out of your raw files, you’ll also find special effects, animations, sound effects, GIFs and more – it’s a playground of features, designed to help you have a lot of fun trying to create art from your photos.

You can buy PhotoDirector outright for a reasonable $54.99, but the real value lies in its subscription – at less than $3 per month, it’s perfect for students, beginners or those on a tight budget.

Check out the review for a more in-depth look at its features.

8. Adobe Photoshop 2021

Check current price

Anyone who knows anything about photo editing and graphic design will have used one of the various Adobe Photoshop versions. Now with Photoshop 2020, has evolved into much more than its humble beginnings.

Photoshop is defined as a ‘raster graphics editor’ developed by Adobe for Windows and macOS. It was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll and has become the industry standard for all the various facets of digital art.

Photoshop is also used for image editing, manipulation and retouching, and offers similar tools to any other software in this realm, but to the nth degree – there are often several ways for performing the same function in Photoshop, be it changing a background colour, cloning elements, frequency separation, or any of the myriad other photo editing tasks.

Then there are the special effects and healing tools that only Photoshop can accomplish – AI-assisted tools like content-aware scale and fill often leave me with my jaw on the floor. Being able to recreate a scene that doesn’t already digitally exist is a powerful feature for photographers – see my example video below.

 

Other newer features that aid photographers, in particular, include improved subject auto-selection (helps with background removal), an improved lens blur tool, customisable warp functions, new preset panels, and an advanced Adobe Camera RAW integration.

With the latest 2021 update, Adobe Sensei bring AI to the new Neural Filters and Sky Replacement features – the Smart Portrait mode offers one-click image manipulation as you’ve never seen before, changing subjects’ expressions, gaze direction and even age!

In addition to making AI-powered adjustments to portraits, Neural Filters also includes features to help repair damaged images, including Photo Restoration, Dust and Scratches, Noise Reduction, Face Cleanup, JPEG Artifacts Restoration and even a way to colourise a black and white image.

While Adobe Camera RAW is excellent for adjusting exposure, contrast, highlights, shadows and all the other various image editing tweaks, it can only work on one image at a time, with edits stored as separate XMP sidecar files.

Similarly, Photoshop isn’t designed to browse or batch-edit multiple images at once – it is possible with the file viewer and actions, but at its core, Photoshop is a graphics design tool, and no match for Lightroom when it comes to organising and editing photos.

Fortunately, Photoshop is included with Lightroom in the various Adobe Creative Cloud Photography Plans, making it a handy addition for editing tasks that simply aren’t possible in Lr.

Getting images from Lr to Ps and back again is a cinch, with PSD files retaining all the editing history (and layers) of any work performed in Photoshop.

Then there’s the Photoshop iPad app, allowing you to take your edits on the road, syncing your progress from desktop to mobile device. Paired with an iPad Pro and stylus, it offers a fun and powerful (if not slightly overwhelming) experience and is 100% free, whether you are an Adobe subscriber or not.

(You only need to pay monthly if you want to use the desktop version, and/or store your edited files in the Adobe cloud.)

The only big caveat of Photoshop is its steep learning curve. Tools and features are hidden away, and it’s challenging to dive right in without first consulting Google for a tutorial. That’s why so many alternatives have popped up, offering a vastly simplified UI, such as Inpixo Photo Studio.

That said, anyone who manages to tame the beast is many rungs ahead of even the most adept Lightroom user, with Photoshop giving access to an unlimited world of image manipulation and creative potential.

9. Corel Paintshop Pro 2021

Check current price

If you’re looking for an alternative to Photoshop that doesn’t feature a subscription fee, here’s your answer: Corel Paintshop Pro 2021 (yes, it’s already a year ahead of us!)

I have a graphic designer friend who remembers starting his studies with an outdated version of Paintshop Pro many moons ago – he was startled at just how far this impressive photo editing software has come along.

Now boasting numerous powerful AI-Powered tools that go well beyond free Photoshop alternatives, PsP has become a fully-featured graphics manipulation tool that provides excellent value for money.

AI Upsampling is an incredibly useful feature for those of us with lower megapixel cameras, or for when we’ve cropped in on an image and require it larger, without degrading quality.

Then there’s AI Artifact Removal, which does a fine job at restoring fine detail and original colours in JPEGs, and AI Denoise which helps clean up images shot at high ISO.

The Sea-to-Sky™ tool is a somewhat unusual addition but allows drone and underwater photographers access to a one-click solution for enhanced contrast and clarity.

AI Style Transfer is a fun tool that transforms photos into stylised artwork, much like the popular smartphone apps and Instagram filters.

For photographers and fans of HDR, the new HDR Studio offers a great way to get that unique look with AI-powered presets.

You can preview, organise, and streamline your photo editing workflow in the Manage workspace, which also allows you to add keyword tags to your photos, create catalogues, make batch edits to multiple images at once, and review metadata and file information.

If you need to extend its capabilities, Paintshop Pro supports various 64-bit plugins from Adobe, Topaz Labs, Nik Collection by DXO and many more. You can even import and export PSD files to work across platforms.

Aside from all the photographer-specific tools, Paintshop Pro 3 remains a graphic design software, with all the brushes, colour palettes, gradients, patterns and manipulation tools you’d expect.

Much like Photoshop, the workspace is not immediately intuitive, and with various customisation options available, there’s a steep learning curve to get going. There’s also no mobile app.

However, as a one-off payment for both the Ultimate and Pro editions, PaintShop Pro is a fantastic option that represents a unique amalgamation of Lightroom and Photoshop in one.

10. Affinity Photo

Check current price

If you’re looking for professional photo editing software that combines the photography tools of Lightroom with the nuanced controls of Photoshop, Affinity Photo is an excellent choice.

Unlike the other photo editing software on this list, Affinity Photo takes more after Photoshop than Lightroom. It comes with layers, masks, smart objects, colour management, and both CMYK and RGB editing, as well as decent Raw file conversion.

That being said, Affinity Photo’s primary focus is photography, so it lacks a few of Photoshop’s extra features (like 3D editing).

Other than this, Affinity Pro’s main difference with Photoshop is how the tools are organised. It uses “personas” instead of workspaces and that might take a little getting used to for folks used to Photoshop.

As far as the learning curve is concerned, much like Photoshop, the tools in Affinity Photo are quite in-depth and will take some time to explore and learn. Luckily the interface is quite logical, and if you’ve used Photoshop before the tools will make sense.

In fact, it’s the learning curve and lack of quality tutorials that provide the most significant barriers to new photo editors. Affinity Photo is a pretty deep program and could use more high-quality educational resources.

Still, if you’re looking for a single piece of photo editing software that can replace the Lightroom/Photoshop subscription, Affinity Photo is pretty much your best bet.

From focus stacking and panorama stitching to HDR merging and digital painting, it has just about everything you could want in a photo editing software.

What’s more, at less than $50 Affinity is an absolutely amazing deal.

11. ACD See Photo Studio

Check current price

Although lesser known than some of the other software on this list, ACD See Photo Studio has long been a mainstay for photographers looking for a Lightroom alternative.

It comes with a full suite of photo editing tools, a lightning-fast digital asset management system, and several secondary tools (facial recognition, skin smoothing, and blended cloning), that make this program a joy to use.

One of the most significant advantages of ACD See Photo Studio is just how fast it is. Where Lightroom can often be sluggish, Photo Studio uses a GPU-accelerated engine and claims to be the “fastest digital asset management software you can find.” The layers engine and adjustments are also blazing fast.

Another compelling feature of Photo Studio is its Advanced Light EQ tool, which allows you to make local adjustments to the lighting in your image without affecting the entire photo.

As mentioned before, the layers engine is exceptionally fast and includes most of the masking, blending, text, and layer effects of Photoshop. Other features include cloud syncing, colour grading, batch processing, and advanced keyword management.

Both the Ultimate and Pro versions have HDR, focus stacking, and importable keyword lists, as well as Light EQ. There’s even a mobile app that allows you to send photos and videos directly from your mobile device to Photo Studio.

If you’re a Windows user, we recommend the Ultimate version, which provides the all-important layers feature, allowing multiple non-destructive edits to your photos.

For cloud storage, you can buy a subscription plan for under $90 per year, which will give you all of ACD See’s top products (including a video editor), up to five users (Mac or Windows), 50 GB of cloud storage, and the ability to showcase your work via ACDSee Web galleries.

The broad range of ACD See products can be somewhat confusing, and it’s not immediately apparent which features are available to which operating system.

To clarify, the Mac product (aka ‘Version 6’) can correct exposure, clarity, sharpness, lighting, colour, noise and details, among other essential photo correction tools. However, it lacks most of the other editing features found in Pro and Ultimate, which are Windows-only products.

The Mac version is marketed more like a digital asset manager, and not a fully tooled editing suite, and is also included as part of a ‘Home Pack’.

With all it has to offer, it’s a wonder that ACD See’s Photo Studio isn’t a program with more name recognition.

It trails behind Lightroom in its user interface and the quality of its RAW conversion and lens corrections, but given that you can buy it outright with some excellent features, it’s definitely worth a try.

12. Zoner Photo Studio X

Check current price

While every man and his dog has heard of Adobe, the name ‘Zoner’ isn’t nearly as familiar, despite being a producer of photo editing software for almost the same amount of time.

Zoner Studio X is a Windows-only full photo workflow and image editing program with a monthly subscription fee that’s more affordable than Lightroom.

It offers layer support, presets, retouching tools, video editing, cataloguing, and multiple feature addition and enhancements throughout the year – as you’d expect with a popular subscription product.

Colour editing, in particular, is a strong-point of Studio X, with a fun and intuitive ‘360° color shift’ tool allowing you to quickly and change luminance, hue and saturation, to replace any colour in your image.

Using an eye-dropper, you’re able to click and drag on any colour in an image, with Studio X automatically choosing the right mix of hues and ratios – particularly useful for perfecting the colour balance of foreground and background elements in landscapes.

Switching on an ‘advanced’ mode gives access to the type of granular colour editing tools usually associated with high-level editors such as Capture One Pro and Photoshop.

The tabbed user interface is neatly arranged like a web browser, with customisable panels and tools which allow you to make the most of your workspace.

Importing of images is simple, with Zoner Studio X reading from your existing computer file system. Unfortunately, you can’t apply effects on import as you can with Lightroom, but adding presets and auto-corrections later is simple and relatively fast.

Studio X offers various useful selection tools, and even a content-aware resize, and whilst they’re no match for Photoshop, it’s nice to see them included for basic editing tasks.

The Zoner Photo Cloud provides online photo storage, and ‘Zonerama’ is for online photo galleries and to discover other photographers’ work. Subscribers get 20GB of cloud storage, which you can access within Studio X as a folder in the Navigator panel.

If you’re a Windows user and need most of the online storage capabilities and image editing functionality of Lightroom, Photo Studio X is an attractive alternative.

13. Adobe Photoshop Elements 2021

Check current price

Fully-fledged Photoshop certainly isn’t for everyone. Despite being bundled with an Adobe Photography Plan with Lightroom, there are plenty of photographers who still scratch their heads over its confusing interface and advanced tools.

For those of you not ready for an Adobe subscription, or indeed, prefer a more straightforward, more intuitive image editor for your photos, Photoshop Elements 2020 is a great option.

Don’t be fooled by its simplified user interface – Adobe Photoshop Elements 2020 packs some powerful features into its modest appearance.

Thanks to the baked-in AI-powered Adobe Sensei functionality, you’re now able to automatically select subjects in an image, with the software identifying foreground and background elements, making things like background removal 10x easier than before.

Auto-selection in Photoshop Elements also allows you to create shallow depth of field effects as if you’d shot a scene with a larger aperture lens.

One impressive photo editing feature that will undoubtedly appeal to those of us who have an archive of scanned film negatives is the ability to colourise a photo (converting black and white pictures to colour).

Another handy feature for portrait photos is the Smooth Skin option, with one click reducing wrinkles and blemishes, and a Smoothness slider available for further fine-tuning.

There’s a lot of hand-holding with the clear labelling of tools, and smart use of spacing between elements in the friendly interface – Photoshop Elements seems to be aimed at the older generation, but that’s not to say that anyone else can’t benefit from its simplicity and ease of use.

If you’re looking for the best photo editing software without any significant learning curve, Photoshop Elements 2020 is the one to check out.

Free Editors

  • GIMP – GNU image manipulation program which is open source and free.
  • Darktable – open source photography workflow application and RAW developer.
  • Canva – drag and drop online photo editing platform with thousands of templates.
  • Snapseed – free mobile photo editing app.
  • Fotor – free online photo editing software.
  • Photoscape X – free graphics editing program for Windows, Mac and Linux.

FAQs

Which photo editing software is best for beginners?

Luminar AI is a photo editor that has a simple, intuitive user interface and features a beginner would need. It also has incredibly powerful tools that even those with no photo editing skills can use – Professional photographers can also take advantage of them too.

What’s the No. 1 photo editing app for PC?

Adobe Photoshop is the best photo editing software for PC, but has a steep learning curve. If you need a simple photo editing tool, Canva is a free tool that does a good job.

What do professionals use to edit photos?

The best photo editing software for professional photographers is Adobe Lightroom or Capture One Pro.

Final Words

It should be clear at this point that there are plenty of options for editing and organising your RAW photos here in 2021.

While free photo editors do exist, premium software offers so much more, and despite the allure of one-off payment options, subscription plans tend to ensure consistency in valuable updates and feature additions.

Whatever app, tool or plugin you end up using, remember that they can often be used in conjunction with your existing programs without interrupting existing workflows.

Leave any questions below and good luck with your quest for better-looking photos!

Editor's Choice

lrsmall
Adobe Lightroom

A fast, flexible, all-in-one photo editor and organizer with an unbeatable mobile app.

Check Current Price

Disclaimer: All recommendations are impartial and based on user experience, with no bias to the products or the brand. The products in this post may contain affiliate links.

Источник: https://shotkit.com/photo-editing-software/

The 17 Best Free Search Tools for Windows 10

Have you ever searched for a program, file, or folder only to discover that the system search takes longer to find results than it does just to find them manually yourself? I'd imagine most Windows users face this dilemma.

While there have always been some neat Windows Search tips and tricks, it has never been on par with the search features of Mac or Linux. Although Windows 10 did lessen the gap in many ways, it's still slow and imperfect. In fact, you may be better off switching to one of these free Windows third-party search tools instead.

1. Everything

Everything is consistently lauded as one of the fastest search tools for Windows. Using it is as simple as it gets: install it, open the program, and give it a bit to index your entire system (It can index a fresh Windows install in under a minute).

Once that's done, all you have to do is type anything into the text field, and you will get instantaneous results as you type. And as long as you allow Everything to sit in the background and monitor system changes, it will always be instantaneous.

Best of all, it's lightweight and takes up less than 5MB RAM and 1MB disk space. This is the absolute best tool to use for old and slow computers.

2. Listary

Of all the software on this list, Listary is probably the most unique. Not only is it extremely minimal in design, but it stays completely out of your way until you need it. When you want to search, just start typing. It's as easy as that.

And as you type, Listary will show a list of all files on your system that match the query in real-time. Listary can also execute commands like Open Folder and Copy Folder Path. You can even use Listary to quickly hop into a different folder just by typing that folder's name.

Some of its best features require Listary Pro, which is $20. But even with Listary Free, you get a lot of power and flexibility, which is one of the many reasons it makes it on to this list of the best Windows File Explorer extensions for file management.

3. grepWin

If you're someone who likes to have a more hands-on approach with your PC, then grepWin will be one of the most useful tools you'll have at your disposal. With it, you can search through any directory tree, and it will find files by matching contents with your search query (regular expressions are supported).

If you've ever used Linux, it's basically the grep command (one of the essential Linux commands to know), but designed for Windows and comes with a nifty interface. So the next time you need to search for a specific line of code or a specific line of documentation, this will cut your search time by orders of magnitude.

4. AstroGrep

AstroGrep is a great alternative to grepWin if the latter doesn't fit your fancy. It does the same thing—finds files that match your search query by content rather than file name—but is slightly less advanced and easier to use.

You can designate which file types to search, view file contents within AstroGrep itself, and save or print results for later. Potential future features include searching through PDFs, MP3s, ZIPs, RARs, and more.

AstroGrep has been around since 2006 and continues to receive regular updates.

5. SearchMyFiles

SearchMyFiles may seem helplessly primitive at first glance, but it's deceptively flexible. Once you get over the slight learning curve, you'll be able to put together complex search queries using filters and wildcards.

For example, search all files created in the last 15 minutes, between 300 and 600 bytes in size, and containing the word error. The application is lightweight and portable (no installation required), so you can carry it around on a USB stick. NirSoft also maintains hundreds of other useful utilities that are all clean, portable, and available free of charge.

6. Exselo Desktop

Exselo Desktop isn't as well-known as other free Windows 10 search tool options, which is a shame because it's actually excellent. It supports powerful search queries, has a simple interface, securely shares data, and even integrates with Outlook.

Not only can it search local drives, but Exselo can also comb through network and cloud stores. And best of all, the Free edition is feature complete. The only difference between Free and Enterprise is support for multiple users.

7. Duplicate & Same Files Searcher

Duplicate & Same Files Searcher is a tiny portable program—around 1MB in size—that finds all files that are identical by content (not by file name). As such, the scanning process can be a bit slow, but you can filter and set parameters to speed things up.

And not only can the program delete said duplicates, but it can replace them with hard links that are basically shortcuts to one single file, thus saving you space without breaking anything in the meanwhile.

Can you guess how much of your hard drive space is wasted by duplicate files? The answer might surprise you. Duplicate files are more common than we tend to think, and if those duplicates are image, audio, or video files, they can take up a lot of unnecessary space.

Related: How to Wipe Out my Hard Drive in Windows?

8. Registry Finder

Registry Finder is a free tool that makes registry navigation easy. It can also search keys according to when they were last modified, meaning this tool comes in handy when you want to see all recent changes that were made (e.g., for troubleshooting).

Despite the improved search features in Windows 10, the registry is still a bit crude and could use a lot of love. Whether you want to fix errors in the registry or make a few tweaks for usability, the process of finding keys can be slow and tedious—and that's why Registry Finder really shines.

9. UltraSearch

UltraSearch is a creation of JAM Software. They are also the creators of the popular hard drive space recovery program, TreeSize. UltraSearch offers essential search features plus a few extras, all while keeping it simple and fast.

It works by directly searching the Master File Table (MFT). Within the search window, all important file information is displayed. It also displays all of your computer's partitions and their total size and free space. Additional options include showing folders and/or files in a search, exclude filters, and printing the search results.

10. FileSearchEX

If you prefer the style of search from Windows XP, FileSearchEX is the program for you. Not only is the search interface familiar and comfortable, the app itself is portable and uses minimal system resources.

However, there is one drawback: the free version is a trial—not in the sense that the program will expire and become unusable, but the search window will time out. Open the window, complete your search, then close it. If you do this promptly, you should be fine.

Overall the search performance is OK. It isn't nearly as fast as the other programs we tested, but we still noticed it was quicker than the default Windows Search and remains a good alternative.

11. Launchy

Launchy is a nifty app that's meant to replace the Start Menu, the Taskbar, the File Explorer, and desktop shortcuts. If you've ever used a Mac, then it's a bit like Spotlight. Launchy indexes your entire system, then lets you launch files, apps, folders, and bookmarks with just a few keystrokes.

Most people think Launchy can only launch apps, but it can search files and folders if you enable the setting. Open Launchy with the Alt + Space shortcut, click the gear icon at the top right, go to the Catalog tab, find File Types in the right panel, then click "+" to add file types and directories that you want to include in the search.

12. Wise JetSearch 

Wise JetSearch is a free search tool for Windows 10. It is capable of searching all types of important files such as videos, music, images, and texts from the local drives and the removable drives.

Wise JetSearch can search all the hard drives and partitions, be they removable disks or secondary disk. It supports a variety of drive formats such as NTFS, FAT, and exFAT. Features like Quick Search and Preview Pane make using a Wise JetSearch a suitable alternative to the default Windows Search tool.

13. FileSeek

If you are a Windows power user looking for more control of your searches, then FileSeek is your best bet. Through its Advance Querying feature, you can use regular expressions to go specific in your search commands.

Then there's the feature of Tabbed Interface. You know how you have to wait for a search to get completed before you can look up something else on Windows? With FileSeek, you won't have to wait like that anymore. Thanks to Tabbed Interface, you can look up multiple files in a single go.

You can also filter the search results by date (creation date, modification date, etc.) and size. There's also a feature to copy the search result to a clipboard, and the ability to export them in formats like CSV and HTML.

These and many more such features make FileSeek an attractive choice for those of you who spend a lot of time using Windows 10. Also, you receive a trial version of the Pro version after installation, which switches back to the free version after a short period.

14. Agent Ransack

Agent Ransack is a free Windows search tool available for both personal and commercial use. We like this app because it gives immediate results without you having to open the files and then look up the right information.

You can also share the search results with others through the printing, exporting, and reporting features that come with this tool. Agent Ransack is also available as a free commercial Windows search tool. For commercial purpose, the creators have branded it as FileLocator Lite, although, it's essentially the same tool by the same company.

15. DocFetcher

Are you an open-source aficionado? Then you'll probably like DocFetcher. It's a free open-source desktop search application that can help you search through heaps of files on your computer with blazing fast speed.

"You can think of it as Google for your local files. The application runs on Windows, Linux and OS X, and is made available under the Eclipse Public License," writes DocFetcher on their homepage.

It supports the search of numerous types of files such as PST, HTML, RTF, ODT, MP3, JPEG, plain texts, .zip, and much more. With support for both 32- and 64-bit comes the pro-privacy policy of DocFetcher, which can be verified from their publicly accessible source code.

In times like ours, where privacy has become a joke, products like DocFetcher offer a breath of fresh air.

Related: Privacy vs. Security vs. Anonymity: What's the Difference?

16. Glarysoft Quick Search

It's a free PC search utility to help you find your files in a fast and efficient manner. Packed with a minimalist interface, the tool offers a search filter, real-time display panel, and a search box.

The software also offers a pro version that comes with added features, but the free version will do the job for most use cases. Apart from giving you relevant results, it will also notify you about junk files that you haven't used and probably don't even need.

17. SSuite Desktop Search

Apart from its clutter-free and smooth search abilities, SSuite Desktop Search tool offers a different but fledgling approach to software and its development: green software.

To put it briefly, green software is a type of software designed to be environmentally sustainable over a period of time.

The SSuite Desktop Search is designed to run on native Windows operating systems using the Win32 API structure, as opposed to other software products that run on Java or .NET. As a result, the latter products have higher memory requirements, resulting in a comparatively higher electrical consumption.

Also, note that when you install the free desktop search app, you'll get a .zip file. To run it, you'll first have to extract it locally on your PC. After that you'll be good to use the app.

Related: What Is Greenwashing and How Does It Affect Your Tech?

What's Your Preferred Free Windows Search Tool?

For better and faster search results, go ahead and pick one of the above tools. The built-in Windows 10 search is getting better, but there's still a long way to go before you can rely solely on it.

There might be many things that annoy and frustrate you in Windows 10, but the user base is so large that you'll always be able to find a third-party software that improves upon Microsoft's shortcomings. These nifty Windows search utilities are proof of that!

The 7 Best Free Alternatives to Fences for Windows Desktop Management

Is your Windows desktop messy? Here are free desktop management apps that can help you organize your virtual clutter.

Read Next

ShareTweetEmail

About The Author
Shaant Minhas (72 Articles Published)

Shaant is a Staff Writer at MUO. A graduate in Computer Applications, he uses his passion for writing to explain complex stuff in plain English. When not researching or writing, he can be found enjoying a good book, running, or hanging out with friends.

More From Shaant Minhas

Subscribe to our newsletter

Join our newsletter for tech tips, reviews, free ebooks, and exclusive deals!

Click here to subscribe

Источник: https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/10-best-free-search-tools-windows-10/

Extreme Picture Finder 3.57.1 Full Cracked

Extreme Picture Finder Crack

Extreme Picture Finder is a powerful batch image downloader. Download all images from any website automatically and very fast. But not only images! It allows you to download music, video or any other files – just enter the website address, choose what files to download and where to save them and let Extreme Picture Finder do the rest for you. And you can instantly view the downloaded files in the built-in image viewer.

Extreme Picture Finder Key can be configured to download images from password-protected websites, forum threads, even social networks. Using advanced settings you can make Extreme Picture Finder skip certain parts of websites, like entire folders or single pages to make the download process even faster. Don’t know where to start downloading? Extreme Picture Finder Patch offers a built-in online project database with thousands of website addresses sorted by category: Desktop Wallpapers, Cars, Girls, Nature, and many, many others.

Extreme Picture Finder License Key features:

  • Automatic download of all types of files, such as music, video, and photos
  • Download from password-protected sites such as TGP
  • Has downloaded Url list
  • Has the ability to find images
  • Has a huge database
  • User-friendly interface
  • Beautiful view with thumbnail images
  • And many more.

Extreme Picture Finder Free Download

Extreme Picture Finder Crack patch

What’s New In Extreme Picture Finder 3.55.1?

  • Using image size limits does not prevent you from saving videos and other types of files anymore.

How To Crack, patch & activate Extreme Picture Finder Full Version for free?

  1. Download the latest version from the below links
  2. Click WinRar File Extract Hare
  3. Open New Folder Click To Program Install
  4. Do Not Run If Already Running Then Close It
  5. Copy Crack And Replace To Install Directory
  6. Done! Enjoy Extreme Picture Finder Full Cracked 😉

Extreme Picture Finder 3.57.1 Crack Download Links:

Download Now

Источник: https://www.bettercrack.com/extreme-picture-finder-crack/

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56 Crack With Full Activation Key Download

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56 Crack

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56 Crack With Registration Key 2021

Extreme Picture Finder Crack is an amazing group photo downloader. Download all images from any site accordingly and quickly. However, not just pictures! It allows you to download music, videos, or other material – just enter the site address, choose the recordings to download, where to save them, and you’re done. In addition, you can instantly see the uploaded documents in the rooted image viewer. You can allow the program to only detect and download thumbnails and you will see multiple images arriving at you very quickly – this is the fastest scanning mode.

Extreme Picture Finder Serial Key provides a basic information base for online business with a large number of sites arranged by category: backgrounds, cars, girls, nature, and many more. Another great feature of the program, as the name recommends, is the inherent photo locator. Just enter the password and the program will detect and download a large number of images for you. It has separate search modes that allow you to change the degree of your connection to the download cycle.

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56 Crack With Full Torrent Download

Extreme Picture Finder Key 2021 is a program that allows you to locate and download content from websites. Its features are easy to understand even by less experienced users. The app is packed with an easy-to-use interface where novice users can start using the wizard. So you can configure proxy settings and select the default destination folder. Creating a new project begins with typing the starting address and password for the site (if this is the case). In the following steps, you can enter the title and category of the project.

Extreme Picture Finder Serial Code is an application that can locate and download images and other media files from websites. The app itself is easy to use, with a clean layout divided into panels. The left side shows projects (or sites) while the main panel shows images downloaded by Extreme Picture Finder; It is similar to Windows Explorer. With its wizard interface, exploring a site and downloading its content is very simple.

Extreme Picture Find Product Key opens with a user interface that looks simple and straightforward, but it took us a while to figure things out. The menu and navigation commands run at the top of the window, and multiple panels take up the rest of the space. We chose to start by checking out the program’s online project database, which included a long list of topics ranging from architecture to celebrities to furniture. We were able to stop and resume the search by clicking the “Stop” button. Then we moved on to creating our own research project.

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56 Crack

Extreme Picture Finder Crack Key Features:

  • Automatic download of all types of files such as music, video, photos.
  • Download from password-protected sites like TGP.
  • List of downloaded URLs.
  • Has the ability to find pictures.
  • It has a huge database.
  • User-friendly interface.
  • Beautiful view with thumbnails.
  • Online project database with hundreds of ready-to-use projects.
  • Automatically download photos, music, video, or any other file you want from websites.
  • Download from TGP and password-protected sites.
  • Integrated web image search.
  • Download from imagefap.com, imgsrc.ru, imgur.com, xhamster.com, and other popular photo and video hosts.
  • Download the list of URLs (fusker links).
  • Up to 30 simultaneous downloads – you’ll get your files very fast.
  • Online project template library with optimal download settings for the most popular websites.
  • The user-friendly interface has been translated into many languages.

What’s new?

  • Added ability to copy to clipboard or open in browser homepage of the currently selected file(s) using the file context menu.
  • When files are sorted by file name in the main program window, these file name numbers now take precedence.
  • Improved handling of POST requests.

PROS:

  • Safe to install.
  • Professional software for Windows.
  • Easily switch between operating systems.
  • Best for developers.
  • Also, students can use it to perform various tasks of their operating system.

CONS:

  • Fewer trial days.
  • No support for older HFS versions.
  • Cannot work on Mac.
  • Can’t install apps from Mac to Windows.

System Requirement:

  • Operating System: Windows (all versions).
  • RAM: 1 GB or more.
  • Hard Disk Space: 100MB.
  • Processor: Intel or later.

How to Crack?

  • Download Extreme Image Search Crack from the below URL.
  • After downloading, extract the zip file with Winzip.
  • And install the zip file.
  • After installation, run the program.
  • Done and Enjoy [Latest Version].

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56 Crack With Full Activation Key Download Links Given Below!

Download Here

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56.0.0 Crack With License Key Free Download

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56.0.0 Crack With License Key Free Download

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56.0.0 Crack is a robust web image downloader program. It allows you to automatically and quickly download and save all images from any website. But it’s not just images! You can download music, videos, and other files by entering the website address, selecting which files to download and where to save them, and letting Extreme Picture Finder do the rest. You can also view the downloaded files in the built-in image viewer right away.

Extreme Picture Finder Latest Download can detect and download any multimedia file, including MP3s, WMV tracks, 3D images, video clips, and more. Then, choose the file orientation you want to save to your hard drive. This is, however, a premium tool, and the trial version has some limitations. Download Extreme Picture Finder Crack To be used later, it must be activated. So, if you can afford it, download Extreme Picture Finder’s premium features. Alternatively, you can get an extreme image search key by downloading the crack from here, which will allow you to activate limited functionality quickly. When manually activated, the user can use the above-mentioned registration key.

Extreme Picture Finder Crack With License Key

Extreme Picture Find begins with a user interface that appears simple, but it took us a while to get the hang of things. The top of the window is dominated by menu and navigational commands, with multiple panels occupying the remaining space. We chose to begin by perusing the program’s online project database, which featured a diverse range of topics ranging from architecture to celebrities to furniture. When we clicked the Start button, the program went to work, monitoring addressing (which could be seen in the bottom panel) and filing away images (which could be seen in one of the upper panels).

Extreme Picture Finder Full Crack With Activation Key

Extreme Picture Finder License Key starts with a seemingly simple and basic shopper interface, but it took us a while to figure out what was going on. Menu and navigational instructions run across the top of the window, and many panels occupy the space’s remainder. For example, the program could obtain photos from password-protected websites, discussion board threads, and even social organizations.

Extreme Picture Finder With Crack Download [Latest]

The program can be set up to download images in bulk from password-protected websites, forum threads, and even social media sites. In addition, extreme Picture Finder’s advanced settings allow you to skip specific parts of websites, such as entire folders or single pages, to speed up the download process.

Extreme Picture Finder 3.56.0.0 Crack With License Key Free Download

Features:

  • Integrated web image search.
  • TGP and password-protected sites.
  • Download the URL list (fusker links).
  • Other popular image and video hosting sites.
  • Many languages were used to translate a user-friendly interface.
  • A built-in picture viewer with thumbnails and a slide-show mode is included.
  • Hundreds of ready-to-use projects are available in an online project database.
  • Automatically download your preferred images, music, video, or other files from websites.
  • Download images and videos from imagefap.com, imgsrc.ru, imgur.com, xhamster.com
  • You can download up to 30 files at the same time, so you’ll have your files in no time.
  • Online template library with the best download settings for the most popular websites

What’s New in Extreme Image Finder:

  • There was an issue with reloading the primary URL, so that issue was resolved, and improved page exceptions were.
  • If the user is redirected for any reason, this will allow them to download the previous download URL.
  • For added security, we’ve also improved SSL support.
  • The custom resolution engine has been modified in the new version.
  • JavaScript provides some unique features and tools.
  • The functions CharFromHexCode and CharFromCode were added.
  • Workflow advancements using IMG tag features.
  • The interface of the Extreme Picture Finder Cracked Version has been improved.
  • We also improved Google.com’s image search.

System Requirements:

  • Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1, and 10 are the supported operating systems.
  • RAM Memory: A total of 1 GB of RAM is required.
  • Hard Disk Space: A minimum of 100 MB of free space is required.
  • Intel Pentium 4 or later processor.
  • Internet access is required.

Keys:

QWER-TYYU-IOPA-SDFG-HJKL DCH-BVNA-WERT-YUIY-UOAS DDFF-GHGJ-GKXC-NEWR-EGTH YFGH-CDZS-FDXG-DFGS-DFG

Other Top Software For You:

How to Install?

  1. First openshot video editor tutorial above all, download The Extreme Picture Finder Crack from the link provided below.
  2. This software is fully cracked after installation.
  3. With complete installation file.
  4. And completed this software.
  5. Now Enjoy!

Extreme Picture Finder CrackFree Download is Here

Summary

Reviewer

John Parther

Review Date

Reviewed Item

Extreme Picture Finder Crack

Author Rating

Software Name

Extreme Picture Finder Crack

Software Name

Win/Mac

Software Category

Multimedia / Image Tool

Источник: https://explorecrack.com/extreme-picture-finder-crack-2/

Extreme Picture Finder Crack 2021

Picture Finder Archives - Download Free PC Software

Extreme Picture Finder Crackmay be a powerful software for downloading images from websites. With the assistance of this Software, you’ll download photos, music, videos, from Websites. Extreme Picture Finder Crack includes an enormous database of thousands of photos and music. You don’t get to search for such files it’s already prepared for you to download them on your computer. you’ll also look for a keyword with the specified photo size and Extreme Picture Finder starts to download your files. Now you’ll download the newest version of utmost Picture Finder With Registration Key

Extreme Picture Finder Key Features:

Automatic downloads of all kinds of files, like music, video, and photos
Download from password-protected sites like TGP
Has downloaded Url list
Has the power to seek out images
Has a huge database
User-friendly interface
Beautiful view with thumbnail images
Online projects database with many ready-to-use projects
Download your choice of images, music, video, or other files from websites automatically
Download from TGP and password-protected sites
Built-in web picture finder
Download from imagefap.com, imgsrc.ru, imgur.com, xhamster.com, and other popular image and video hosts
Download list of URLs (fusker links)
Up to 30 simultaneous downloads – you’ll have your files in no time
Online project templates library with optimal download settings for many popular websites
Built-in picture viewer with thumbnails and slide-show mode
A user-friendly interface was translated into many languages

Extreme Picture Finder 3.55.1 Free Download - FileCR

How to Crack, Activate, or Register Extreme Picture Finder Key?

Uninstall the Previous Version With IObit Uninstaller
Turn Off Your Virus Guard
InstallProgram & Don’t Run It (If Running Then Quit)
Run Crack
Click On Crack
Done!

Extreme Picture Finder 3.53.4 Full Download

Category: InternetOffline BrowsersWindowsTags: extreme picture finder 3 registration key, extreme picture finder 3.44 crack, extreme picture finder 3.47, extreme picture finder 3.49, extreme picture finder 3.49.1.0, extreme picture finder 3.51, extreme picture finder 3.51.3, extreme picture finder 3.51.4, extreme picture finder 3.52, extreme picture finder 3.53 6, extreme picture finder 3.53.2, extreme picture finder alternative, extreme picture finder android, extreme picture finder project, extreme picture finder registration key, extreme picture finder review, extreme picture finder templates, extreme picture finder tutorialИсточник: https://softisoft.com/extreme-picture-finder-crack/

19 Best Photo Editing Software for Mac & PC in 2021

If you’re a photographer looking for the best photo editing software, you’re definitely on the right track.

After all, taking pictures is only half the battle – whether you’re shooting on your phone or the latest mirrorless camera, we all need to edit our photos to make them look amazing.

In the right hands, the best photo editing software can take a dull image to something that can amaze your friends, or even win an award.

At a glance:

In the past, photographers used a dark room to ‘push and pull’ their film as a way to reveal every shadow and highlight, to create their final masterpiece.

Nowadays, Pandora One APK 2020 + Serial Key Free Download 2020 digital, the process is replaced with photo editing software, and there are plenty of options for Mac and PC to choose from.

This is a guide to the best photo editing software in 2021 for photographers of all levels.

(Use the table of contents below to skip straight to your chosen product review.)

Paid Editors

 

1. Adobe Lightroom

Check current price

Despite its rather confusing naming convention, Adobe Lightroom Classic is still our number pick as the best photo editing software here in 2021.

Even with all the competition out there, no one’s been able to match its organisation and photo editing tools, which remain the benchmark for most other photo editing programs.

If you’re a photographer with a high-volume workflow, Lightroom’s ability to batch edit and set import/export presets really can’t be beaten.

For those of us who use metadata (stock photographers, bloggers, website designers, etc.), Lightroom’s options are hard to match, including being able to set import presets – a huge time saver.

This focus on metadata also allows for incredibly useful image search features – you can search by just about anything, including lens type, camera type, and location.

Another star feature of Lightroom Classic is the ability to seamlessly edit in other programs (both Adobe and third party), and then return to Lightroom to finalise the image.

Need to dip into Photoshop for some intensive editing? No problem. Want to add in a new sky using Luminar? Easy!

While other professional photo editing software offer plugin support, many often just send you out to the other program, offering no easy way back.

easy to use UI

Applying Profiles and Presets to photos in Lightroom allows you to improve their appearance in one click.

Most photographers rely on ‘Presets’ to edit their images – the ability to apply a ‘look’ to a series of photos with one click is a big time-saver, and benefits editing consistency.

Many Lightroom presets are available for free, (with some great ones included in the software), and many other paid presets are downloadable from various industry sites.

A new feature called ‘Profiles’ brings further editing efficiency to the process, with the Profile Browser providing a quick and easy way to sample the various styles.

Other top-of-the-line photo editing features include profile-based lens corrections, a powerful dehaze tool, a Healing Brush that works as well as Photoshop’s, and noise and chromatic aberration adjustments.

There’s also HDR and panorama integration, face recognition, optional cloud storage, and a mobile app.

In fact, Lightroom Classic’s integration with ‘Lightroom’, (formerly known as ‘Lightroom CC’ – I told you the names were confusing!), is another top drawcard for this impressive photo editing software.

By subscribing to one of the Creative Cloud Photography Plans, users benefit from a regular desktop-focused workflow with Lr Classic, as well as a cloud-based mobile workflow with Lightroom and its free mobile app.

Being able to start editing a photo in Lightroom on your computer, then continue on a tablet or mobile phone, (with everything backed up to the cloud), is a revolutionary workflow which justifies an Adobe subscription, whether for professional or amateur photographers.

With recent updates to the Lightroom Mobile app, users can even import images directly to their tablet or phone, right from their camera’s memory card, to edit, organise and share them immediately.

The Lightroom app also features a built-in camera, which benefits anyone who uses their phone to take photos. Every image is immediately backed up to the cloud, meaning you can cancel any additional iCloud/Google Drive subscriptions.

The Lightroom mobile app is the best way to free yourself from your computer as a photographer, and definitely worth an upgrade if you’re an existing user of Lightroom 6.

mobile app

Editing images on a phone or tablet using the free Lightroom app is convenient and fun.

Any edit you make on a mobile device will be waiting for you when you return to your computer, with everything extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators in perfect sync – this is the future of image editing!

Also included with Lightroom is Adobe Photoshop, a powerful photo editing software for more intensive photo manipulation.

As mentioned previously, Photoshop works seamlessly with Lightroom, and also features an excellent iOS and Android tablet app, perfect for those wanting to edit a photo on the go.

There are several plans to choose from (learn how to buy Lightroom here), but the fact remains – Adobe’s move to a subscription model upset many photographers, hence the various alternatives that popped up.

While affordable, the plan tethers you to monthly or yearly payments, which may not suit everyone.

However, the combination of Photoshop and Lightroom as part of the Creative Cloud plan is unbeatable, especially if you consider the enormous benefits of a truly mobile workflow.

2. ON1 Photo RAW 2022

Check current price

ON1 Photo RAW Discount Code: Save 20% with coupon code SHOTKIT

On1 is another company that jumped into the Lightroom-alternative melee. Originally known for its special effects and amazing Portrait plugin, it’s since become a full-fledged piece of RAW photo editing software.

Offered as both a standalone program and a Lightroom/Photoshop/Apple Photos plugin, the newest edition of ON1 Photo Raw 2022 now includes various AI-powered features that make image editing much more powerful.

These new features include:

Sky Swap AI, Time-Lapse Creation, Integration of ON1 NoNoise AI, Photoshop Plugin Support, Newly Retooled Export, Line Mask Tool, Backup and Restore, Favorites in Browse, Customizable Thumbnails, Gesture Support View and Apple Silicon Native Support.

Existing features include AI Match and AI Auto, Effects (Weather, Sun Flare, Color Balance and Channel Mixer), improved decoding of RAW files (especially for Fujifilm), custom camera profiles with X-Rite, SmugMug integration, improved noise reduction, a map view, a Print Module, speed/performance enhancements, and more.

On1 Photo RAW‘s performance is snappy, especially start up time, which is noticeably quicker than the other photo editing software we tested.

ON1’s Digital Asset Management (DAM) is similar to Luminar but provides keyword, metadata, and advanced search options.

In our review, we noted that the ON1 Photo Raw interface looks very similar to Lightroom’s. Most of the adjustment sliders have the same names, the placement of the editing tools is very similar, and many of the keyboard shortcuts are the same.

Luminar 4’s interface is much sleeker and easier to learn, but the latest version of ON1 Photo Raw made a lot of improvements and now works seamlessly.

Like Photoshop and Luminar, ON1 Photo Raw has layers, blending modes, and masking. The masking options in On1 are superior to Luminar’s, with an AI masking feature and “refine edge” included.

Other features include full integration with Apple Photos, the ability to add text to an image, HDR, panorama photo merging, and the ability to migrate your Lightroom catalogue over to On1’s DAM.

The Timeline Albums feature provides a simple and efficient way to organise photos automatically, with the software organising files by year, month and day, much like in the iPhone photos app.

In an attempt to keep pace with the various cloud-based image editing workflows on offer by other products, ON1 360 in conjunction with On1 Photo Mobile allows users to view, organise, edit and share photos between computers and mobile devices.

 

Map View allows you to explore where your photos were taken and add location metadata to images that don’t already include embedded GPS.

There are presets aplenty in On1, with over 100 new and trending looks and styles curated from recent photographic trends.

The Effects filters are a fun feature, allowing users to experiment with colour balance, weather, channels and even sun flare – although the latter is not as intuitive as Luminar’s AI version.

ON1 Photo Raw also works well on Windows if you have a computer with at least 4GB RAM (8GB when used as a Photoshop plugin), and 1.5 GB disk space for installation.

If you’re a portrait photographer, you’ll love ON1’s legacy portrait plug-in. It provides genuinely excellent skin retouching, eye and mouth controls, and even an automatic face finder that creates a separate mask and adjustment panel for each face.

All of this makes it a cinch to add detail to eyes, whiten teeth, accentuate lips, and improve skin. Many photographers consider the program worth it for the Portrait editing plugin alone.

Instant previews of all editing effects is also a nice touch, allowing users to dial in every setting to taste – there’s a great preview on their sales page here, if you’d like to try yourself before downloading.

At just around $100 for a one-time purchase, you’ll often find ON1 Photo RAW on sale – click the button below to see the latest offer.

3. Luminar AI

Check current price

Luminar AI Discount Code: Save $15 with coupon code SHOTKIT15

I’ll keep this write up short as you can read all my thoughts about Luminar AI in the full review, but suffice to say, it’s a truly impressive piece of software.

Functioning more like a smartphone app than a desktop image editor, Luminar AI is one of the most simple pieces of editing software I’ve ever used, making it perfect for beginners.

There’s virtually no learning curve – you just import your image and the artificial intelligence-powered ‘Templates’ suggest the starting point for the edits, all dependent on the contents of the photo.

From there, you can make further AI-powered edits, or take full control with any of the regular tools – there’s even a masking option if you want to add or remove an effect.

The actual AI features are incredibly powerful, but also a cinch to implement – performing complex edits like slimming a subject’s torsos, changing eye colour or even adding fog to a landscape, are all just a mouse click away.

It certainly feels a lot like cheating! Luminar AI will appeal to anyone who’s more interested in the final result than in the process.

It’s perfect for anyone who doesn’t know the first thing about editing a photo and can allow complete novices to perform professional retouching in seconds.

What it lacks, however, are all the DAM features for pros, as well as intricate export options, layer-based editing and any kind of keywording – for those, you’ll need to use the Lightroom Plugin or wait to see what Luminar Neo offers.

4. Exposure X7

Check current price

Exposure X7 Discount Code: Save 10% with coupon code SHOTKIT217

If you’re looking for an affordable RAW photo editing program with all the core functionality of Lightroom plus a few useful extras, Exposure X7 should definitely be in your sights.

Functioning as a standalone photo editing tool as well as a plugin for Adobe Photoshop and Lightroom, X7 has been a recent favourite of wedding photographers seeking to manage and edit large volumes of images.

While Luminar 4 falls short in the Digital Asset Management stakes, Exposure X7 has bulk image editing and management performance that rivals the best photo editing software available this year.

Its standout feature is the new masking tool, a powerful way to select prominent subjects in your photo, allowing you to perform accurate local edits or remove the background.

Featuring all the core editing features to adjust colour palette, tonal values, composition and more, X6 brings a simple and intuitive workflow to all levels of photographer.

The workspace of Exposure X7 will be familiar for those coming from Lightroom, with panels neatly and logically arranged, and a similar tool naming convention.

However, while Lightroom forces users to hop between various ‘modules’ to edit, organise and share photos, Exposure X7 features just one screen, which vastly improves the entire image handling experience.

An additional benefit over other photo editing software is the ability to fully customise the workspace panels and tools to suit your needs.

file manager easy to use

Panels and tools are customisable to organise the perfect editing workspace.

The ‘Overlays’ feature is similar to a Photoshop layer, allowing users to add various effects and textures to images, such as a light flare or scratch marks and dust for a film look.

Speaking of film, the number of presets available in Exposure X7 is impressive, with numerous options to replicate popular film stock, as well as others for distinct looks and styles.

For those already ingrained in a Lightroom workflow, the migration process is thankfully straightforward, with all edits and metadata being transferred to your new X7 library.

Importing images can be performed in several ways, with the most straightforward being to simply drag and drop them on the main workspace, be it from your computer’s internal storage or external hard drive.

Refreshingly, files aren’t copied or moved from these locations (as they can be with Lightroom), but simply referenced for access via Exposure X7.

Another great feature is the ability to collaborate on images via a cloud-based service such as Dropbox. For the average user, this could mean editing on multiple computers, and for the pro, editing via a team or studio.

You can check our review of Exposure X7 for a deeper dive into whether this is the best photo editing software for extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators, or just click the button above to download a free trial.

For those who decide to purchase outright, there’s a one-off payment of less than $120 – great value for money, and not a subscription fee in sight ;-)

5. Capture One Pro 21

Check current price

Known for its exceptional Raw conversion, fantastic color adjustment options, and exceptional tethered capture features, Capture One Pro has long been the professional photographer’s choice.

This most current update adds in several much-needed features, including Heal Brush, Clone Brush, Before / After tool, layers and even a Lightroom importer.

As expected, Capture One Pro has many of the same features as Lightroom, some of which are more refined – the colour adjustments, noise reduction, and sharpening features in particular.

However, the photo organisation options, while acceptable, still lag behind Lightroom.

Like Lightroom Classic, Capture One Pro uses a catalogue system, giving you the automatic backup options missing in On1 and Luminar.

This can make a bit of a learning curve for getting started, but once you get used to it, you’ll have more versatility than with programs that use your hard drive’s folder structure.

All the editings tools sit in a singular interface, which allows users to toggle through buttons to change functions.

Everything is fully customisable, which is quite overwhelming at first, but soon becomes an intuitive way to produce a more efficient workflow assigned perfectly to your needs.

The ability to have various tool panels ‘hover’ over the main image viewing area is a neat touch, allowing you to drag and drop items wherever you like, making the most of cramped laptop monitors.

capone

The ability to annotate on images is a unique feature.

Users transitioning from Lightroom can set up their Capture One workspace to mimic it almost exactly. You can even assign the same keyboard shortcuts, to make the migration a lot less painful.

As far as the selection of adjustment tools is concerned, Capture One excels – there’s a macro and micro adjustment for everything any photographer could ever need.

Autocorrect options can be powerful when used judiciously, and the masks and layers tools are almost as powerful as those found in Photoshop.

Using layers allows you to make targeted adjustments to your photos, while still having access to the majority of main image editing tools – not just the ones that apply to the tool you’re using. This allows a much finer level of control during photo manipulation.

One place that Capture One really shines is in its superior RAW conversion – images have noticeably more detail and dynamic range than other photo editing software, right from the intial import.

Other features that make this an exceptional piece of software include the ability to insert annotations, best-in-class tethered camera options, and the fact that it tends to be faster and more stable than Lightroom.

Performance is generally fast and smooth – launching the software for the first time initiates a ‘hardware acceleration’ process, which uses OpenCL/GPU to dedicate memory to things like Previews, sorting, rating, and processing.

You do need a relatively powerful computer to run Capture One Pro smoothly, with at least 8GB of RAM, 10GB of free disk space and an Intel Core i3 (Mac) or Intel or AMD CPU with two cores (Windows), minimum.

The only real strikes against it are the fact that there’s no HDR or panorama options, the steep learning curve, limited plugin support compared to other software, and the price.

The full-fledged version retails at close to $300. There’s also a subscription option at $20/month ($15/month if you prepay for a year) – considerably more expensive than Adobe’s Creative Cloud Photography Plans.

If you’re a Sony or Fujifilm camera user, you can buy the software for around $130, or use a paired-down free version that’s understandably limited.

If you want to give it a try, there’s a free fully functioning 30-day trial available.

6. DxO Photolab 4

Check current price

Best known for its exceptional RAW conversion, noise reduction and sharpening tools, PhotoLab has long been an add-on of choice for many photographers – it does things that other programs simply can’t match.

With the inclusion of a DAM in this newest version of DxO PhotoLab 4 (review), you can now edit photos from start to finish without using any other software.

Like On1 and Luminar, DxO PhotoLab 4 conveniently uses your computer’s hard drive and existing folder hierarchy for its DAM, in contrast to Lightroom, which uses a confusing catalogue structure.

Once your images have been imported into DxO, you can make use of its advanced rating system, add keywords, and/or search for your other files as you see fit.

As a RAW image converter, DxO is hard to beat. Its automatic lens and camera-calibrated corrections manage to achieve results that are a couple of steps above other image editing software – Capture One Pro is the only other photo editing tool that comes close.

Signature tools include DeepPrime for noise-reduction, a Smart Lighting Module, an excellent dehaze tool, the best noise reduction on the market, and Nik’s U-Point local selection technology for spectacularly precise local adjustments.

Other features include tons of presets, customisable workspaces, virtual copies, and excellent metadata and keyword options.

For those who shoot architecture, the keystone corrections in DxO are essential. Portrait and landscape photographers will love the auto-micro contrast, ClearView (for brightening the horizon), and various spot-metering tools.

Where the latest update to DxO PhotoLab 4 shines is in its extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators redesigned approach to managing colour, with a new HSL (Hue, Saturation, and Luminance) Tool which can help you produce more creative and natural-looking images. There’s also a neat watermarking preview feature and a completely customisable workspace.

 

The DxO ColorWheel is a new colour adjustment tool that you can use to select colour ranges from eight separate channels, fine-tune values, select replacements, and adjust transitions and tints creative effects.

The Uniformity Slider helps standardise colour variations within a specific range, while the Saturation and Luminance Sliders now work independently of each other, allowing users to convert photos to black and white without the use of complex masks.

Render matching is another useful feature, which allows you to match the rendering of over 60 cameras, meaning your RAWs can look more like the JPEG previews shown on the back of your camera screen.

PhotoLab 4 doesn’t have HDR merging or panorama stitching, but that might come in the next update. The workflow module could also use a bit more work, but overall this is one excellent piece of software.

Offered as both a plugin and a standalone program, DxO PhotoLab 4 comes at two pricing levels:  Essential ($129) and Elite ($199). Essential comes with all the standard features, but if you want to make use of DxO’s excellent noise reduction, dehaze tools, multiple exports and the ability to customise your workspace, you’ll need the Elite version.

Runs on Windows 7, 8, and 10, as well as on Mac OS X – click the button below to learn more about system requirements and see the latest offers.

7. CyberLink PhotoDirector 365

Check current price

Having written a full review of PhotoDirector previously, there’s no need to go too deep into this interesting photo editing software from CyberLink.

What photographers need to know, however, is that PhotoDirector is one of the most fully featured and best value options on the market here in 2021.

Whilst most of the other best photo editing software focus on a few key editing tasks in particular, this multi-faceted photo edit has chosen to include virtually every tool you could ever want… plus a host of others you never even knew existed!

Aside from all the usual editing tools to get the most out of your raw files, you’ll also find special effects, animations, sound effects, GIFs and more – it’s a playground of features, designed to help you have a lot of fun trying to create art from your photos.

You can buy PhotoDirector outright for a reasonable $54.99, but the real value lies in its subscription – at less than $3 per month, it’s perfect for students, beginners or those on a tight budget.

Check out the review for a more in-depth look at its features.

8. Adobe Photoshop 2021

Check current price

Anyone who knows anything about photo editing and graphic design will have used one of the various Adobe Photoshop versions. Now with Photoshop 2020, has evolved into much more than its humble beginnings.

Photoshop is defined as a ‘raster graphics editor’ developed by Adobe for Windows and macOS. It was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll and has become the industry standard for all the various facets of digital art.

Photoshop is also used for image editing, manipulation and retouching, and offers similar tools to any other software in this realm, but to the nth degree – there are often several ways for performing the same function in Photoshop, be it changing a background colour, cloning elements, frequency separation, or any of the myriad other photo editing tasks.

Then there are the special effects and healing tools that only Photoshop can accomplish – AI-assisted tools like content-aware scale and fill often leave me with my jaw on the floor. Being able to recreate a scene that doesn’t already digitally exist is a powerful feature for photographers – see my example video below.

 

Other newer features that aid photographers, in particular, include improved subject auto-selection (helps with background removal), an improved lens blur tool, customisable warp functions, new preset panels, and an advanced Adobe Camera RAW integration.

With the latest 2021 update, Adobe Sensei bring AI to the new Neural Filters and Sky Replacement features – the Smart Portrait mode offers one-click image manipulation as you’ve never seen before, changing subjects’ expressions, gaze direction and even age!

In addition to making AI-powered adjustments to portraits, Neural Filters also includes features to help repair damaged images, including Photo Restoration, Dust and Scratches, Noise Reduction, Face Cleanup, JPEG Artifacts Restoration and even a way to colourise a black and white image.

While Adobe Camera RAW is excellent for adjusting exposure, contrast, highlights, shadows and all the other various image editing tweaks, it can only work on one image at a time, with edits stored as separate XMP sidecar files.

Similarly, Photoshop isn’t designed to browse or batch-edit multiple images at once – it is possible with the file viewer and actions, but at its core, Photoshop is a graphics design tool, and no match for Lightroom when it comes to organising and editing photos.

Fortunately, Photoshop is included with Lightroom in the various Adobe Creative Cloud Photography Plans, making it a handy addition for editing tasks that simply aren’t possible in Lr.

Getting images from Lr to Ps and back again is a cinch, with PSD files retaining all the editing history (and layers) of any work performed in Photoshop.

Then there’s the Photoshop iPad app, allowing you to take your edits on the road, syncing your progress from desktop to mobile device. Paired with an iPad Pro and stylus, it offers a fun and powerful (if not slightly overwhelming) experience and is 100% free, whether you are an Adobe subscriber or not.

(You only need to pay monthly if you want to use the desktop version, and/or store your edited files in the Adobe cloud.)

The only big caveat of Photoshop is its steep learning curve. Tools and features are hidden away, and it’s challenging to dive right in without first consulting Google for a tutorial. That’s why so many alternatives have popped up, offering a vastly simplified UI, such as Inpixo Photo Studio.

That said, anyone who manages to tame the beast is many rungs ahead of even the most adept Lightroom user, with Photoshop giving access to an unlimited world of image manipulation and creative potential.

9. Corel Paintshop Pro 2021

Check current price

If you’re looking for an alternative to Photoshop that doesn’t feature a subscription fee, here’s your answer: Corel Paintshop Pro 2021 (yes, it’s already a year ahead of us!)

I have a graphic designer friend who remembers starting his studies with an outdated version of Paintshop Pro many moons ago – he was startled at just how far this impressive photo editing software has come along.

Now boasting numerous powerful AI-Powered tools that go well beyond free Photoshop alternatives, PsP has become a fully-featured graphics manipulation tool that provides excellent value for money.

AI Upsampling is an incredibly useful feature for those of us with lower megapixel cameras, or for when we’ve cropped in on an MacBooster License key and require it larger, without degrading quality.

Then there’s AI Artifact Removal, which does a fine job at restoring fine detail and original colours in JPEGs, and AI Denoise which helps clean up images shot at high ISO.

The Sea-to-Sky™ tool is a somewhat unusual addition but allows drone and underwater photographers access to a one-click solution for enhanced contrast and clarity.

AI Style Transfer is a fun tool that transforms photos into stylised artwork, much like the popular smartphone apps and Instagram filters.

For photographers and fans of HDR, the new HDR Studio offers a great way to get that unique look with AI-powered presets.

You can preview, organise, and streamline your photo editing workflow in the Manage workspace, which also allows you to add keyword tags to your photos, create catalogues, make batch edits to multiple images at once, and review metadata and file information.

If you need to extend its capabilities, Paintshop Pro supports various 64-bit plugins from Adobe, Topaz Labs, Nik Collection by DXO and many more. You can even import and export PSD files to work across platforms.

Aside from all the photographer-specific tools, Paintshop Pro 3 remains a graphic design software, with all the brushes, colour palettes, gradients, patterns and manipulation tools you’d expect.

Much like Photoshop, the workspace is not immediately intuitive, and with various customisation options available, there’s a steep learning curve to get going. There’s also no mobile app.

However, as a one-off payment for both the Ultimate and Pro editions, PaintShop Pro is a fantastic option that represents a unique amalgamation of Lightroom and Photoshop in one.

10. Affinity Photo

Check current price

If you’re looking for professional photo editing software that combines the photography tools of Lightroom with the nuanced controls of Photoshop, Affinity Photo is an excellent choice.

Unlike the other photo editing software on this list, Affinity Photo takes more after Photoshop than Lightroom. It comes with layers, masks, smart objects, colour management, and both CMYK and RGB editing, as well as decent Raw file conversion.

That being said, Affinity Photo’s primary focus is photography, so it lacks a few of Photoshop’s extra features (like 3D editing).

Other than this, Affinity Pro’s main difference with Photoshop is how the tools are organised. It uses “personas” instead of workspaces and that might take a little getting used to for folks used to Photoshop.

As far as the learning curve is concerned, much like Photoshop, the tools in Affinity Photo are quite in-depth and will take some time to explore and learn. Luckily the interface is quite logical, and if you’ve used Photoshop before the tools will make sense.

In fact, it’s the learning curve and lack of quality tutorials that provide the most significant barriers to new photo editors. Affinity Photo is a pretty deep program and could use more high-quality educational resources.

Still, if you’re looking for a single piece of photo editing software that can replace the Lightroom/Photoshop subscription, Affinity Photo is pretty much your best bet.

From focus stacking and panorama stitching to HDR merging and digital painting, it has just about everything you could want in a photo editing software.

What’s more, at less than $50 Affinity is an absolutely amazing deal.

11. ACD See Photo Studio

Check current price

Although lesser known than some of the other software on this list, ACD See Photo Studio has long been a mainstay for photographers looking for a Lightroom alternative.

It comes with a full suite of photo editing tools, a lightning-fast digital asset management system, and several secondary tools (facial recognition, skin smoothing, and blended cloning), that make this program a joy to use.

One of the most significant advantages of ACD See Photo Studio is just how fast it is. Where Lightroom can often be sluggish, Photo Studio uses a GPU-accelerated engine and claims to be the “fastest digital asset management software you can find.” The layers engine and adjustments are also blazing fast.

Another compelling feature of Photo Studio is its Advanced Light EQ tool, which allows you to make local adjustments to the lighting in your image without affecting the entire photo.

As mentioned before, the layers engine is exceptionally fast and includes most of the masking, blending, text, and layer effects of Photoshop. Other features include cloud syncing, colour grading, batch processing, and advanced keyword management.

Both the Ultimate and Pro versions have HDR, focus stacking, and importable keyword lists, as well as Light EQ. There’s even a mobile app that allows you to send photos and videos directly from your mobile device to Photo Studio.

If you’re a Windows user, we recommend the Ultimate version, which provides the all-important layers feature, allowing multiple non-destructive edits to your photos.

For cloud storage, you can buy a subscription plan for under $90 per year, which will give you all of ACD See’s top products (including a video editor), up to five users (Mac or Windows), 50 GB of cloud storage, and the ability to showcase your work via ACDSee Web galleries.

The broad range of ACD See products can be somewhat confusing, and it’s not immediately apparent which features are available to which operating system.

To clarify, the Mac product (aka ‘Version 6’) can correct exposure, clarity, sharpness, lighting, colour, noise and details, among other essential photo correction tools. However, it lacks most of the other editing features found in Pro and Ultimate, which are Windows-only products.

The Mac version is marketed more like a digital asset manager, and not a fully tooled editing suite, and is also included as part of a ‘Home Pack’.

With all it has to offer, it’s a wonder that ACD See’s Photo Studio isn’t a program with more name recognition.

It trails behind Lightroom in its user interface and the quality of its RAW conversion and lens corrections, but given that you can buy it outright with some excellent features, it’s definitely worth a try.

12. Zoner Photo Studio X

Check current price

While every man and his dog has heard of Adobe, the name ‘Zoner’ isn’t nearly as familiar, despite being a producer of photo editing software for almost the same amount of time.

Zoner Studio X is a Windows-only full photo workflow and image editing program with a monthly subscription fee that’s more affordable than Lightroom.

It offers layer support, presets, retouching tools, video editing, cataloguing, and multiple feature addition and enhancements throughout the year – as you’d expect with a popular subscription product.

Colour editing, in particular, is a strong-point of Studio X, with a fun and intuitive ‘360° color shift’ tool allowing you to quickly and change luminance, hue and saturation, to replace any colour in your image.

Using an eye-dropper, you’re able to click and drag on any colour in an image, with Studio X automatically choosing the right mix of hues and ratios – particularly useful for perfecting the colour balance of foreground and background elements in landscapes.

Switching on an ‘advanced’ mode gives access to the type of granular colour editing tools usually associated with high-level editors such as Capture One Pro and Photoshop.

The tabbed user interface is neatly arranged like a web browser, with customisable panels and tools which allow you to make the most of your workspace.

Importing of images is simple, with Zoner Studio X reading from your existing computer file system. Unfortunately, you can’t apply effects on import as you can with Lightroom, but adding presets and auto-corrections later is simple and relatively fast.

Studio X offers various useful selection tools, and even a content-aware resize, and whilst they’re no match for Photoshop, it’s nice to see them included for basic editing tasks.

The Zoner Photo Cloud provides online photo storage, and ‘Zonerama’ is for online photo galleries and to discover other photographers’ work. Subscribers get 20GB of cloud storage, which you can access within Studio X as a folder in the Navigator panel.

If you’re a Windows user and need most of the online storage capabilities and image editing functionality of Lightroom, Photo Studio X is an attractive alternative.

13. Adobe Photoshop Elements 2021

Check current price

Fully-fledged Photoshop certainly isn’t for everyone. Despite being bundled with an Adobe Photography Plan with Lightroom, there are plenty of photographers who still scratch their heads over its confusing interface and advanced tools.

For those of you not ready for an Adobe subscription, or indeed, prefer a more straightforward, more intuitive image editor for your photos, Photoshop Elements 2020 is a great option.

Don’t be fooled by its simplified user interface – Adobe Photoshop Elements 2020 packs some powerful features into its modest appearance.

Thanks to the baked-in AI-powered Adobe Sensei functionality, you’re now able to automatically select subjects in an image, with the software identifying foreground and background elements, making things like background removal 10x easier than before.

Auto-selection in Photoshop Elements also allows you to create shallow depth of field effects as if you’d shot a scene with a larger aperture lens.

One impressive photo editing feature that will undoubtedly appeal to those of us who have an archive of scanned film negatives is the ability to colourise a photo (converting black and white pictures to colour).

Another handy feature for portrait photos is the Smooth Skin option, with one click reducing wrinkles and blemishes, and a Smoothness slider available for further fine-tuning.

There’s a lot of hand-holding with the clear labelling of tools, and smart use of spacing between elements in the friendly interface – Photoshop Elements seems to be aimed at the older generation, but that’s not to say that anyone else can’t benefit from its simplicity and ease of use.

If you’re looking for the best photo editing software without any significant learning curve, Photoshop Elements 2020 is the one to extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators out.

Free Editors

  • GIMP – GNU image manipulation program which is open source and free.
  • Darktable – open source photography workflow application and RAW developer.
  • Canva – drag and drop online photo editing platform with thousands of templates.
  • Snapseed – free mobile photo editing app.
  • Fotor – free online photo editing software.
  • Photoscape X – free graphics editing program for Windows, Mac and Linux.

FAQs

Which photo editing software is best for beginners?

Luminar AI is a photo editor that has a simple, intuitive user interface and features a beginner would need. It also has incredibly powerful tools that even those with no photo editing skills can use – Professional photographers can also take advantage of them too.

What’s the No. extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators photo editing app for PC?

Adobe Photoshop is the best photo editing software for PC, but has a steep learning curve. If you need a simple microsoft office 2016 crack - Crack Key For U editing tool, Canva is a free tool that does a good job.

What do professionals use to edit photos?

The best photo editing software for professional photographers is Adobe Lightroom or Capture One Pro.

Final Words

It should be clear at this point that there are plenty of options for editing and organising your RAW photos here in 2021.

While free photo editors do exist, premium software offers so much more, and despite the allure of one-off payment options, subscription plans tend to ensure consistency in valuable updates and feature additions.

Whatever app, tool or plugin you end up using, remember that they can often be used in conjunction with your existing programs without interrupting existing workflows.

Leave any questions below and good luck with your quest for better-looking photos!

Editor's Choice

lrsmall
Adobe Lightroom

A fast, flexible, all-in-one photo editor and organizer with an unbeatable mobile app.

Check Current Price

Disclaimer: All recommendations are impartial DiskInternals Video Recovery Free Download based on user experience, with no bias to the products or the brand. The products in this post may contain affiliate links.

Источник: https://shotkit.com/photo-editing-software/

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Overview

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. People with ADHD experience an ongoing pattern of the following types of symptoms:

  • Inattention means a person may have difficulty staying on task, sustaining focus, and staying organized, and these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension.
  • Hyperactivity means a person may seem to move about constantly, including in situations when it is not appropriate, or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks. In adults, hyperactivity may mean extreme restlessness or talking too much.
  • Impulsivity means a person may act without thinking or have difficulty with self-control. Impulsivity could also include a desire for immediate rewards or the inability to delay gratification. An impulsive person may interrupt others or make important decisions without considering long-term consequences.

Signs and Symptoms

Some people with ADHD mainly have symptoms of inattention. Others mostly have symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity. Some people have both types of symptoms.

Many people experience some inattention, unfocused motor activity, and impulsivity, but for people with ADHD, these behaviors:

  • are more severe
  • occur more often
  • interfere with or reduce the quality of how they function socially, at school, or in a job

Inattention

People with symptoms of inattention may often:

  • Overlook or miss details and make seemingly careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities
  • Have difficulty sustaining attention during play or tasks, such as conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading
  • Not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  • Find it hard to follow through on instructions or finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace, or may start tasks but lose focus and get easily sidetracked
  • Have difficulty organizing tasks and activities, doing tasks in sequence, keeping materials and belongings in order, managing time, and meeting deadlines
  • Avoid tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as homework, or for teens and older adults, preparing reports, completing forms, or reviewing lengthy papers
  • Lose things necessary for tasks or activities, such as school supplies, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, and cell phones
  • Be easily distracted by unrelated thoughts or stimuli
  • Be forgetful in daily activities, such as chores, errands, returning calls, and keeping appointments

Hyperactivity-Impulsivity

People with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may often:

  • Fidget and squirm while seated
  • Leave their seats in situations when staying seated is expected, such as in the classroom or the office
  • Run, dash around, or climb at inappropriate times or, in teens and adults, often feel restless
  • Be unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly
  • Be constantly in motion or on the go, or act as if driven by a motor
  • Talk excessively
  • Answer questions before they are fully asked, finish other people’s sentences, or speak without waiting for a turn in a conversation
  • Have difficulty waiting one’s turn
  • Interrupt or intrude on others, for example in conversations, games, or activities

Primary care providers sometimes diagnose and treat ADHD. They may also refer individuals to a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist, who can do a thorough evaluation and make an ADHD diagnosis.

For a person to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity must be chronic or long-lasting, impair the person’s functioning, and cause the person to fall behind typical development for their age. Stress, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, and other physical conditions or illnesses can cause similar symptoms to those of ADHD. Therefore, a thorough evaluation is necessary to determine the cause of the symptoms.

Most children with ADHD receive a diagnosis during the elementary school years. For an adolescent or adult to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms need to have been present before age 12.

ADHD symptoms can appear as early as between the ages of 3 and 6 and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can be mistaken for emotional or disciplinary problems or missed entirely in children who primarily have symptoms of inattention, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Adults with undiagnosed ADHD may have a history of poor academic performance, problems at work, or difficult or failed relationships.

ADHD symptoms can change over time as a person ages. In young children with ADHD, hyperactivity-impulsivity is the most predominant symptom. As a child reaches elementary school, the symptom of inattention may become more prominent and cause the child to struggle academically. In adolescence, hyperactivity seems to lessen and symptoms may more likely include feelings of restlessness or fidgeting, but inattention and impulsivity may remain. Many adolescents with ADHD also struggle with relationships and antisocial behaviors. Inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity tend to persist into adulthood.

Risk Factors

Researchers are not sure what causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other disorders, ADHD probably results from a combination of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at possible environmental factors that might raise the risk of developing ADHD and are studying how brain injuries, nutrition, and social environments might play a role in ADHD.

ADHD is more common in males than females, and females with ADHD are more likely to primarily have inattention symptoms. People with ADHD often have other conditions, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and substance abuse.

Treatment and Therapies

While there is no cure for ADHD, currently available treatments may reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.

Medication

For many people, ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. Sometimes several different medications or dosages must be tried before finding the right one that works for a particular person. Anyone taking medications must be monitored closely by their prescribing doctor.

Stimulants. The most common type of medication used for treating ADHD is called a “stimulant.” Although it may seem unusual to treat ADHD with a medication that is considered a stimulant, it works by increasing the brain chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine, which play essential roles in thinking and attention.

Under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe. However, like all medications, they can have side effects, especially when misused or taken in excess of the prescribed dose, and require an individual’s health care provider to monitor how they may be reacting to the medication.

Non-stimulants. A few other ADHD medications are non-stimulants. These medications take longer to start working than stimulants, but can also improve focus, attention, and impulsivity in a person with ADHD. Doctors may prescribe a non-stimulant: when a person has bothersome side effects from stimulants, when a stimulant was not effective, or in combination with a stimulant to increase effectiveness.

Although not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for the treatment of ADHD, some antidepressants are used alone or in combination with a stimulant to treat ADHD. Antidepressants may help all of the symptoms of ADHD and can be prescribed if a patient has bothersome side effects from stimulants. Antidepressants can be helpful in combination with stimulants if a patient also has another condition, such as an anxiety disorder, depression, or another mood disorder. Non-stimulant ADHD medications and antidepressants may also have side effects.

Doctors and patients can work together to find the best medication, dose, or medication combination. Learn the basics about stimulants and other mental health medications on the NIMH Mental Health Medications webpage and check the FDA website for the latest medication approvals, warnings, and patient information guides.

Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Interventions

Several specific psychosocial interventions have been shown to help individuals with ADHD and their families manage symptoms and improve everyday functioning.

For school-age children, frustration, blame, and anger may have built up within a family before a child is diagnosed. Parents and children may need specialized help to overcome negative feelings. Mental health professionals can educate parents about ADHD and how it affects a family. They also will help the child and his or her parents develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to each other.

All types of therapy for children and teens with ADHD require parents to play an active role. Psychotherapy that includes only individual treatment sessions with the child (without parent involvement) is not effective for managing ADHD symptoms and behavior. This type of treatment is more likely to be effective for treating symptoms of anxiety or depression that may occur along with ADHD.

Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change their behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events. Behavioral therapy also teaches a person how to:

  • monitor their own behavior
  • give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting

Parents, teachers, and family members also can give feedback on certain behaviors and help establish clear rules, chore lists, and structured routines to help a person control their behavior. Therapists may also teach children social skills, such as how to wait their turn, share toys, ask for help, or respond to teasing. Learning to read facial expressions and the tone of voice in others, and how to respond appropriately can also be part of social skills training.

Cognitive behavioral therapy helps a person learn how to be aware and accepting of one’s own thoughts and feelings to improve focus and concentration. The therapist also encourages the person with ADHD to adjust to the life changes that come with treatment, such as thinking before acting, or resisting the urge to take unnecessary risks.

Family and marital therapy can help family members and spouses find productive ways to handle disruptive behaviors, encourage behavior changes, and improve interactions with the person with ADHD.

Parenting skills training (behavioral parent management training) teaches parents skills for encouraging and rewarding positive behaviors in their children. Parents are taught to use a system of rewards and consequences to change a child’s behavior, to give immediate and positive feedback for behaviors they want to encourage, and to ignore or redirect behaviors they want to discourage.

Specific behavioral classroom management interventions and/or academic accommodations for children and teens have been shown to be effective for managing symptoms and improving functioning at school and with peers. Interventions may include behavior management plans or teaching organizational or study skills. Accommodations may include preferential seating in the classroom, reduced classwork load, or extended time on tests and exams. The school may provide accommodations through what is called a 504 Plan or, for children who qualify for special education services, an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). 

To learn more about the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), visit the U.S. Department of Education’s IDEA website.

Stress management techniques can benefit parents of children with ADHD by increasing their ability to deal with frustration so that they can respond calmly to their child’s behavior.

Support groups can help parents and families connect with others who have similar problems and concerns. Groups often meet regularly to share frustrations and successes, to exchange information about recommended specialists and strategies, and to talk with experts.

The National Resource Center on ADHD, a program of Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD®) supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has information and many resources. You can reach this center online or by phone at 1-866-200-8098.

For more information on psychotherapy, see the Psychotherapies webpage on the NIMH website.

Tips to Help Kids and Adults with ADHD Stay Organized

For Kids:

Parents and teachers can help kids with ADHD stay organized and follow directions with tools such as:

  • Keeping a routine and a schedule. Keep the same routine every day, from wake-up time to bedtime. Include times for homework, outdoor play, and indoor activities. Keep the schedule on the refrigerator or a bulletin board. Write changes on the schedule as far in advance as possible.
  • Organizing everyday items. Have a place for everything, (such as clothing, backpacks, and toys), and keep everything in its place.
  • Using homework and notebook organizers. Use organizers for school material and supplies. Stress to your child the importance of writing down assignments and bringing home necessary books.
  • Being clear and consistent. Children with ADHD need consistent rules they can understand and follow.
  • Giving praise or rewards when rules are followed. Children with ADHD often receive and expect criticism. Look for good behavior and praise it.

For Adults:

A professional counselor or therapist can help an adult with ADHD learn how to organize their life with tools such as:

  • Keeping routines.
  • Making lists for different tasks and activities.
  • Using a calendar for scheduling events.
  • Using reminder notes.
  • Assigning a special place for keys, bills, and paperwork.
  • Breaking down large tasks into more manageable, smaller steps so that completing each part of the task provides a sense of accomplishment.

Join a Study

Clinical trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Although individuals may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.

Researchers at NIMH and around the country conduct many studies with patients and healthy volunteers. We have new and better treatment options today because of what clinical trials uncovered years ago. Be part of tomorrow’s medical breakthroughs. Talk to your health care provider about clinical trials, their benefits and risks, and whether one is right for you.

To learn more or find a study, visit:

Learn More

Free Brochures and Shareable Resources

Multimedia

Federal Resources

  • ADHD: CDC offers fact sheets, infographics, and other resources about the signs, symptoms, and treatment of children with ADHD.
  • ADHD: (MedlinePlus – also available en español.)

Research and Statistics

  • Journal Articles: This webpage provides information on references and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine).
  • ADHD Statistics: This web page provides statistics about the prevalence and treatment of ADHD among children, adolescents, and adults.
Last Revised:September 2021
Unless otherwise specified, NIMH information and publications are in the public domain and available for use free of charge. Citation of the NIMH is appreciated. Please see our Citing NIMH Information and Publicationspage for more information.
Источник: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd

Windows 8

Personal computer operating system by Microsoft released in 2012

Windows 8 logo and wordmark.svg
Windows 8 Start Screen.png

Windows 8 Start screen, showing default live tile arrangement.

DeveloperMicrosoft
Source model
Released to
manufacturing
August 1, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-08-01)[2]
General
availability
October 26, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-10-26)[3]
Latest release6.2.9200 / December 13, 2016; 4 years ago (2016-12-13)
Update methodWindows Update, Windows Store, Windows Server Update Services
PlatformsIA-32, x86-64, ARM (Windows RT)
Kernel typeHybrid
UserlandWindows API, NTVDM
LicenseTrialware, Microsoft Software Assurance, MSDN subscription, DreamSpark
Preceded byWindows 7 (2009)
Succeeded byWindows 8.1 (2013)
Official websitewindows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-8/meet (archived at Wayback Machine)
All editions except Windows Embedded 8 Standard:
  • Unsupported as of January 12, 2016
  • Users must install the Windows 8.1 update for their edition or Windows 10 in order to continue to receive updates and support.[4]

Windows Embedded 8 Standard:

Windows 8 is a major release of the Windows NToperating system developed by Microsoft. The product was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, and generally to retail on October 26, 2012.[6] Windows 8 was made available for download via MSDN and TechNet and available as an upgrade to all Windows 7 users via Windows Update.[citation needed]

Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface intended to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS.[7] In particular, these scanning document included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro"design language and the Start screen (which displays programs and dynamically updated content on a grid of tiles), a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services (including the ability to synchronize apps and settings between devices), and Windows Store, an online distribution for downloading and purchasing new software, and a new keyboard shortcut for screenshots.[8] Many of these features were adoptions from Windows Phone. Windows 8 added support for USB 3.0, Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, and cloud computing. Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreenphishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.

Windows 8 is the first version of Windows to support the ARM architecture, under the Windows RT branding.

Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn, especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses were sold through January 2013, a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.[9]

Microsoft released Windows 8.1 in October 2013, addressing some aspects of Windows 8 that were criticized by reviewers and early adopters and incorporated additional improvements to various aspects of the operating system.[10][11] Windows 8 was ultimately succeeded by Windows 10 in July 2015. Support for IE10 on Windows Server 2012[12][13] and Windows Embedded 8 Standard[14] ended on January 31, 2020. Market share had fallen to 1.06% by October 2020.[15]

In August 2019, computer experts reported that the BlueKeepsecurity vulnerability, CVE-2019-0708, that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program's Remote Desktop Protocol, allowing for the possibility of remote code execution, may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue, affecting newer Windows versions (i.e., Windows 7 and all recent versions).[16] In addition, experts reported a Microsoftsecurity vulnerability, CVE-2019-1162, based on legacy code involving Microsoft CTF and ctfmon (ctfmon.exe), that affects all Windows versions from the older Windows XP version to the most recent Windows 10 versions; a patch to correct the flaw is currently available.[17]

Development history[edit]

Early development[edit]

Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009.[18] At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARMsystem-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise."[19][20][21][22] Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.[23]

The earliest build of Windows 8 is build 7700, compiled in January 2010.[24] The build was identical to Windows 7 except for the wallpaper being different - the same one from the Beta and Release Candidate. In addition, there were references to Windows 8 in this build.

In late 2010, an optional 3D desktop user interface extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators high-end systems named "Wind" was rumored.[25]

Two milestone releases of Windows 8 and one of Windows Server 2012leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011.[26] It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh. let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010.[27] The leaked copy was Enterprise edition, with other editions leaking later. In 2020, it was discovered that Metro existed in this build, after enabling the 'Redpill'. The start screen was very primitive, being a white screen with gray tiles. The charms bar was also included, but was unusable. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new black screen,[28] although it was later reverted to a different blue color. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". Both builds 7850 and 7955 leaked alongside Windows Server 2012 build 7959. On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same Betta fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later replaced, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was scrapped.[29] The boot screen was not new to this build though - it came from build 7973, a slightly earlier build. It is worth mentioning that most of these leaks "hid" the main Metro UI features that were to come in tweak known as Redlock in order to prevent relevant leaks. A patch named Redpill was necessary to reveal the new Metro UI as well as the redesigned Start Screen, Lock Screen and apps.[citation needed] Several applications have tried to replicate this patch as closely as possible, although one called Redlock is the most accurate, supporting the enabling of builds' Metro UI from 7850-8056. It also worked on the Developer Preview.

This build also leaked in the x86 architecture as a debug build, with the setup having a slight change - the theme was now Windows Basic in setup, rather than Classic.

Build 8008 was the first build to remove the User Tile. A new wallpaper was introduced and Metro was updated to be more like the final version of Windows 8.

On June 1, 2011, Microsoft unveiled Windows 8's new user interface, as well as additional features at both Computex Taipei and the D9: All Things Digital conference in California.[30][31]

The "Building Windows 8" blog launched on August 15, 2011, featuring details surrounding Windows 8's features and its development process.[32]

Previews[edit]

A screenshot of Windows Developer Preview running on a multi-monitor system, showcasing some features

As Windows 8 transitioned away from being in the Milestone phase of development, the Developer Preview was beginning to take shape.

Build 8032 changed the branding to Windows Developer Preview and was the last build to use Windows 7 branding anywhere.

Build 8056 introduced several changes to the interface and small stability improvements. Metro was updated to be more like the Metro in Developer Preview (although it was still different) and a new wallpaper was introduced.

Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13, 2011.[33] Microsoft released the first public beta build of Windows 8, Windows Developer Preview (build 8102) at the event. A Samsung tablet running the build was also distributed to conference attendees.

The build was released for download later that day in standard 32-bit and 64-bit variants, plus a special 64-bit variant which included SDKs and developer tools (Visual Studio Express and Expression Blend) for developing Metro-style apps.[34] The Windows Store was announced during the presentation, but was not available in this build.[35][36] According to Microsoft, there were about 535,000 downloads of the developer preview within the first 12 hours of its release.[37] Originally set to expire on March 11, 2012, in February 2012 the Developer Preview's expiry date was changed to January 15, 2013.[38]

The new File Explorer interface with "Ribbon" in Windows 8

The next step was the Consumer Preview, sometimes called Windows 8 Beta in the builds before it.

Build 8118 is the earliest leaked post-Developer Preview build. This build disables Redpill, and Metro can be manually enabled through the editing of system files.

Build 8128 removed Redpill, and Metro was enabled by default with no way to disable it (although build 8102 is being distributed by Microsoft with Redpill already applied and can be disabled with a registry key[39]).[40]

Build 8176 featured new branding - Windows 8 Beta. The Consumer Preview wallpapers have now been added, and the setup color has been changed to be the same as the final Consumer Preview.

Build 8195 is largely the same as 8176, although it removes the Start Button from the taskbar. While the start button could be removed in early Milestone 2 (and this persisted through Windows 8 development) with a registry key, this build disabled it by default with no way to turn it back on. The branding is now identical to the Consumer Preview.

On February 17, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new logo to be adopted for Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Additionally, the entire logo is now rendered in a single solid color.[41]

On February 29, 2012, Microsoft released Windows 8 Consumer Preview, the beta version of Windows 8, build 8250. Alongside other changes, the build brought over the big change from build 8195: removing the Start button from the taskbar for the first time in a public build since its debut on Windows 95; according to Windows manager Chaitanya Sareen, the Start button was removed to reflect their view that on Windows 8, the desktop was an "app" itself, and not the primary interface of the operating system.[42][43] Windows president Steven Sinofsky said more than 100,000 changes had been made since the developer version went public.[43] The day after its release, Windows 8 Consumer Preview had been downloaded over one million times.[44] Like the Developer Preview, the Consumer Preview expired on January 15, 2013.

Development on the third and final preview of Windows 8, the Release Preview, began shortly after Consumer Preview (note: build 8277 was compiled on February 8, 2012, before 8250[45][46]). Build 8330 was a build in between the Consumer and Release Previews. This build includes a new default wallpaper and several changes, such as the new logo replacing the old one and appearing in the About Windows dialog box.

Many other builds may exist or were released until Japan's Developers Day conference when Steven Sinofsky announced that Windows 8 Release Preview (build 8400) would be released during the first week of June.[47] On May 28, 2012, Windows 8 Release Preview (Standard Simplified Chinese x64 edition, not China-specific variant, build 8400) was leaked online on various Chinese and BitTorrent websites.[48] On May 31, 2012, Windows 8 Release Preview was released to the public by Microsoft.[49] Major items in the Release Preview included the addition of Sports, Travel, and News apps, along with an integrated variant of Adobe Flash Player in Internet Explorer.[50] Like the Developer Preview and the Consumer Preview, the release preview expired on January 15, 2013.

Release[edit]

Windows 8 launch event at Pier 57in New York City

With the Release Preview of Windows 8 finished, Microsoft began work on the final release.

Build 8423 is the last leaked build to contain Aero. It was dropped in build 8432 and seen for two builds after 8423.

Build 8438 removed Desktop Gadgets. It was identical to 8432, which removed Aero. This build and the x86 variant of build 8330 were built in the interestingly named 'fbl_ie_longhorn' branch.

Build 8888 was leaked in December 2014, and was identical to the RTM with the exception of the timebomb and missing apps.

On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 (build 9200[51]) was released to manufacturing with the build number 6.2.9200.16384.[52] Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25, 2012[53] and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day.[54] However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (a variant for European markets which lacks bundled media players to comply with an antitrust ruling) leaked online, followed by leaks of the final versions of Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise a few days later.[55][56] On August 15, 2012, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers.[57] Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16, 2012.[58] Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised.[59] Windows 8 became generally available for download to all MSDN and TechNet customers on August 15 and for retail purchase on October 26, 2012.

Relatively few changes were made from the Release Preview to the final version; these included updated versions of its pre-loaded apps, the renaming of Windows Explorer to File Explorer, the replacement of the Aero Glass theme from Windows Vista and 7 with a new flat and solid-color theme as seen in build 8432, and the addition of new background options for the Start screen, lock screen, and desktop.[60] Prior to its general availability on October 26, 2012, updates were released for some of Windows 8's bundled apps, and a "General Availability Cumulative Update" (which included fixes to improve performance, compatibility, and battery life) was released on Tuesday, October 9, 2012. Microsoft indicated that due to improvements to its extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators infrastructure, general improvements of this nature are to be released more frequently through Windows Update instead of being relegated to OEMs and service packs only.[61][62]

Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012.[7] Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95.[63] As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls to showcase the Surface product line, provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.[64] All Windows 7 PCs plan to offer a new Windows 8 upgrade on December 31, 2012, and Microsoft upgraded it as a product of currently supported Windows 7 PCs in January 2013 via Windows Update.

Windows 8 Pro DVD case, containing a 32-bit and a 64-bit installation disc

In May 2013, Microsoft launched a new television campaign for Windows 8 illustrating the capabilities and pricing of Windows 8 tablets in comparison to the iPad, which featured the voice of Siri remarking on the iPad's limitations in a parody of Apple's "Get a Mac" advertisements.[65][66] On June 12, 2013 during game 1 of the 2013 Stanley Cup Finals, Microsoft premiered the first ad in its "Windows Everywhere" campaign, which promoted Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, and the company's suite of online services as an interconnected platform.[67][68]

New and changed features[edit]

Main article: Features new to Windows 8

New features and functionality in Windows 8 include a faster startup through UEFI integration and the new "Hybrid Boot" mode (which hibernates the Windows kernel on shutdown to speed up the subsequent boot),[69] a new lock screen with a clock and notifications,[70] and the ability for enterprise users to create live USB variants of Windows (known as Windows To Go).[71][72] Windows 8 also adds native support for USB 3.0 devices, which allow for faster data transfers and improved power management with compatible devices,[73][74] and hard disk 4KB Advanced Format support,[75] as well as support for near field communication to facilitate sharing and communication between devices.[76]

Windows Explorer, which has been renamed File Explorer, now includes a ribbon in place of the command bar. File operation dialog boxes have been updated to provide more detailed statistics, the ability to pause file transfers, and improvements in the ability to manage conflicts when copying files.[77] A new "File History" function allows incremental revisions of files to be backed up to and restored from a secondary storage device,[78] while Storage Spaces allows users to combine different sized hard disks into virtual drives and specify mirroring, parity, or no redundancy on a folder-by-folder basis.[79] For easier management of files and folders, Windows 8 introduces the ability to move selected files or folders via drag and drop from a parent folder into a subfolder listed within the breadcrumb hierarchy of the address bar in File Explorer.[80]

Task Manager has been redesigned, including a new processes tab with the option to display fewer or more details of running applications and background processes, a heat map using different colors indicating the level of resource usage, network and disk counters, grouping by process type (e.g. applications, background processes and Windows processes), friendly names for processes and a new option which allows users to search the web to find information about obscure processes.[81] Additionally, the Blue Screen of Death has been updated with a simpler and modern design with less technical information displayed.[82][83]

Safety and security[edit]

New security features in Windows 8 include two new authentication methods tailored towards touchscreens (PINs and picture passwords),[84] the addition of antivirus capabilities to Windows Defender (bringing it in parity with Microsoft Security Essentials).[85]SmartScreen filtering integrated into Windows,[86]Family Safety offers Parental controls, which allows parents to monitor and manage their children's activities on a device with activity reports and safety controls.[87][88][89] Windows 8 also provides integrated system recovery through the new "Refresh" and "Reset" functions,[90] including system recovery from USB drive.[91] Windows 8's first security patches would be released on November 13, 2012; it would contain three fixes deemed "critical" by the company.[92]

Windows 8 supports a feature of the UEFI specification known as "Secure boot", which uses a public-key infrastructure to verify the integrity of the operating system and prevent unauthorized programs such as bootkits from infecting the device's boot process.[93] Some pre-built devices may be described as "certified" by Microsoft; these must have secure boot enabled by default, and provide ways for users to disable or re-configure the feature. ARM-based Windows RT devices must have secure boot permanently enabled.[94][95][96]

Online services and functionality[edit]

Windows 8 provides heavier integration with online services from Microsoft and others. A user can now log into Windows with a Microsoft account, which can be used to access services and synchronize applications and settings between devices. Windows 8 also ships with a client app for Microsoft's SkyDrivecloud storage service, which also allows apps to save files directly to SkyDrive. A SkyDrive client for the desktop and File Explorer is not included in Windows 8, and must be downloaded separately.[97] Bundled multimedia apps are provided under the Xbox brand, including Xbox Music, Xbox Video, and the Xbox SmartGlass companion for use with an Xbox 360 console. Games can integrate into an Xbox Live hub app, which also allows users to view their profile and Gamerscore.[98] Other bundled apps provide the ability to link Flickr and Facebook.[99] Due to Facebook Connect service changes, Facebook support is disabled in all bundled apps effective June 8, 2015.[100]

Internet Explorer 10 is included as both a desktop program and a touch-optimized app, and includes increased support for HTML5, CSS3, and hardware acceleration. The Internet Explorer app does not support plugins or ActiveX components, but includes a variant of Adobe Flash Player that is optimized for touch and low power usage. Initially, Adobe Flash would only work on sites included on a "Compatibility View" whitelist; however, after feedback from users and additional compatibility tests, an update in March 2013 changed this behavior to use a smaller blacklist of sites with known compatibility issues instead, allowing Flash to be used on most sites by default.[101] The desktop variant does not contain these limitations.[102]

Windows 8 also incorporates improved support for mobile broadband; the operating system can now detect the insertion of a SIM card and automatically configure connection settings (including APNs and carrier branding), and reduce its Internet usage to conserve bandwidth on metered networks. Windows 8 also adds an integrated airplane mode setting to globally disable all wireless connectivity as well. Carriers can also offer account management systems through Windows Store apps, which can be automatically installed as a part of the connection process and offer usage statistics on their respective tile.[103]

Windows Store apps[edit]

Snap feature: Xbox Music, alongside Photos snapped into a sidebarto the right side of the screen
Snap feature: Desktop, along Wikipedia Appsnapped into a sidebar to the right side of the screen. In Windows 8, desktop and everything on it is treated as one Metro-style app.

Windows 8 introduces a new style of application, Windows Store apps. According to Microsoft developer Jensen Harris, these apps are to be optimized for touchscreen environments and are more specialized than current desktop applications. Apps can run either in a full-screen mode or be snapped to the side of a screen.[104] Apps can provide toast notifications on screen or animate their tiles on the Start screen with dynamic content. Apps can use "contracts"; a collection of hooks to provide common functionality that can integrate with other apps, including search and sharing.[104] Apps can also provide integration with other services; for example, the People app can connect to a variety of different social networks and services (such as Facebook, Skype, and People service), while the Photos app can aggregate photos from services such as Facebook and Flickr.[99]

Windows Store apps run within a new set of APIs known as Windows Runtime, which supports programming languages such as C, C++, Visual Basic .NET, C#, along with HTML5 and JavaScript.[104] If written in some "high-level" languages, apps written for Windows Runtime can be compatible with both Intel and ARM variants of Windows,[105] otherwise they are not binary code compatible. Components may be compiled as Windows Runtime Components, permitting consumption by all compatible languages.[106] To ensure stability and security, apps run within a sandboxed environment, and require permissions to access certain functionality, such as accessing the Internet or a camera.[107]

Retail variants of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store — a namesake distribution platform that offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8.[105][107] A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.[108]

The term "Immersive app" had been used internally by Microsoft developers to refer to the apps prior to the first official presentation of Windows 8, after which they were referred to as "Metro-style apps" in reference to the Metro design language. The term was phased out in August 2012; a Microsoft spokesperson denied rumors that the change was related to a potential trademark issue, and stated that "Metro" was only a codename that would be replaced prior to Windows 8's release.[23][109] Following these reports, the terms "Modern UI-style apps",[110] "Windows 8-style apps"[111] and "Windows Store apps" began to be used by various Microsoft documents and material to refer to the new apps. In an interview on September 12, 2012, Soma Somasegar (vice president of Microsoft's development software division) confirmed that "Windows Store apps" would be the official term for the apps.[112] An MSDN extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators explaining the Metro design language uses the term "Modern design" to refer to the language as a whole.[113]

Web browsers[edit]

Exceptions to the restrictions faced by Windows Store apps are given to web browsers. The user's default browser can distribute a Metro-style web browser in the same package as the desktop variant, which has access to functionality unavailable to other apps, such as being able to permanently run in the background, use multiple background processes, and use Windows API code instead of WinRT (allowing for code to be re-used with the desktop variant, while still taking advantage of features available to Windows Store apps, such as charms). Microsoft advertises this exception privilege "New experience enabled" (formerly "Metro-style enabled").

The developers of both Chrome and Firefox committed to developing Metro-style variants of their browsers; while Chrome's "Windows 8 mode" (discontinued on Chrome version 49) uses a full-screen version of the existing desktop interface, Firefox's variant (which was first made available on the "Aurora" release channel in September 2013) uses a touch-optimized interface inspired by the Android variant of Firefox. In October 2013, Chrome's app was changed to mimic the desktop environment used by Chrome OS.[114][115][116][117][118][119] Development of the Firefox app for Windows 8 has since been cancelled, citing a lack of user adoption for the beta versions.[120]

Interface and desktop[edit]

Windows 8 introduces significant changes to the operating system's user interface, many of which are aimed at improving its experience on tablet computers and other touchscreen devices. The new user interface is based on Microsoft's Metro design language and uses a Start screen similar to that of Windows Phone 7 as the primary means of launching applications. The Start screen displays a customizable array of tiles linking to various apps and desktop programs, some of which can display constantly updated information and content through "live tiles".[104] As a form of multi-tasking, apps can be snapped to the side of a screen.[104] Alongside the traditional Control Panel, a new simplified and touch-optimized settings app known as "PC Settings" is used for basic configuration and user settings. It does not include many of the advanced options still accessible from the normal Control Panel.[121]

A vertical toolbar known as the charms[122] (accessed by swiping from the right edge of a touchscreen, swiping from the right edge of a touchpad, or pointing the cursor at hotspots in the right corners of a screen) provides access to system and app-related functions, such as search, sharing, device management, settings, and a Start button.[122][123] The traditional desktop environment for running desktop applications is accessed via a tile on the Start screen. The Start button on the taskbar from previous versions of Windows has been converted into a hotspot (or "hot corner") in the lower-left corner of the screen, which displays a large tooltip displaying a thumbnail of the Start screen. However, Windows 8.1 added the start button back to the taskbar after many complaints, but removed the preview thumbnail.[124][125] Swiping from the left edge of a touchscreen or clicking in the top-left corner of the screen allows one to switch between apps and Desktop. Pointing the cursor in the top-left corner of the screen and moving down reveals a thumbnail list of active apps.[125] Aside from the removal of the Start button and the replacement of the Aero Glass theme with a flatter and solid-colored design, the desktop interface on Windows 8 is similar to that of Windows 7.[126]

Removed features[edit]

Main article: List of features removed in Windows 8

Several notable features were removed in Windows 8; support for playing DVD-Video was removed from Windows Media Player due to the cost of licensing the necessary decoders (especially for devices which do not include optical disc drives at all) and the prevalence of online streaming services. For the same reasons, Windows Media Center is not included by default on Windows 8, but Windows Media Center and DVD playback support could be purchased in the "Pro Pack" (which upgrades the system to Windows 8 Pro) or "Media Center Pack" add-on for Windows 8 Pro. As with prior versions, third-party DVD player software can still be used to enable DVD playback.[127]

Backup and Restore, the backup component of Windows, was deprecated. It still shipped with Windows 8 and continues to work on preset schedules, but it was pushed to the background and can only be accessed through a Control Panel applet called "Windows 7 File Recovery".[128]: 76 Shadow Copy, a component of Windows Explorer that once saved previous versions of changed files, no longer protects local files and folders. It can only access previous versions of shared files stored on a Windows Server computer.[128]: 74  The subsystem on which these components worked, however, is still available for other software to use.[128]: 74 

Hardware requirements[edit]

PCs[edit]

The minimum system requirements for Windows 8 are slightly higher than those of Windows 7. The CPU must support the Extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators Address Extension (PAE), NX bit, and SSE2. Windows Store apps require a screen resolution of 1024×768 or higher to run; a resolution of 1366×768 or higher is required to use the snap functionality.[129] To receive certification, Microsoft requires candidate x86 systems to resume from standby in 2 seconds or less.[130]

Microsoft's Connected Standby specification, which hardware vendors may optionally comply with, sets new power consumption requirements that extend above the above minimum specifications.[134] Included in this standard are a number of security-specific requirements designed to improve physical security, notably against Cold Boot Attacks.

32-bit SKUs of Windows 8 only support a maximum of 4 GB of RAM. 64-bit SKUs, however support more: Windows 8 x64 supports 128 GB while Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise x64 support 512 GB.[135]

In January 2016, Microsoft announced that it would no longer support Windows 8.1 or 7 on devices using Intel's Skylake CPU family effective July 17, 2018, and that all future CPU microarchitectures, as well as Skylake systems after this date, would only be supported on Windows 10. After the deadline, only critical security updates were to be released for users on these platforms.[136][137][138][139] After this new policy faced criticism from users and enterprise customers, Microsoft partially retracted the change and stated that both operating systems would remain supported on Skylake hardware through the end of their Extended support lifecycle. Windows 8.1 remains officially unsupported on all newer CPU families, and neither AMD or Intel will provide official chipset drivers for Windows operating systems other than Windows 10.[140][141] However, on August 2016, Microsoft again extended the Skylake support policy until the end of support for Windows 7 and 8.1 (2020 and 2023, respectively).[142][141]

Tablets and convertibles[edit]

Microsoft released minimum hardware requirements for tablet and laplet devices to be "certified" for Windows 8 and defined a convertible form factor as a standalone device that combines the PC, display, and rechargeable power source with a mechanically attached keyboard and pointing device in a single chassis. A convertible can be transformed into a tablet where the attached input devices are hidden or removed leaving the display as the only input mechanism.[143][144] On March 12, 2013, Microsoft amended its certification requirements to only require that screens on tablets have a minimum resolution of 1024×768 (down from the previous 1366×768). The amended requirement is intended to allow "greater design flexibility" for future products.[145]

Graphics cardDirectX 10 graphics device with WDDM 1.2 or higher driver
Storage10 GB free space, after the out-of-box experience completes
Standard buttons ,
ScreenTouch screen supporting a minimum of 5-point digitizers and resolution of at least 1024×768. The physical dimensions of the display panel must match the aspect ratio of the native resolution. The native resolution of the panel can be greater than 1024 (horizontally) and 768 (vertically). Minimum native color depth is 32-bits. If the display is under 1366×768, disclaimers must be included in documentation to notify users that the Snap function is not available.[145]
Camera Minimum 720p
Accelerometer3 axes with data rates at or above 50 Hz
USB 2.0At least one controller and exposed port.
Connect Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.0 + LE (low energy)
Other Speaker, microphone, magnetometer and gyroscope.

If a mobile broadband device is integrated into a tablet or convertible system, then an assisted GPS radio is required. Devices supporting near field communication need to have visual marks to help users locate and use the proximity technology. The new button combination for Ctrl + Alt + Del is Windows Key + Power.

Updated certification requirements were implemented to coincide with Windows 8.1. As of 2014, all certified devices with integrated displays must contain a 720p webcam and higher quality speakers and microphones, while all certified devices that support Wi-Fi must support Bluetooth as well. As of 2015, all certified devices must contain Trusted Platform Module 2.0 chips.[147][148]

Editions[edit]

Main article: Windows 8 editions

Windows 8 is available in three different editions, of which the lowest edition, branded simply as Windows 8, and Windows 8 Pro, were sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Each edition of Windows 8 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and add additional features oriented towards their market segments. For example, Pro added BitLocker, Hyper-V, the ability to join a domain, and the ability to install Windows Media Center as a paid add-on. Users of Windows 8 can purchase a "Pro Pack" license that upgrades their system to Windows 8 Pro through Add features to Windows. This license also includes Windows Media Center.[149][150][151]Windows 8 Enterprise contains additional features aimed towards business environments, and is only available through volume licensing.[151] A port of Windows 8 for ARM architecture, Windows RT, is marketed as an edition of Windows 8, but was only included as pre-loaded software on devices specifically developed for it.[151]

Windows 8 was distributed as a retail box product on DVD, and through a digital download that could be converted into DVD or USB install media. As part of a launch promotion, Microsoft offered Windows 8 Pro upgrades at a discounted price of US$39.99 online, or $69.99 for retail box from its launch until January 31, 2013; afterward the Windows 8 price has been $119.99 and the Pro price $199.99.[152][153] Those who purchased new PCs pre-loaded with Windows 7 Home Basic, Home Premium, Professional, or Ultimate between June 2, 2012 and January 31, 2013 could digitally purchase a Windows 8 Pro upgrade for US$14.99.[154] Several PC manufacturers offered rebates and refunds on Windows 8 upgrades obtained through the promotion on select models, such as Hewlett-Packard (in the U.S. and Canada on select models), and Acer (in Europe on selected Ultrabook models).[155][156] During these promotions, the Windows Media Center add-on for Windows 8 Pro was also offered for free.[149]

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows 8 was distributed at retail in "Upgrade" licenses only, which require an existing version of Windows to install. The "full version software" SKU, which was more expensive but could be installed on computers without an eligible OS or none at all, was discontinued. In lieu of full version, a specialized "System Builder" SKU was introduced. The "System Builder" SKU replaced the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) SKU, which was only allowed to be used on PCs meant for resale but added a "Personal Use License" exemption that officially allowed its purchase and personal use by users on homebuilt computers.[157][158][159]

Retail distribution of Windows 8 has since been discontinued in favor of Windows 8.1. Unlike 8, 8.1 is available as "full version software" at both retail and online for download that does not require a previous version of Windows in order to be installed. Pricing for these new copies remain identical.[160] With the retail release returning to full version software for Windows 8.1, the "Personal Use Miracle box 2.82 crack download for pc - Free Activators exemption was removed from the OEM SKU, meaning that end users building their own PCs for personal use must use the full retail variant in order to satisfy the Windows 8.1 licensing requirements.[157]Windows 8.1 with Bing is a special OEM-specific SKU of Windows 8.1 subsidized by Microsoft's Bing search engine.[161]

Software compatibility[edit]

The three desktop editions of Windows 8 support 32-bit and 64-bit architectures; retail copies of Windows 8 include install DVDs for both architectures, while the online installer automatically installs the variant corresponding with the architecture of the system's existing Windows installation.[149][162] The 32-bit variant runs on CPUs compatible with x86 architecture 3rd generation (known as IA-32) or newer, and can run 32-bit and 16-bitapplications, although 16-bit support must be enabled first.[163][164] (16-bit applications are developed for CPUs compatible with x86 2nd generation, first conceived in 1978. Microsoft started moving away from this architecture after Windows 95.[163])

The 64-bit variant runs on CPUs compatible with x86 8th generation (known as x86-64, or x64) or newer, and can run 32-bit and 64-bit programs. 32-bit programs and operating system are restricted to supporting only 4 gigabytes of memory while 64-bit systems can theoretically support 2048 gigabytes of memory.[165] 64-bit operating systems require a different set of device drivers than those of 32-bit operating systems.[165]

Windows RT, the only edition of Windows 8 for systems with ARM processors, only supports applications included with the system (such as a special variant of Office 2013), supplied through Windows Update, or Windows Store apps, to ensure that the system only runs applications that are optimized for the architecture. Windows RT does not support running IA-32 or x64 applications.[166] Windows Store apps can either support both the x86 and ARM architectures, or compiled to support a specific architecture.[167]

Reception[edit]

Pre-release[edit]

Following the unveiling of Windows 8, Microsoft faced criticism (particularly from free software supporters) for mandating that devices receiving its optional certification for Windows 8 have secure boot enabled by default using a key provided by Microsoft. Concerns were raised that secure boot could prevent or hinder the use of alternate operating systems such as Linux. In a post discussing secure boot on the Building Windows 8 blog, Microsoft developer Tony Autodesk 3ds max serial number indicated that vendors would provide means to customize secure boot, stating that "At the end of the day, the customer is in control of their PC. Microsoft's philosophy is to provide customers with the best experience first, and allow them to make decisions themselves."[94][168] Microsoft's certification guidelines for Windows 8 ultimately revealed that vendors would be required to provide means for users to re-configure or disable secure boot in their device's UEFI firmware. It also revealed that ARM devices (Windows RT) would be required to have secure boot permanently enabled, with no way for users to disable it. However, Tom Warren of The Verge noted that other vendors have implemented similar hardware restrictions on their own ARM-based tablet and smartphone products (including those running Microsoft's own Windows Phone platform), but still argued that Microsoft should "keep a consistent approach across ARM and x86, though, not least because of the number of users who'd love to run Android alongside Windows 8 on their future tablets."[95][96][169] No mandate is made regarding the installation of third-party certificates that would enable running alternative programs.[170][171][172]

Several notable video game developers criticized Microsoft for making its Windows Store a closed platform subject to its own regulations, as it conflicted with their view of the PC as an open platform. Markus "Notch" Persson (creator of the indie gameMinecraft),[173]Gabe Newell (co-founder of Valve and developer of software distribution platform Steam),[174] and Rob Pardo from Activision Blizzard voiced concern about the closed nature of the Windows Store.[175] However, Tom Warren of The Verge stated that Microsoft's addition of the Store was simply responding to the success of both Apple and Google in pursuing the "curated application store approach."[176]

Critical reception[edit]

Reviews of the various editions of Windows 8 were mixed to negative. Tom Warren of The Verge said that although Windows 8's emphasis on touch computing was significant and risked alienating desktop users, he felt that Windows 8 tablets "[make] an iPad feel immediately out of date" due to the capabilities of the operating system's hybrid model and increased focus on cloud services.[176] David Pierce of The Verge described Windows 8 as "the first desktop operating system that understands what a computer is supposed to do in 2012" and praised Microsoft's "no compromise" approach and the operating system's emphasis on Internet connectivity and cloud services. Pierce also considered the Start Screen to be a "brilliant innovation for desktop computers" when compared with "folder-littered desktops on every other OS" because it allows users to interact with dynamic information.[177] In contrast, an ExtremeTech article said it was Microsoft "flailing"[178] and a review in PC Magazine condemned the Metro-style user interface.[179] Some of the included apps in Windows 8 were considered to be basic and lacking in functionality, but the Xbox apps were praised for their promotion of a multi-platform entertainment experience. Other improvements and features (such as File History, Storage Spaces, and the updated Task Manager) were also regarded as positive changes.[176] Peter Bright of Ars Technica wrote that while its user interface changes may overshadow them, Windows 8's improved performance, updated file manager, new storage functionality, expanded security features, and updated Task Manager were still positive improvements for the operating system. Bright also said that Windows 8's duality towards tablets and traditional PCs was an "extremely ambitious" aspect of the platform as well, but criticized Microsoft for emulating Apple's model of a closed distribution platform when implementing the Windows Store.[180]

The interface of Windows 8 has been the subject of negative reaction. Bright wrote that its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides). Despite this "stumbling block", Bright said that Windows 8's interface worked well in some places, but began to feel incoherent when switching between the "Metro" and desktop environments, sometimes through inconsistent means.[180] Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store.[176] Others, such as Adrian Kingsley-Hughes from ZDNet, considered the interface to be "clumsy and impractical" due to its inconsistent design (going as far as considering it "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together"), and concluded that "Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets – that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad."[181]

In 2013, Frank X. Shaw, a Microsoft corporate vice president, said that while many of the negative reviews were extreme, it was a "good thing" that Microsoft was "listening to feedback and improving a product".[182]

The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) reported a decline in Microsoft's customer satisfaction, the lowest it has been since Windows Vista.[183]

Market share and sales[edit]

Microsoft says that 4 million users upgraded to Windows 8 over the weekend after its release,[184][185] which CNET says was well below Microsoft's internal projections and was described inside the company as disappointing.[186]

On November 27, 2012, Microsoft announced that it had sold 40 million licenses of Windows 8 in the first month, surpassing the pace of Windows 7.[187]

However, according to research firm NPD, sales of devices running Windows in the United States had declined 21 percent compared to the same time period in 2011.[188] As the holiday shopping season wrapped up, Windows 8 sales continued to lag, even as Apple reported brisk sales.[189] The market research firm IDC reported an overall drop in PC sales for the quarter, and said the drop may have been partly due to consumer reluctance to embrace the new features of the OS and poor support from OEM for these features.[190] This capped the first year of declining PC sales to the Asia Pacific region, as consumers bought more mobile devices than Windows PCs.[191]

Windows 8 surpassed Windows Vista in market share with a 5.1% usage rate according to numbers posted in July 2013 by Net Applications, with usage on a steady upward trajectory.[192] However, intake of Windows 8 still lagged behind that of Windows Vista and Windows 7 at the same point in their release cycles. Windows 8's tablet market share also grew steadily, with 7.4% of tablets running Windows in Q1 2013 according to Strategy Analytics, up from nothing just a year before. However, this was still well below Android and iOS, which posted 43.4% and 48.2% market share respectively, although both operating systems had been on the market much longer than Windows 8.[193] Strategy Analytics also noted "a shortage of top tier apps" for Windows tablets despite Microsoft strategy of paying developers to create apps for the operating system (in addition to for Windows Phone).[193]

In March 2013, Microsoft also amended its certification requirements to allow tablets to use the 1024×768 resolution as a minimum; this change is expected to allow the production of certified Windows 8 tablets in smaller form factors—a market which is currently dominated by Android-based tablets.[145] Despite the reaction of industry experts, Microsoft reported that they had sold 100 million licenses in the first six months. This matched sales of Windows 7 over a similar period.[194] This statistic includes shipments to channel warehouses which now need to be sold in order to make way for new shipments.[195]

In January 2014, Hewlett-Packard began a promotion for desktops running Windows 7, saying that it was "back by popular demand". Outside sources have suggested that this might be because HP or its customers thought the Windows 8 platform would be more appropriate for mobile computing than desktop computing, or that they were looking to attract customers forced to switch from XP who wanted a more familiar interface.[196][197]

In February 2014, Bloomberg reported that Microsoft would be lowering the price of Windows 8 licenses by 70% for devices that retail under US$250; alongside the announcement that an update to the operating system would allow OEMs to produce devices with as little as 1 GB of RAM and 16 GB of storage, critics felt that these changes would help Windows compete against Linux-based devices in the low-end market, particularly those running Chrome OS. Microsoft had similarly cut the price of Windows XP licenses to compete against the early waves of Linux-based netbooks.[198][199] Reports extreme picture finder alternative - Free Activators indicated that Microsoft was planning to offer cheaper Windows 8 licenses to OEMs in exchange for setting Internet Explorer's default search engine to Bing. Some media outlets falsely reported that the SKU associated with this plan, "Windows 8.1 with Bing", was a variant which would be a free or low-cost variant of Windows 8 for consumers using older versions of Windows.[200] On April 2, 2014, Microsoft ultimately announced that it would be removing license fees entirely for devices with screens smaller than 9 inches,[201] and officially confirmed the rumored "Windows 8.1 with Bing" OEM SKU on May 23, 2014.[161]

On the information gathered by Net Applications, adoption rate in March 2015 for Windows 8.1 was at 10.55%, while the original Windows 8 was at 3.52%.[202]

Chinese government ban[edit]

In May 2014, the Government of China banned the internal purchase of Windows 8-based products under government contracts requiring "energy-efficient" devices. The Xinhua News Agency claimed that Windows 8 was being banned in protest of Microsoft's support lifecycle policy and the end of support for Windows XP (which, as of January 2014, had a market share of 49% in China), as the government "obviously cannot ignore the risks of running an OS without guaranteed technical support." However, Ni Guangnan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences had also previously warned that Windows 8 could allegedly expose users to surveillance by the United States government due to its heavy use of Internet-based services.[203][204][205][206]

In June 2014, state broadcasterChina Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security. The story featured an interview with Ni Guangnan, who stated that operating systems could aggregate "sensitive user information" that could be used to "understand the conditions and activities of our national economy and society", and alleged that per documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government had worked with Microsoft to retrieve encrypted information. Yang Min, a computer scientist at Fudan University, also stated that "the security features of Windows 8 are basically to the benefit of Microsoft, allowing them control of the users' data, and that poses a big challenge to the national strategy for information security." Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data.[207][208][209]

Windows 8.1[edit]

Main article: Windows 8.1

A feature update to Windows 8 known as Windows 8.1 was officially announced by Microsoft on May 14, 2013.[210][211] Following a presentation devoted to it at Build 2013, a public beta version of the upgrade was released on June 26, 2013.[212][213] Windows 8.1 was released to OEM hardware partners on August 27, 2013, and released publicly as a free upgrade through Windows Store on October 17, 2013.[160][214][215] Volume license customers and subscribers to MSDN Plus and TechNet Plus were initially unable to obtain the RTM version upon its release; a spokesperson said the policy was changed to allow Microsoft to work with OEMs "to ensure a quality experience at general availability."[216][217] However, after criticism, Microsoft reversed its decision and released the RTM build on MSDN and TechNet on September 9, 2013.[218]

Windows 8.1 addressed a number of criticisms faced by Windows 8 upon its release, with additional customization options for the Start screen, the restoration of a visible Start button on the desktop, the ability to snap up to four apps on a single display, and the ability to boot to the desktop instead of the Start screen. Windows 8's stock apps were also updated, a new Bing-based unified search system was added, SkyDrive was given deeper integration with the operating system, and a number of new stock apps, along with a tutorial, were added.[11][219][220][221] Windows 8.1 also added support for 3D printing,[222][223]Miracast media streaming, NFC printing, and Wi-Fi Direct.[224]

Microsoft marketed Windows 8.1 as an "update" rather than as a "service pack", as it had done with such revisions on previous versions of Windows.[225] Nonetheless, Microsoft's support lifecycle policy treats Windows 8.1 similarly to previous Windows service packs: upgrading to 8.1 has been required to maintain access to mainstream support and updates after January 12, 2016.[4][226][227] Although Windows 8 RTM is unsupported, Microsoft released an emergency security patch in May 2017 for Windows 8 RTM, as well as other unsupported versions of Windows (including Windows XP and Windows Server 2003), to address a vulnerability that was being leveraged by the WannaCry ransomware attack.[228][229] Updates to apps published on Windows Store after July 1, 2019 will not be available to Windows 8 RTM users.[230]

Retail and OEM installations of Windows 8, Windows 8 Pro, and Windows RT can be upgraded through Windows Store free of charge. Apowersoft Streaming Audio Recorder Free Download, volume license customers, TechNet or MSDN subscribers and users of Windows 8 Enterprise must acquire a standalone installation media for 8.1 and install through the traditional Windows setup process, either as an in-place upgrade or clean install. This requires an 8.1 specific product key.[231][232][233][234]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Shared Source Initiative". microsoft.com. Microsoft. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  2. ^Windows 8 has reached the RM milestone. August 1, 2012
  3. ^"Windows reimagined. #Windows8". Blogging Windows. Archived from the original on October 27, 2012.
  4. ^ ab"Microsoft Support Lifecycle, Windows 8". Microsoft. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
  5. ^ abc"Product lifecycle Windows 8 Embedded". support.microsoft.com. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
  6. ^"Windows 8's delivery date: October 26". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. July 18, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
  7. ^ ab"Windows Reimagined". All Things Digital. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  8. ^"How to Take Screenshots in Windows 10, 8, and 7".
  9. ^Foley, Mary Jo (January 8, 2013). "Microsoft: 60 million Windows 8 licenses sold to date". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
  10. ^Waters, Richard (May 7, 2013). "Microsoft prepares rethink on Windows 8 flagship software". Financial Times.
  11. ^ abRodgers, Evan (June 26, 2013). "Windows 8.1: a first look at what Microsoft is changing". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  12. ^"Nearly 370M IE users have just 6 weeks to upgrade". Computerworld. IDG. December 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  13. ^"Beginning January 12, 2016, only the most current version of Internet Explorer available for a operating system will receive technical support and security updates".
  14. ^"Internet Explorer Support Lifecycle Policy FAQ". Microsoft Lifecycle Support Website. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  15. ^"Desktop Windows Version Market Share Worldwide". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  16. ^Greenberg, Andy (August 13, 2019). "DejaBlue: New BlueKeep-Style Bugs Renew The Risk Of A Windows worm". wired. Retrieved November 8, 2019.
  17. ^Seals, Tara (August 14, 2019). "20-Year-Old Bug in Legacy Microsoft Code Plagues All Windows Users". ThreatPost.com. Retrieved November 8, 2019.
  18. ^"Steven Sinofsky, Tami Reller, Julie Larson-Green, Antoine Leblond, and Michael Angiulo: Windows 8 Consumer Preview". News Center. Microsoft. February 29, 2012. Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
  19. ^"Microsoft confirms ARM support is coming in Windows, will play nice with SoCs too". Engadget. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
  20. ^"CES: Windows to run on ARM chips, says Microsoft". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  21. ^"Microsoft Announces Support of System on a Chip Architectures From Intel, AMD, and ARM for Next Version of Windows" (Press release). Microsoft. January 5, 2011. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  22. ^Rosoff, Matt (January 5, 2011). "OK, So Windows 8 Is Coming To ARM Tablets.someday. (MSFT)". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications. Business Insider. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  23. ^ ab"More on Microsoft 'Jupiter' and what it means for Windows 8". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  24. ^"Windows 7 post RTM build 7700 spotted". Neowin. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  25. ^""Wind": Windows 8 mit neuer 3D-Oberfläche?". winfuture.de (in German). December 9, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  26. ^Sams, Brad (April 12, 2012). "Windows 8 Build 7850 has leaked". Neowin. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  27. ^Asad, Taimur (April 12, 2011). "Windows 8 Build 7850 M1 Has Been Leaked". Redmond Pie. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  28. ^Kingsley-Hughes, Adrian (April 27, 2012). "Windows 8 build 7955 sporting new 'Black' Screen of Death". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  29. ^Warren, Tom (April 27, 2012). "Windows 8 Milestone 3 build 7989 leaks". Winrumors. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  30. ^"Live from Microsoft's Windows 8 preview event at Computex 2011". Engadget. AOL. June 1, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  31. ^"Previewing 'Windows 8'" (Press release). Microsoft. June 1, 2011. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  32. ^Sinofsky, Steven (August 15, 2011). "Welcome to Building Windows 8 Blogs". Microsoft. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  33. ^"Windows 8 Developer Preview Guide"(PDF). Microsoft. Archived from the original(PDF) on October 7, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
  34. ^"Home—BUILD". Microsoft. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  35. ^Albanesius, Chloe (September 13, 2011). "Windows 8 Developer Preview Available Tonight". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis, LLC. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  36. ^"Microsoft releases Windows 8 Developer Preview, announces Windows Store (update: it's out early!)". The Verge. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  37. ^Melanson, Donald (September 14, 2011). "Steve Ballmer touts 500,000 Windows 8 downloads in less than 12 hours". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
  38. ^"An update that postpones the expiration date of Windows 8 Developer Preview and Windows 8 Server Developer Preview is available". Microsoft. February 16, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  39. ^"Windows 8 build 8102.101". BetaWiki. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  40. ^"Windows 8 build 8128 (fbl core1 soc partner)". BetaWiki. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  41. ^"Redesigning the Windows Logo". February 17, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  42. ^"Microsoft's Chaitanya Sareen gets candid on the evolution of Windows 8". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  43. ^ ab"Windows 8: Microsoft unveils consumer preview". BBC. February 29, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
  44. ^Heater, Brian (March 1, 2012). "Windows 8 Consumer Preview hits one million downloads in a day". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  45. ^"Windows 8 build 8277". BetaWiki. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  46. ^"Windows 8 build 8250". BetaWiki. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  47. ^Musil, Steven (April 23, 2012). "Windows 8 'release preview' due in early June". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  48. ^Warren, Tom (May 29, 2012). "Windows 8 Release Preview leaks out ahead of official debut". The Verge. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  49. ^Warren, Tom (May 31, 2012). "Windows 8 Release Preview now available to download". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  50. ^LeBlanc, Brandon (May 31, 2012). "The Windows 8 Release Preview & Windows Upgrade Offer". Windows Experience Blog. Microsoft.
  51. ^Warren, Tom (August 1, 2012). "Microsoft completes Windows 8 development, announces release to manufacturing". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  52. ^"Windows 8 has reached the RTM milestone". Microsoft. August 1, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  53. ^Reisinger, Don. "Microsoft: Come 'celebrate' Windows 8 on Oct. 25". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
  54. ^"Windows 8 will be available on…". Microsoft. July 18, 2012. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
  55. ^Keizer, Gregg (August 3, 2012). "Windows 8 Leaked in Final Form". Computerworld. IDG. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  56. ^Crothers, Brooke (August 2, 2012). "Windows 8 final version allegedly leaks out already". CNET. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_8
Download Now

Tags:bicfic, cracked pc software, extreme picture finder alternative, extreme picture finder download, extreme picture finder portable, extreme picture finder templates, free download extreme picture finder full version

About The Author

Cook
Источник: https://crackkeywin.com/extreme-picture-finder-crack/

1 comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *