Install linux from usb - Free Activators

install linux from usb  - Free Activators

For a long time this was a neat thing you could do with many Linux distros (we plan to cover Linux Live on a separate article soon), but barring. See the Ubuntu manual for additional information on how to install Linux Ubuntu: The Katalon Studio app launches, then the Katalon Studio Activation. Download Peace Equalizer, interface Equalizer APO for free. After a Windows update a re-install of Equalizer APO might be needed.

Install linux from usb - Free Activators -

Cloud

How To Install Windows 8.1 without a Product Key

When we download Windows 7 ISOs, we can install Windows without a product key. The installation will go through, and we will get a 30-day trial of the operating system. With the official Windows 8.1 ISOs, though, we can't skip entering the product key during the installation. Let's see how to bypass this restriction and install Windows 8.1 without a product key.

Unblock any international website, browse anonymously, and download movies and Mp3 with complete safety with CyberGhost, just for $2.75 per month:

Table of Contents

The Magic "ei.cfg" file

We can somewhat understand Microsoft's point of view when they made the product key mandatory for a Windows 8.1 installation. It sort-of makes sense as an anti-piracy measure.

With the Windows 7 30-day trial, one could install Windows and have them for free. Then, once every new moon, they could format and reinstall Windows, and no one would be the wiser.

Install Windows 8.1 without a Product Key 01

Also, one would need to have Windows installed if they wanted to run an activator, should they swing that way. So, Microsoft decided to cut the problem off at the root. Mandatory product key equals no trial, equals no activator. Makes sense, doesn't it?

And then, they made it easy to bypass this system. And, when we say "easy," we mean "child's play" easy. That's Microsoft for you.

The only thing we need is to create a notepad file, on any version of Windows.

Inside, we copy and paste the following:

[Edition ID] Professional  [Channel] Retail [VL] 0

The only "hard" part is that when we save the file, we don't leave the default "Text documents" on "Save as type."

We select "All Files" and type the name "ei.cfg."

The result is a file ei.cfg that has a type "CFG File."

We 're halfway there. With this ei.cfg file, we can Install Windows 8.1 without a product key.

We just need to get it in the Windows 8.1 installation medium. There is the easy way and the hard way to do so.

How to Install Windows 8.1 without a product key from USB

The fastest and easiest way to install Windows 8.1 without a product key is by creating a Windows installation USB drive.

We need to download a Windows 8.1 ISO from Microsoft if we haven't already. Then, we can use a 4GB or larger USB flash drive and an app, such as Rufus, to create a Windows 8.1 installation USB.

After that, it's just a matter of dragging our ei.cfg file and dropping it in the "sources" folder in the USB.

That's it. Once ei.cfg is within the "sources" folder...

...we can install Windows 8.1 without a product key. The Windows installer won't even ask for one; it will straight-up begin the installation.

Install Windows 8.1 without a Product Key 10

The installation will ask for a product key after the first automatic reboot, but there will be a handy "Skip" button.

Install Windows 8.1 without a Product Key 11

Of course, Windows are not activated. We will need a valid product key for that.

Install Windows 8.1 without a Product Key 12

How to Install Windows 8.1 without a product key from DVD

Sometimes, using a Windows installation USB isn't an option. Maybe we don't have a USB flash drive, or an old motherboard might not support boot from USB.

In this case, we need to edit the ISO file so we can add ei.cfg before we burn it on a disc.

For this, we will use the 30-day trial version of gBurner. It's one of the few free apps that can edit a 2GB+ ISO, no questions asked.

We will find the latest version at http://www.gburner.com/download.htm

Earlier versions of Gburner came with multiple unwanted third-party apps, such as Ad-Aware Web Companion

Install Windows 8.1 without a Product Key 14

However, the current version as of this writing, gBurner 4.3, seems to be free of such shenanigans.

In any case, we should never blindingly click Next->Next->Next on any installer. Also, apps such as Unchecky can help to ensure a safe installation.

Safe Installation for All Free Apps with Unchecky

Finally, on the last screen after the installation, it's a good idea to uncheck the option to associate .iso files with gBurner, especially if we will only use it for the 30-day trial.

After gBurner starts, we select "Continue Unregistered."

We click the "open" icon and select the Windows 8.1 ISO.

Once loaded, we select the "sources" folder, click on "Add" and choose the ei.cfg file.

After we make sure ei.cfg was added correctly in sources, we select File -> Save As...

It's a good idea to choose a different name for the ISO, so we will have the clean ISO as a backup, in case something went wrong.

And that's it. We can right-click on the new ISO, select "Burn disk image" to burn it to a DVD, and we 're good to go.

You might have noticed that the new ISO is a bit smaller than the original, even though we added a file. Apparently, gBurner does some slight data compression during the ISO creation process.

This won't matter for the Windows Installation, though. Either if we burn this ISO to a disk or use it to install a Windows virtual machine, it will work just as well.

Install Windows 8.1 without a Product Key 23

Did you have any trouble installing Windows 8.1 without a product key?

Did you have any problem with the above and couldn't install Windows 8.1 without a product key? Leave us a comment.

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Category: WindowsTags: Windows 8.1

Источник: https://www.pcsteps.com/627-install-windows-8-1-without-product-key/

Cisco 4000 Series ISRs Software Configuration Guide

This chapter includes the following sections:

Overview

Installing software on the router involves installing a consolidated package (bootable image). This consists of a bundle of subpackages (modular software units), with each subpackage controlling a different set of functions.

These are the two main methods to install the software:

It is better to upgrade software in a planned period of maintenance when an interruption in service is acceptable. The router needs to be rebooted for a software upgrade to take effect.

ROMMON Images

A ROMMON image is a software package used by ROM Monitor (ROMMON) software on a router. The software package is separate from the consolidated package normally used to boot the router. For more information on ROMMON, see the "ROM Monitor Overview and Basic Procedures" section in the Upgrading Field-Programmable Hardware Devices for Cisco 4000 Series ISRs guide.

An independent ROMMON image (software package) may occasionally be released and the router can be upgraded with the new ROMMON software. For detailed instructions, see the documentation that accompanies the ROMMON image.


Note

A new version of the ROMMON image is not necessarily released at the same time as a consolidated package for a router.


Rommon Compatibility Matrix

The following table provides information about Cisco 4000 Series Integrated Services Routers supported in each rommon release.

Platform

16.2(1r)

16.2(2r)

16.4(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(5r)

16.8(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.12(1r)

16.12(2r)

Cisco 4221 ISR

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cisco 4321 ISR

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cisco 4331 ISR

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cisco 4351 ISR

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cisco 4431 ISR

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cisco 4451 ISR

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cisco 4461 ISR

Yes

Yes

Yes


Note

When you upgrade from Cisco IOS XE 3.x to 16.x image, you should first upgrade the rommon release to the 16.7(5r) rommon release. After upgrading to the 16.7(5r) rommon release, based on the IOS XE 16.x image, the rommon release can be auto-upgraded to a later rommon release.



Note

The rommon release 16.9(1r) is the first release that supports the Cisco BIOS Protection. After a device is upgraded to the 16.9(1r) rommon release, the rommon release cannot be downgraded to a release earlier than 16.9(1r). All future rommon releases can be downgraded to the 16.9(1r) release. Also, if a platform has a 16.9(1r) or later release installed, an IOS XE 16.9.1 or later release or a SD-WAN 16.11.1 or later release must be used for the upgrade.


Minimum Supported Rommon Release

The following table provides the minimum supported rommon release in Cisco IOS XE 16.x..x releases.

Cisco IOS XE Release

Cisco 4321 ISR

Cisco 4321 ISR

Cisco 4331 ISR

Cisco 4351 ISR

Cisco 4431 ISR

Cisco 4451 ISR

Cisco 4461 ISR

Cisco IOS XE 16.3.x

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.4.x

16.7(4r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.5.x

16.7(4r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.6.x

16.7(4r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.7.x

16.7(4r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.8.x

16.7(4r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.9.x

16.7(4r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

16.9(1r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.10.x

16.7(4r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

16.9(1r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.11.x

16.7(4r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

16.9(1r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.12.x

16.7(4r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(3r)

16.7(4r)

16.7(4r)

16.9(1r)

Recommended Rommon Release

The following table lists the recommended rommon release for the routing platforms in each Cisco IOS XE 16.x.x releases.

Cisco IOS XE Release

Cisco 4321 ISR

Cisco 4321 ISR

Cisco 4331 ISR

Cisco 4351 ISR

Cisco 4431 ISR

Cisco 4451 ISR

Cisco 4461 ISR

Cisco IOS XE 16.3.x

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.4.x

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.5.x

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.6.x

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.7.x

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.8.x

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

16.7(5r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.9.x

16.9(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.12(2r)

16.12(2r)

16.9(1r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.10.x

16.9(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.12(2r)

16.12(2r)

16.9(1r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.11.x

16.9(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.9(1r)

16.12(2r)

16.12(2r)

16.9(1r)

Cisco IOS XE 16.12.x

16.12(2r)

16.12(2r)

16.12(2r)

16.12(2r)

16.12(2r)

16.12(2r)

16.12(2r)

Provisioning Files

This section provides background information about the files and processes used in Managing and Configuring a Router to Run Using Individual Packages.

The consolidated package on a router consists of a collection of subpackages and a provisioning file titled . To run the software, the usual method used is to boot the consolidated package, which is copied into memory, expanded, mounted, and run within memory. The provisioning file's name can be renamed but subpackage file's names cannot be renamed. The provisioning file and subpackage files must be kept in the same directory. The provisioning file does not work properly if any individual subpackage file is contained within a different directory.


Note

An exception to this is that if a new or upgraded module firmware package is subsequently installed, it need not be in the same directory as the provisioning file.


Configuring a router to boot, using the provisioning file packages.conf, is beneficial because no changes have to be made to the boot statement after the Cisco IOS XE software is upgraded.

Alternatively, for an example of booting using subpackages, see Configuring the Router to Boot Using Subpackages.

File Systems

The following table provides a list of file systems that can be seen on the Cisco 4000 series routers.

File System

Description

bootflash:

Boot flash memory file system.

flash:

Alias to the boot flash memory file system above.

harddisk:

Hard disk file system (if NIM-SSD, NIM-HDD, or internal mSATA flash device is present in the router).

Note 

The internal mSATA flash device is supported only on Cisco ISR4300 Series routers.

cns:

Cisco Networking Services file directory.

nvram:

Router NVRAM. You can copy the startup configuration to NVRAM or from NVRAM.

obfl:

File system for Onboard Failure Logging (OBFL) files.

system:

System memory file system, which includes the running configuration.

tar:

Archive file system.

tmpsys:

Temporary system files file system.

usb0:

usb1:

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive file systems.

Note 

The USB flash drive file system is visible only if a USB drive is installed in usb0: or usb1: ports.

Use the ? help option, or use the copy command in command reference guides, if you find a file system that is not listed in the table above.

Autogenerated File Directories and Files

This section discusses the autogenerated files and directories that can be created, and how the files in these directories can be managed.

File or Directory

Description

crashinfo files

Crashinfo files may appear in the bootflash: file system.

These files provide descriptive information of a crash and may be useful for tuning or troubleshooting purposes. However, the files are not part of router operations, and can be erased without impacting the functioning of the router.

core directory

The storage area for .core files.

If this directory is erased, it will automatically regenerate itself at bootup. The .core files in this directory can be erased without impacting any router functionality, but the directory itself should not be erased.

lost+found directory

This directory is created on bootup if a system check is performed. Its appearance is completely normal and does not indicate any issues with the router.

tracelogs directory

The storage area for trace files.

Trace files are useful for troubleshooting. If the Cisco IOS process fails, for instance, users or troubleshooting personnel can access trace files using diagnostic mode to gather information related to the Cisco IOS failure.

Trace files, however, are not a part of router operations, and can be erased without impacting the router's performance.

Important Notes About Autogenerated Directories

Important information about autogenerated directories include:

  • Autogenerated files on the bootflash: directory should not be deleted, renamed, moved, or altered in any way unless directed by Cisco customer support.


    Note

    Altering autogenerating files on the bootflash: may have unpredictable consequences for system performance.


  • Crashinfo, core, and trace files can be deleted.

Flash Storage

Subpackages are installed to local media storage, such as flash. For flash storage, use the dir bootflash: command to list the file names.


Note

Flash storage is required for successful operation of a router.


Configuring the Configuration Register for Autoboot

The configuration register can be used to change router behavior. This includes controlling how the router boots. Set the configuration register to 0x0 to boot into ROM, by using one of the following commands:

  • In Cisco IOS configuration mode, use the config-reg 0x0 command.

  • From the ROMMON prompt, use the confreg 0x0 command.

For more information about the configuration register, see Use of the Configuration Register on All Cisco Routers and Configuring a Router to Boot the Consolidated Package via TFTP Using the boot Command: Example.


Note

Setting the configuration register to 0x2102 will set the router to autoboot the Cisco IOS XE software.



Note

The console baud rate is set to 9600 after changing the confreg to 0x2102 or 0x0. If you cannot establish a console session after setting confreg, or garbage output appears, change the setting on your terminal emulation software to 9600.


Licensing

Cisco Software Licensing

Cisco software licensing consists of processes and components to activate Cisco IOS software feature sets by obtaining and validating Cisco software licenses.

You can enable licensed features and store license files in the bootflash of your router. Licenses pertain to consolidated packages, technology packages, or individual features.

An evaluation license is automatically converted to a Right to Use model after 60 days and this license is valid permanently. The conversion to a permanent license applies only to evaluation licenses. For other features supported on your router, you must purchase a permanent license.

See the "Configuring the Cisco IOS Software Activation Feature" chapter of the Software Activation Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S.

Consolidated Packages

One of the following two consolidated packages (images) is preinstalled on the router:

  • universalk9—Contains the ipbasek9 base package and the securityk9, uck9, and appxk9 technology packages.

  • universalk9_npe—Contains the ipbasek9 base package and the securityk9_npe, uck9, and appxk9 technology packages. This image has limited crypto functionality.


    Note

    The term npe stands for No Payload Encryption.



Note

The terms super package and image also refer to a consolidated package.


To obtain software images for the router, go to http://software.cisco.com/download/navigator.html.

An image-based license is used to help bring up all the subsystems that correspond to a license. This license is enforced only at boot time.

Apart from the universalk9 and universalk9_npe images, a Boot ROMMON image is available. For more information, see ROMMON Images section.

For more information about identifying digitally signed Cisco software and how to show the digital signature information of an image file, see the "Digitally Signed Cisco Software" section in the Loading and Managing System Images Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S.

The following examples show how to obtain software authenticity information and internal details of a package:

  • Displaying Digitally Signed Cisco Software Signature Information section

  • Obtaining the Description of a Module or Consolidated Package section

Many features within the consolidated package are contained in the ipbasek9 base package. The license key for the ipbasek9 package is activated by default.

Technology Packages

Источник: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/access/4400/software/configuration/guide/isr4400swcfg/bm_isr_4400_sw_config_guide_chapter_0101.html
Innovation

Installation (computer programs)

"Installer" redirects here. For for the AmigaOS scripting language, see Installer (programming language).

Act of making a computer program ready for execution

Installation (or setup) of a computer program (including device drivers and plugins), is the act of making the program ready for execution. Installation refers to the particular configuration of a software or hardware with a view to making it usable with the computer. A soft or digital copy of the piece of software (program) is needed to install it. There are different processes of installing a piece of software (program). Because the process varies for each program and each computer, programs (including operating systems) often come with an installer, a specialised program responsible for doing whatever is needed (see below) for the installation. Installation may be part of a larger software deployment process.

Installation typically involves code (program) being copied/generated from the installation files to new files on the local computer for easier access by the operating system, creating necessary directories, registering environment variables, providing separate program for un-installation etc. Because code is generally copied/generated in multiple locations, uninstallation usually involves more than just erasing the program folder. For example, registry files and other system code may need to be modified or deleted for a complete uninstallation.

Overview[edit]

Some computer programs can be executed by simply copying them into a folder stored on a computer and executing them. Other programs are supplied in a form unsuitable for immediate execution and therefore need an installation procedure. Once installed, the program can be executed again and again, without the need to reinstall before each execution.

Common operations performed during software installations include:

These operations may require some charges or be free of charge. In case of payment, installation costs means the costs connected and relevant to or incurred as a result of installing the drivers or the equipment in the customers' premises.

Some installers may attempt to trick users into installing junkware such as various forms of adware, toolbars, trialware or software of partnering companies.[1] To prevent this, extra caution on what exactly is being asked to be installed is needed. The installation of additional software then can simply be skipped or unchecked (this may require the user to use the "custom", "detailed" or "expert" version of the installation procedure).[1]
Such malicious conduct is not necessarily a decision by the software developers or their company but can also be an issue of external installers such as the Download.com installer by CNET.[2]

Necessity[edit]

As mentioned earlier, some computer programs need no installation. This was once usual for many programs which run on DOS, Mac OS, Atari TOS and AmigaOS. As computing environments grew more complex and fixed hard drives replaced floppy disks, the need for tangible installation presented itself. For example Commodore released the Installer for Amiga.

A class of modern applications that do not need installation are known as portable applications, as they may be roamed around onto different computers and run. Similarly, there are live operating systems, which do not need installation and can be run directly from a bootableCD, DVD, USB flash drive or loaded over the network as with thin clients. Examples are AmigaOS 4.0, various Linux distributions, MorphOS or Mac OS versions 1.0 through 9.0. (See live CD and live USB.) Finally, web applications, which run inside a web browser, do not need installation.

Types[edit]

Attended installation[edit]

On Windows systems, this is the most common form of installation. An installation process usually needs a user who attends it to make choices, such as accepting or declining an end-user license agreement (EULA), specifying preferences such as the installation location, supplying passwords or assisting in product activation. In graphical environments, installers that offer a wizard-based interface are common. Attended installers may ask users to help mitigate the errors. For instance, if the disk in which the computer program is being installed was full, the installer may ask the user to specify another target path or clear enough space in the disk. A common misconception is unarchivation, which is not considered an installation action because it does not include user choices, such as accepting or declining EULA.

Silent installation[edit]

Installation that does not display messages or windows during its progress. "Silent installation" is not the same as "unattended installation" (see below): All silent installations are unattended but not all unattended installations are silent. The reason behind a silent installation may be convenience or subterfuge. Malware is almost always installed silently.[citation needed] For normal users silent installation is of not much use , but in bigger organizations where thousands of users work, deploying the applications becomes a typical task and for that reason silent installation is performed so that the application is installed in background without affecting the work of user. Silent parameters can vary from software to software, if a software/application has silent parameters , it can be checked by " <software.exe> /? " or " <software.exe> /help " or " <software.exe> -help ".

Unattended installation[edit]

Installation that is performed without user interaction during its progress or with no user present at all. One of the reasons to use this approach is to automate the installation of a large number of systems. An unattended installation either does not require the user to supply anything or has received all necessary input prior to the start of installation. Such input may be in the form of command lineswitches or an answer file, a file that contains all the necessary parameters. Windows XP and most Linux distributions are examples of operating systems that can be installed with an answer file. In unattended installation, it is assumed that there is no user to help mitigate errors. For instance, if the installation medium was faulty, the installer should fail the installation, as there is no user to fix the fault or replace the medium. Unattended installers may record errors in a computer log for later review.

Headless installation[edit]

Installation performed without using a computer monitor connected. In attended forms of headless installation, another machine connects to the target machine (for instance, via a local area network) and takes over the display output. Since a headless installation does not need a user at the location of the target computer, unattended headless installers may be used to install a program on multiple machines at the same time.

Scheduled or automated installation[edit]

An installation process that runs on a preset time or when a predefined condition transpires, as opposed to an installation process that starts explicitly on a user's command. For instance, a system administrator willing to install a later version of a computer program that is being used can schedule that installation to occur when that program is not running. An operating system may automatically install a device driver for a device that the user connects. (See plug and play.) Malware may also be installed automatically. For example, the infamous Conficker was installed when the user plugged an infected device to their computer.

Clean installation[edit]

A clean installation is one that is done in the absence of any interfering elements such as old versions of the computer program being installed or leftovers from a previous installation. In particular, the clean installation of an operating system is an installation in which the target disk partition is erased before installation. Since the interfering elements are absent, a clean installation may succeed where an unclean installation may fail or may take significantly longer.

Network installation[edit]

Not to be confused with network booting.

Network installation, shortened netinstall, is an installation of a program from a shared network resource that may be done by installing a minimal system before proceeding to download further packages over the network. This may simply be a copy of the original media but software publishers which offer site licenses for institutional customers may provide a version intended for installation over a network.

Installer[edit]

Look up installer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

An installation program or installer is a computer program that installs files, such as applications, drivers, or other software, onto a computer. Some installers are specifically made to install the files they contain; other installers are general-purpose and work by reading the contents of the software package to be installed.

They exist both as "standalone installer" and "web installer", where the former allows for offline installation as it contains all installation files, whereas the latter needs to download files necessary for installation from the web at the time of installation.

The differences between a package management system and an installer are:

Criterion Package manager Installer
Shipped with Usually, the operating system Each computer program
Location of installation information One central installation database It is entirely at the discretion of the installer. It could be a file within the app's folder, or among the operating system's files and folders. At best, they may register themselves with an uninstallers list without exposing installation information.
Scope of maintenance Potentially all packages on the system Only the product with which it was bundled
Developed by One package manager vendor Multiple installer vendors
Package format A handful of well-known formatsThere could be as many formats as the number of apps
Package format compatibility Can be consumed as long as the package manager supports it. Either newer versions of the package manager keep supporting it or the user does not upgrade the package manager. The installer is always compatible with its archive format, if it uses any. However, installers, like all computer programs, may be affected by software rot.

Bootstrapper[edit]

During an installation of a computer program, it is sometimes necessary to update the installer or package manager itself. To make this possible, a technique called bootstrapping is used. The common pattern for this is to use small executable files which update the installer and starts the real installation after the update. This small executable is called bootstrapper. Sometimes the bootstrapper installs other prerequisites for the software during the bootstrapping process too.

Common types[edit]

Main article: List of installation software

Cross-platform installer builders produce installers that run on Windows, macOS and Linux. An example is InstallAnywhere by Flexera Software.

Windows NT family includes an installation API and an associated service called Windows Installer. Microsoft provides a minimum level of tools required to create installers using Windows Installer in the freely available Windows SDK, instead focusing on the API to allow developers and third parties to leverage it in creating custom installers. Third party tools may supporting create installers using this API to speed the process. Examples include InstallShield (Flexera Software) and WiX (Outercurve Foundation). Installation authoring tools that do not rely on Windows Installer include Wise Installation Studio (Wise Solutions, Inc.), Installer VISE (MindVision Software), Visual Installer (SamLogic), NSIS, Clickteam, InnoSetup and InstallSimple.

macOS includes Installer, a native package manager. macOS also includes a separate software updating application, Software Update but only supports Apple and system software. Included in the dock as of 10.6.6, the Mac App Store shares many attributes with the successful App Store for iOS devices, such as a similar app approval process, the use of Apple ID for purchases, and automatic installation and updating. Although this is Apple's preferred delivery method for macOS,[3] previously purchased licenses can not be transferred to the Mac App Store for downloading or automatic updating. Commercial applications for macOS may also use a third-party installer, such as Mac version of Installer VISE (MindVision Software) or InstallerMaker (StuffIt).

System installer[edit]

A system installer is the software that is used to set up and install an operating system onto a device. Examples of system installers on Linux are Ubiquity and Wubi for Ubuntu, Anaconda for CentOS and Fedora, Debian-Installer for Debian-based versions of Linux, and YaST for SUSE-based projects. Another example is found in the Haiku operating system, which uses a utility called Haiku Installer to install itself onto a device after booting from a live CD or live USB.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Installation_(computer_programs)

Most PC users have gotten used to the latest Microsoft release and they are using it as their main OS. However, Ubuntu is more resource-friendly and it is completely free. That being said, Ubuntu still can’t do many of the things that Windows can, like run popular video games. This is why it is becoming common practice to have a dual-boot system that has both Ubuntu for more technical purposes and Windows 10 installed. Here’s how to install Windows 10 alongside Ubuntu.

How to Install Windows 10 Alongside Ubuntu

Ubuntu Benefits

Before completely disregarding Ubuntu and just using Windows 10, you should consider the benefits that the former brings to the table. For one, unlike Windows, Ubuntu is completely customizable. You can personalize virtually every element of your UI/UX, which is amazing compared to the personalization options you get with Windows 10.

Ubuntu also runs without installing, meaning that it’s completely bootable from a pen drive. Yes, this means that you can carry around your entire OS in your pocket and run it on any computer, wherever you need it. Ubuntu is more secure, too. It might not be fully immune to security issues, but it is a safer environment than Windows 10. It is also a common developer’s tool, which is not something that Windows 10 was intended for.

Windows 10 on Ubuntu

If you have Windows 10 installed on your PC, installing Ubuntu is a straightforward process. Ubuntu is commonly installed “on top” of Windows 10, as it’s a simpler platform that can even function on multiple computers through a pen drive. Installing Windows 10 after Ubuntu, however, is a tad tricky and not recommended. However, when push comes to shove, sometimes this needs to be done.

install windows 10 alongside ubuntu

Preparing a Partition

If you want to install Windows 10 in Ubuntu, make sure that the intended partition for the Windows OS is the Primary NTFS partition. You need to create this on Ubuntu, specifically for Windows installation purposes.

To create the partition, use the gParted or Disk Utility command-line tools. If you already have a logical/extended partition, you’ll need to delete it and create a new Primary Partition. Keep in mind that all data in the existing partition will be erased.

Installing Windows 10

Use the bootable DVD/USB stick to start the Windows installation process. First, you’ll need to provide the Windows Activation Key to authenticate your installation. After this, choose Custom Installation, because the automatic option may create issues.

Make sure that you select the NTFS Primary Partition that you’ve created earlier as your Windows 10 installation partition. Keep in mind that after the successful Windows 10 installation, GRUB will be replaced by the Windows bootloader, meaning that you won’t see the GRUB menu when booting your computer. Fortunately, this is easy to solve by installing GRUB for Ubuntu again.

Installing GRUB for Ubuntu

In order to install and fix GRUB, a LiveCD or LiveUSB of Ubuntu is a must. This means that you’re going to have to get an independent version of Ubuntu. Having a pen drive is ideal here, as you can use it easily.

Once Live Ubuntu has been loaded, open the Terminal and use the following commands to start boot-repair to fix GRUB for Ubuntu:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:yannubuntu/boot-repair && sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install -y boot-repair && boot-repair

After the installation is done, boot-repair will launch automatically. Select the recommended repair option when repairing the GRUB. Once everything is done, reboot your computer and you’ll see the GRUB menu, where you choose which OS you want to run.

install windows 10 alongside ubuntu

Windows 10 and Ubuntu

Windows 10 and Ubuntu are a perfect pair. Every bit of technical work, such as development, is better performed in Ubuntu. The majority of everyday computer activities, such as gaming, watching movies and TV shows, and browsing is best left to Windows 10. Remember that it is not recommended that you install Windows 10 after Ubuntu, but it can be done.

Do you use dual-boot? Do you use a pen drive for your Ubuntu? What are your thoughts on installing Windows 10 alongside Ubuntu? Share your thoughts in the comment section.

Источник: https://www.alphr.com/install-windows-10-alongside-ubuntu/

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Most PC users have gotten used to the latest Microsoft release and they are using it as their main OS. However, Ubuntu is more resource-friendly and it is completely free. That being said, Ubuntu still can’t do many of the things that Windows can, like run popular video games. This is why it is becoming common practice to have a dual-boot system that has both Ubuntu for more technical purposes and Windows 10 installed. Here’s how to install Windows 10 alongside Ubuntu.

How to Install Windows 10 Alongside Ubuntu

Ubuntu Benefits

Before completely disregarding Ubuntu and just using Windows 10, you should consider the benefits that the former brings avg pc tuneup 2019 activation code the table. For one, unlike Windows, Ubuntu is completely customizable. You can personalize virtually every element of your UI/UX, which is amazing compared to the personalization options you get with Windows 10.

Ubuntu also runs without installing, meaning that it’s completely bootable from a pen drive. Yes, this means that you can carry around your entire OS in your pocket and run it on any computer, wherever you need it. Ubuntu is more secure, too. It might not be fully immune to security issues, but it is a safer environment than Windows 10. It is also a common developer’s tool, which is not something that Windows 10 was intended for.

Windows 10 on Ubuntu

If you have Windows 10 installed on your PC, installing Ubuntu is a straightforward process. Ubuntu is commonly installed “on top” of Windows 10, as it’s a simpler platform that can even function on multiple computers through a pen drive. Installing Windows 10 after Ubuntu, however, is a tad tricky and not recommended. However, when push comes to shove, sometimes this needs to be done.

install windows 10 alongside ubuntu

Preparing a Partition

If you want to install Windows 10 in Ubuntu, make sure that the intended partition for the Windows OS is the Primary NTFS partition. You need to create this on Ubuntu, specifically for Windows installation purposes.

To create the partition, use the gParted or Disk Utility command-line tools. If you already have a logical/extended partition, you’ll need to delete it and create a new Primary Partition. Keep in mind that all data in the existing partition will be erased.

Installing Windows 10

Use the bootable DVD/USB stick to start the Windows installation process. First, you’ll need to provide the Windows Activation Key to authenticate your installation. After this, choose Custom Installation, because the automatic option may create issues.

Make sure that you select the NTFS Primary Partition that you’ve created earlier as your Windows 10 installation partition. Keep in mind that after the successful Windows 10 installation, GRUB will be replaced by the Windows bootloader, meaning that you won’t see the GRUB menu when booting your computer. Fortunately, this is easy to solve by installing GRUB for Ubuntu again.

Installing GRUB for Ubuntu

In order to install and fix GRUB, a LiveCD or LiveUSB of Ubuntu is a must. This means that you’re going to have to get an independent version of Ubuntu. Having a pen drive is ideal here, as you can use it easily.

Once Live Ubuntu has been loaded, open the Terminal and use the following commands to start boot-repair to fix GRUB for Ubuntu:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:yannubuntu/boot-repair && sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install -y boot-repair && boot-repair

After the installation is done, boot-repair will launch automatically. Select the recommended repair option when repairing movavi video converter apk - Free Activators GRUB. Once everything is done, reboot your computer and you’ll see the GRUB menu, where you choose which OS you want to run.

install windows 10 alongside ubuntu

Windows 10 and Ubuntu

Windows 10 and Ubuntu are a perfect pair. Every bit of technical work, such as development, is better performed in Ubuntu. The majority of everyday computer activities, such as gaming, watching movies and TV shows, and browsing is best left to Windows 10. Remember that it is not recommended that you install Windows 10 after Ubuntu, but it can be done.

Do you use dual-boot? Do you use a pen drive for your Ubuntu? What are your thoughts on installing Windows 10 alongside Ubuntu? Share your thoughts in the comment section.

Источник: https://www.alphr.com/install-windows-10-alongside-ubuntu/
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    Cisco 4000 Series ISRs Software Configuration Guide

    This chapter includes the following sections: install linux from usb - Free Activators

    Overview

    Installing software on the router involves installing a consolidated package (bootable image). This consists of a bundle of subpackages (modular software units), with each subpackage controlling a different set of functions.

    These are the two main methods to install the software:

    It is better to upgrade software in a planned period of maintenance when an interruption in service is acceptable. The router needs to be rebooted for a software upgrade to take effect. adobe acrobat pro dc latest version

    ROMMON Images

    A ROMMON image is a software package used by ROM Monitor (ROMMON) software on a router. The software package is separate from the consolidated package normally used to boot the router. For more information on ROMMON, see the "ROM Monitor Overview and Basic Procedures" section in the Upgrading Field-Programmable Hardware Devices for Cisco 4000 Series ISRs guide.

    An independent ROMMON image (software package) may occasionally be released and the router can be upgraded with the new ROMMON software. For detailed instructions, see the documentation that accompanies the ROMMON image.


    Note

    A new version of the ROMMON image is not necessarily released at the same time as a consolidated package for a router.


    Rommon Compatibility Matrix

    The following table provides information about Cisco 4000 Series Integrated Services Routers supported in each rommon release.

    Platform

    16.2(1r)

    16.2(2r)

    16.4(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.8(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.12(1r)

    16.12(2r)

    Cisco 4221 ISR

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Cisco 4321 ISR

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Cisco 4331 ISR

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Cisco 4351 ISR

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Cisco 4431 ISR

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Cisco 4451 ISR

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Cisco 4461 ISR

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes


    Note

    When you upgrade from Cisco IOS XE 3.x to 16.x image, you should first upgrade the rommon release to the 16.7(5r) rommon release. After upgrading to the 16.7(5r) rommon release, based on the IOS XE 16.x image, the rommon release can be auto-upgraded to a later rommon release.



    Note

    The rommon release 16.9(1r) is the first release that supports the Cisco BIOS Protection. After a device is upgraded to the 16.9(1r) rommon release, the rommon release cannot be downgraded to a release earlier than 16.9(1r). All future rommon releases can be downgraded to the 16.9(1r) release. Also, if a platform has a 16.9(1r) or later release installed, an IOS XE 16.9.1 or later release or a SD-WAN 16.11.1 or later release must be used for the upgrade.


    Minimum Supported Rommon Release

    The following table provides the minimum supported rommon release in Cisco IOS XE 16.x.x releases.

    Cisco IOS XE Release

    Cisco 4321 ISR

    Cisco 4321 ISR

    Cisco 4331 ISR

    Cisco 4351 ISR

    Cisco 4431 ISR

    Cisco 4451 ISR

    Cisco 4461 ISR

    Cisco IOS XE 16.3.x

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.4.x

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.5.x

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.6.x

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.7.x

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.8.x

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.9.x

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.9(1r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.10.x

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.9(1r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.11.x

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.9(1r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.12.x

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(3r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.7(4r)

    16.9(1r)

    Recommended Rommon Release

    The following table lists the recommended rommon release for the routing platforms in each Cisco IOS XE 16.x.x releases.

    Cisco IOS XE Release

    Cisco 4321 ISR

    Cisco 4321 ISR

    Cisco 4331 ISR

    Cisco 4351 ISR

    Cisco 4431 ISR

    Cisco 4451 ISR

    Cisco 4461 ISR

    Cisco IOS XE 16.3.x

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.4.x

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.5.x

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.6.x

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.7.x

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.8.x

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    16.7(5r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.9.x

    16.9(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.9(1r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.10.x

    16.9(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.9(1r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.11.x

    16.9(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.9(1r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.9(1r)

    Cisco IOS XE 16.12.x

    16.12(2r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.12(2r)

    16.12(2r)

    Provisioning Files

    This section provides background information about the files and processes used in Managing and Configuring a Router to Run Using Individual Packages.

    The consolidated package on a router consists of a collection of subpackages and a provisioning file titled . To run the software, the usual method used is to boot the consolidated package, which is copied into memory, expanded, mounted, and run within memory. The provisioning file's name can be renamed but subpackage file's names cannot be renamed. The provisioning file and subpackage files must be kept in the same directory. The provisioning file does not work properly if any individual subpackage file is contained within a different directory.


    Note

    An exception to this is that if a new or upgraded module firmware package is subsequently autodesk 3ds max serial number installed, it need not be in the same directory as the provisioning file.


    Configuring a router to boot, using the provisioning file packages.conf, is beneficial because no changes have to be made to the boot statement after the Cisco IOS XE software is upgraded.

    Alternatively, for an example of booting using subpackages, see Configuring the Router to Boot Using Subpackages.

    File Systems

    The following table provides a list of file systems that can be seen on the Cisco 4000 series routers.

    File System

    Description install linux from usb - Free Activators

    bootflash:

    Boot flash memory file system.

    flash:

    Alias to the boot flash memory file system above.

    harddisk:

    Hard disk file system (if NIM-SSD, NIM-HDD, or internal mSATA flash device is present in the router).

    Note 

    The internal mSATA flash device is supported only on Cisco ISR4300 Series routers.

    cns:

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    nvram:

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    File system for Onboard Failure Logging (OBFL) files.

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    System memory file system, which includes the running configuration.

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    Archive file system.

    tmpsys:

    Temporary system files file system.

    usb0:

    usb1:

    The Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive file systems.

    Note 

    The USB install linux from usb - Free Activators flash drive file system is visible only if a USB drive is installed in usb0: or usb1: ports.

    Use the ? help option, or use the copy command in command reference guides, if you find a file system that is not listed in the table above.

    Autogenerated File Directories and Files

    This section discusses the autogenerated files and directories that can be created, and how the files in these directories can be managed.

    File or Directory

    Description

    crashinfo files

    Crashinfo rank tracker extension - Free Activators files may appear in the bootflash: file system.

    These files provide descriptive information of a crash and may be useful for tuning or troubleshooting purposes. However, the files are not part of router operations, and can be erased without impacting the functioning of the router. install linux from usb - Free Activators

    core directory

    The storage area for .core files. install linux from usb - Free Activators

    If this directory is erased, it will automatically regenerate itself at bootup. The .core files in this directory can be erased without impacting any router functionality, but the directory itself should not be erased.

    lost+found directory

    This directory is created on bootup if a system check is performed. Its appearance is completely normal and does not indicate any issues with the router.

    tracelogs directory install linux from usb - Free Activators

    The storage area for trace files.

    Trace files are useful for troubleshooting. If the Cisco IOS process fails, for instance, users or troubleshooting personnel can access trace files using diagnostic mode kaspersky total security 2019 crack - Crack Key For U to gather information related to the Cisco IOS failure.

    Trace files, however, are not a part of router operations, and can be erased without impacting the router's performance. DiskInternals Video Recovery 7.7.1.0 Registration key Crack

    Important Notes About Autogenerated Directories

    Important information about autogenerated directories include:

    • Autogenerated files on the bootflash: directory should not be deleted, renamed, moved, or altered in any way unless directed by Cisco customer support.


      Note

      Altering autogenerating files on the bootflash: may have unpredictable consequences for system performance.


    • Crashinfo, core, and trace files can be deleted.

    Flash Storage

    Subpackages are installed to local media storage, such as flash. For flash storage, use the dir bootflash: command to list the file names.


    Note

    Flash storage is required for successful operation of a router.


    Configuring the Configuration Register for Autoboot

    The configuration register can be used to change router behavior. This includes controlling how the router boots. Set the configuration register to 0x0 to boot into ROM, by using one of the following commands:

    For more information about the configuration register, see Use of the Configuration Register on All Cisco Routers and Configuring a Router to Boot the Consolidated Package via TFTP Using the boot Command: Example.


    Note

    Setting the configuration register to 0x2102 will set the router to autoboot the Cisco IOS XE software. xfer serum full free download [win-osx] - Activators Patch



    Note

    The console baud rate is set to 9600 after changing the confreg to 0x2102 or 0x0. If you cannot establish a console session after setting confreg, or garbage output appears, change the setting on your terminal emulation software to 9600.


    Licensing

    Cisco Software Licensing

    Cisco software licensing consists of processes and components to activate Cisco IOS software feature sets by obtaining and validating Cisco software licenses.

    You can enable licensed features and store license files in the bootflash of your router. Licenses pertain to consolidated packages, technology packages, or individual features.

    An evaluation license is automatically converted to a Right to Use model after 60 days and this license is valid permanently. The conversion to a permanent license applies only to evaluation licenses. For other features supported on your router, you must purchase a permanent license.

    See the "Configuring the Cisco IOS Software Activation Feature" chapter of the Software Activation Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S.

    Consolidated Packages

    One of the following two consolidated packages (images) is preinstalled on the router:

    • universalk9—Contains the ipbasek9 base package and the securityk9, uck9, and appxk9 technology packages.

    • universalk9_npe—Contains the ipbasek9 base package and the securityk9_npe, uck9, and appxk9 technology packages. This image has limited crypto functionality.


      Note

      The term npe stands for No Payload Encryption. EmEditor Professional Crack 2021



    Note

    The terms super package and image also refer to a consolidated package.


    To obtain software images for the router, go to http://software.cisco.com/download/navigator.html.

    An image-based license is used to help bring up all the subsystems that correspond to a license. This license is enforced only at boot time.

    Apart from the universalk9 and universalk9_npe images, a Boot ROMMON image is available. For more information, see ROMMON Images section.

    For more information about identifying digitally signed Cisco software and how to show the digital signature information of an image file, see the "Digitally Signed Cisco Software" section in the Loading and Managing System Images Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S.

    The following examples show how to obtain software authenticity information and internal details of a package:

    • Displaying Digitally Signed Cisco Software Signature Information section

    • Obtaining the Description of a Module or Consolidated Package section

    Many features within the consolidated package are contained in the ipbasek9 base package. The license key for the install linux from usb - Free Activators ipbasek9 package is activated by default.

    Technology Packages

    Источник: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/access/4400/software/configuration/guide/isr4400swcfg/bm_isr_4400_sw_config_guide_chapter_0101.html
    Tech and Work

    Installation (computer programs)

    "Installer" redirects here. For for the AmigaOS scripting language, see Installer (programming language).

    Act of making a computer program ready for execution

    Installation (or setup) of a computer program (including device drivers and plugins), is the act of making the program ready for execution. Installation refers to the particular configuration of a software or hardware with a view to making it usable with the computer. A soft or digital copy of the piece of software (program) is needed to install it. There are different processes of installing a piece of software (program). Because the process varies for each program and each computer, programs (including operating systems) often come with an installer, a specialised program responsible for doing whatever is needed (see below) for the installation. Installation may be part of a larger software deployment process.

    Installation typically involves code (program) being copied/generated from the installation files to new files on the local computer for easier access by the operating system, creating necessary directories, registering environment variables, providing separate program for un-installation etc. Because code is generally copied/generated in multiple locations, uninstallation usually involves more than just erasing the program folder. For example, registry files and other system code may need to be modified or deleted for a complete uninstallation.

    Overview[edit]

    Some computer programs can be executed by simply copying them into a folder stored on a computer and executing them. Other programs are supplied in a form unsuitable for immediate execution and therefore need an installation procedure. Once installed, the program can be executed again and again, without the need to reinstall before each execution.

    Common operations performed during software installations include:

    These operations may require some charges or be free of charge. In case of payment, installation costs means the costs connected and relevant to or incurred as a result of installing the drivers or the equipment in the customers' premises.

    Some installers may attempt to trick users into installing junkware such as various forms of adware, toolbars, trialware or software of partnering companies.[1] To prevent this, extra caution on what exactly is being asked to be installed is needed. The installation of additional software then can simply be skipped or unchecked (this may require the user to use the "custom", "detailed" or "expert" version of the installation procedure).[1]
    Such malicious conduct is not necessarily a decision by the software developers or their company but can also be an issue of external installers such as the Download.com installer by CNET.[2]

    Necessity[edit]

    As mentioned earlier, some computer programs need no installation. This was once usual for many programs which run on DOS, Mac OS, Atari TOS and AmigaOS. As computing environments grew more complex and fixed hard drives replaced floppy disks, the need for tangible installation presented itself. For example Commodore released the Installer for Amiga.

    A class of modern applications that do not need installation are known as portable applications, as they may be roamed around onto different computers and run. Similarly, there are live operating systems, which do not need installation and can be run directly from a bootableCD, DVD, USB flash drive or loaded over the network as with thin clients. Examples are AmigaOS 4.0, various Linux distributions, MorphOS or Mac OS versions 1.0 through 9.0. (See live CD and live USB.) Finally, web applications, which run inside a web browser, do not need installation.

    Types[edit]

    Attended installation[edit]

    On Windows systems, this is the most common form of installation. An installation process usually needs a user who attends it to make choices, such as accepting or declining an end-user license agreement (EULA), specifying preferences such as the installation location, supplying passwords or assisting in product activation. In graphical environments, installers that offer a wizard-based interface are common. Attended installers may ask users to help mitigate the errors. For instance, if the disk in which the computer program is being installed was full, the installer may ask the user to specify another target path or clear enough space in the disk. A common misconception is unarchivation, which is not considered an installation action because it does not include user choices, such as accepting or declining EULA.

    Silent installation[edit]

    Installation that does not display messages or windows during its progress. "Silent installation" is not the same as "unattended installation" (see below): All silent installations are unattended but not all unattended installations are silent. The reason behind a silent installation may be convenience or subterfuge. Malware is almost always installed silently.[citation needed] For normal users silent installation is of not much usebut in bigger organizations where thousands of users work, deploying the applications becomes a typical task and for that reason silent installation is performed so that the application is installed in background without affecting the work of user. Silent parameters can vary from software to software, if a software/application has silent parametersit can be checked by " <software.exe> /? " or " <software.exe> /help " or " <software.exe> -help ".

    Unattended installation[edit]

    Installation that is performed without user interaction during its progress or with no user present at all. One of the reasons to use this approach is to automate the installation of a large number of systems. An unattended installation either does not require the user to supply anything or has received all necessary input prior to the start of installation. Such input may be in the form of command lineswitches or an answer file, a file that contains all the necessary parameters. Windows XP and most Linux distributions are examples of operating systems that can be installed with an answer file. In unattended installation, it is assumed that there is no user to help mitigate errors. For instance, if the installation medium was faulty, the installer should fail the installation, as there is no user to fix the fault or replace the medium. Unattended installers may record errors in a computer log for later review.

    Headless installation[edit]

    Installation performed without using a computer monitor connected. In attended forms of headless installation, another machine connects to the target machine (for instance, via a local area network) and takes over the display output. Since a headless installation does not need a user at the location of the target computer, unattended headless installers may be used to install a program on multiple machines at the same time.

    Scheduled or automated installation[edit]

    An installation process that runs on a preset time or when a predefined condition transpires, as opposed to an installation process that starts explicitly on a user's command. For instance, a system administrator willing to install a later version of a computer program that is being used can schedule that installation to occur when that program is not running. An operating system may automatically install a device driver for a device that the user connects. (See plug and play.) Malware may also be installed automatically. For example, the infamous Conficker was installed when the user plugged an infected device to their computer.

    Clean installation[edit]

    A clean installation is one that is done in the absence of any interfering elements such as old versions of the computer program being installed or leftovers from a previous installation. In particular, the clean installation of an operating system is an installation in which the target disk partition is erased before installation. Since the interfering elements are absent, a clean installation may succeed where an unclean installation may fail or may take significantly longer.

    Network installation[edit]

    Not to be confused with network booting.

    Network installation, shortened netinstall, is an installation of a program from a shared network resource that may be done by installing a minimal system before proceeding to download further packages over the network. This may simply be a copy of the original media but software publishers which offer site licenses for institutional customers may provide a version intended for installation over a network.

    Installer[edit]

    Look up installer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

    An installation program or installer is a computer program that installs files, such as applications, drivers, or other software, onto a computer. Some installers are specifically made to install the files they contain; other installers are general-purpose and work by reading the contents of the software package to be installed.

    They exist both as "standalone installer" and "web installer", where the former allows for offline installation as it contains all installation files, whereas the latter needs to download files necessary for installation from the web at the time of installation.

    The differences between a package management system and an installer are:

    Criterion Package manager Installer
    Shipped with Usually, the operating system Each computer program
    Location of installation information One central installation database It is entirely at the discretion of the installer. It could be a file within the app's folder, or among the operating system's files and folders. At best, they may register themselves with an uninstallers list without exposing installation information.
    Scope of maintenance Potentially all packages on the system Only the product with which it was bundled
    Developed by One package manager vendor Multiple installer vendors
    Package format A handful of well-known formatsThere could be as many formats as the number of apps
    Package format compatibility Can be consumed as long as the package manager supports it. Either newer versions of the package manager keep supporting it or the user does not upgrade the package manager. The installer is always compatible with its archive format, if it uses any. However, installers, like all computer programs, may be affected by software rot.

    Bootstrapper[edit]

    During an installation of a computer program, it is sometimes necessary to update the installer or package manager itself. To make this possible, a technique called bootstrapping is used. The common pattern for this is to use small executable files which update the installer and starts the real installation after the update. This small executable is called bootstrapper. Sometimes the bootstrapper installs other prerequisites for the software during the bootstrapping process too.

    Common types[edit]

    Main article: List of installation software

    Cross-platform installer builders produce installers that run on Windows, macOS and Linux. An example is InstallAnywhere by Flexera Software.

    Windows NT family includes an installation API and an associated service called Windows Installer. Microsoft provides a minimum level of tools required to create installers using Windows Installer in the freely available Windows SDK, instead focusing on the API to allow developers and third parties to leverage it in creating custom installers. Third party tools may supporting create installers using this API to speed the process. Examples include InstallShield (Flexera Software) and WiX (Outercurve Foundation). Installation authoring tools that do not rely on Windows Installer include Wise Installation Studio (Wise Solutions, Inc.), Installer VISE (MindVision Software), Visual Installer (SamLogic), NSIS, Clickteam, InnoSetup and InstallSimple.

    macOS includes Installer, a native package manager. macOS also includes a separate software updating application, Software Update but only supports Apple and system software. Included in the dock as of 10.6.6, the Mac App Store shares many attributes with the successful App Store for iOS devices, such as a similar app approval process, the use of Apple ID for purchases, and automatic installation and updating. Although this is Apple's preferred delivery method for macOS,[3] previously purchased licenses can not be transferred to the Mac App Store for downloading or automatic updating. Commercial applications for macOS may also use a third-party installer, such as Mac version of Installer VISE (MindVision Software) or InstallerMaker (StuffIt).

    System installer[edit]

    A system installer is the software that is used to set up and install an operating system onto a device. Examples of system installers on Linux are Ubiquity and Wubi for Ubuntu, Anaconda for CentOS and Fedora, Debian-Installer for Debian-based versions of Linux, and YaST for SUSE-based projects. Another example is found in the Haiku operating system, which uses a utility called Haiku Installer to install itself onto a device after booting from a live CD or live USB.

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Installation_(computer_programs)

    3 comments

    1. OH YEAH YEAH , THE OPTION TO PICK DVD 9 IS THERE BUT IT STILL REDUCES TO FIT THE SMALLER DISKS AND RUINS THE QUALITY, AND THE SUPPORT TEAM SAYS ITS AUTOMATIC. AUTOMATIC IS OK IF IT TRULY DOESN'T REDUCE , UNFORTUNATELY IT REDUCES TOO MUCH.

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