home care remedies for uti

Can you treat a UTI without the help of antibiotics? Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem that affects. The only way to totally get rid of a UTI is with antibiotics. If you're experiencing symptoms, it's best to get to the doctor quickly. They'll. Use these tips to prevent and naturally treat a UTI at home. Probiotics play an important role in the health of the urinary tract.

Home care remedies for uti -

9 Home Remedies for Preventing and Treating UTIs

Maybe you’ve heard other people’s UTI nightmares: the friend who gets one almost every time she has sex; the 70-something aunt who struggles with recurring infections now that she’s older. Or maybe you’re dealing with symptoms seemingly out of the blue or after a weekend of hot tubbing.When symptoms surface, the cause doesn’t exactly matter; all you want to know is how to get rid of your UTI.Antibiotics are the main treatment, especially if you have a raging infection. But when symptoms are mild or vague, it may be worth giving natural remedies for a UTI a try before popping a prescription pill or while you’re waiting for your meds to kick in.So what exactly is a UTI? A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is a general term for any infection along the urinary tract. Infections usually start in the lower urinary tract, where the urethra (the tube that allows urine to pass out of the body) and bladder (where urine is stored) are located.Sometimes UTIs travel to the ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder) and kidneys (where urine is produced).Anyone can get a UTI and at any age, including babies, toddlers, and men—but these infections are much more common in women. Doctors say it’s an anatomy thing: Women’s urethras are shorter than men’s and closer to the anus, so it’s easier for bacteria to enter the body and ascend the urinary tract.Most UTIs are bladder infections (also called cystitis). Common symptoms include burning; lower abdominal pain; and a frequent or urgent need to urinate, even if you barely have a trickle of pee to pass.If the infection travels from the bladder to one or both kidneys, more worrisome symptoms can develop. Kidney infections (also called pyelonephritis) are a type of UTI that can spike a fever and cause back pain; nausea; vomiting; and bloody, cloudy, or foul-smelling urine.RELATED: 7 Things Every Woman Should Know About UTIsThomas Hooton, MD, professor of clinical medicine at the University of Miami School of Medicine, tells patients with recurrent infections who have mild symptoms to “try to treat it naturally with increased fluid and some pain relief.” If UTI symptoms improve in a day or two, “well, then, you’ve saved yourself an antibiotic,” he says.That’s important, says the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), because overuse of antibiotics can render these drugs ineffective against future bacterial infections, including recurrent UTIs.If symptoms are bad or don’t improve, “by all means,” Dr. Hooton says, “call the doctor and get an antibiotic.”Older, post-menopausal women experiencing repeated UTIs should speak with a doctor about a prescription for vaginal estrogen, adds Nazema Siddiqui, MD, assistant professor of urogynecology and reconstructive pelvic surgery at Duke University Medical Center. Research shows it can help by building the body’s defense against bad bugs.If your child has urinary symptoms (which can differ from your own), consult your pediatrician and seek immediate care if fever and other signs of illness last more than 24 hours. Young children are at greater risk of kidney damage from UTIs than older kids and adults, says the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).That said, there are times when it makes sense for UTI sufferers to go the home-remedy route because some things may actually help. Here’s how to treat a UTI at home.RELATED: What Does It Mean if You're Peeing Blood? We Asked a Doctor

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Источник: https://www.health.com/condition/sexual-health/uti-home-remedies

Urinary Tract Infections and Self-Care Options

US Pharm. 2017;9(42):4-7.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most commonly occurring infections, affecting approximately 150 million people worldwide each year.1 In the United States alone, the societal costs of UTIs are estimated to be $3.5 billion annually.1 UTIs can affect both men and women, but they are especially common in women of childbearing age.2 Most women will experience at least one episode during their lifetime; by 32 years of age, more than half of all women will have reported having at least one urinary tract infection.2,3 Almost 25% of women will have a recurrent infection within a year.2

A UTI is an infection of the urinary system. UTIs are classified as uncomplicated and complicated.4Uncomplicated UTIs are those occurring in healthy, premenopausal women with no urinary tract abnormalities.3Complicated UTIs are caused by abnormalities that compromise the urinary tract, such as urinary obstruction, urinary retention, immunosuppression, renal failure, renal transplantation, and presence of foreign objects; pregnancy is another cause.1 Indwelling catheters account for one million cases, or 70% to 80%, of complicated UTIs in the U.S. per year.1 Complicated UTIs occur in both sexes and often affect the upper and lower urinary tracts. UTIs are further categorized based on location: lower UTIs (cystitis) and upper UTIs (pyelonephritis). Pharmacists will frequently encounter patients inquiring about relief from UTI-related symptoms, so it is important that they understand the various OTC products marketed for the management of UTIs.

Etiology and Risk Factors

Urine is generally sterile, and the causative agents for most UTIs originate in bowel flora that enter the periurethral area. Most UTIs are caused by one organism; UTIs caused by multiple organisms may indicate contamination. The causative agents are gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, as well as some fungi.1 The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli accounts for almost 90% of all episodes.3,5 Other common causative agents include Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, group B streptococcus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida species.

Women are more likely to develop a UTI because their urethras are shorter than men’s.5 Other risk factors include previous episodes of UTI, sexual intercourse, spermicide use, new sexual partner, reduced mobility, changes in vaginal flora, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes, urinary incontinence, kidney stones, prostate enlargement, and history of UTI in a first-degree relative.2,4,5 In the elderly population, other risk factors to consider are age-related changes in immune function, increased exposure to nosocomial pathogens, and an increased number of comorbidities.6 Certain behaviors are thought to contribute to the development of UTIs, such as frequency of urination and delayed voiding, not voiding pre- and postcoitally, consumption of certain beverages, hot tub usage, douching, wiping patterns, and choice of clothing; BMI may also be a factor. A case-control study found no increased risk of UTI development with these practices.7

Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

Patients with cystitis often present with a frequent, persistent urge to urinate despite passing a small amount, dysuria or a burning sensation during urination, or suprapubic heaviness.7 Patients with pyelonephritis often experience flank pain or tenderness, a low fever (<101 F), chills, nausea, vomiting, and malaise with or without symptoms of cystitis.2 Patients with a lower or upper UTI may experience hematuria or notice that their urine is cloudy or has a strong odor. Elderly patients tend to present with nonspecific symptoms including altered mental status, change in eating habits, lower abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation.6

In most patients who present with signs and symptoms of UTIs, a history of illness is the most important diagnostic tool, especially when symptom onset is sudden or severe and when vaginal discharge and irritation are not present.2,3 Sometimes, however, UTI diagnosis cannot rely solely on patient symptoms because some patients are asymptomatic; this is more common in older adults than in younger adults.6 Laboratory tests, urine-sample tests, and pelvic examinations should be performed in patients with urinary tract symptoms to properly diagnose UTIs.2,3 Laboratory tests for UTIs include assessments for the presence of bacteriuria and pyuria, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, and antibody-coated bacteria.2

Commercially available dipsticks may be used to detect the presence of a UTI. The pharmacist can recommend an OTC UTI home test kit to determine whether causative agents of UTI are present. After use, the patient should call the physician with the results for evaluation and treatment. The available test kits detect leukocyte esterase and nitrite. Testing for these substances increases overall sensitivity and specificity and reduces the risk of false-negative results.8 Self-testing for UTIs has been proven accurate with proper use, but to avoid inaccurate or false results, patients should be advised to obtain a clean-catch urine specimen and to avoid consuming more than 250 mg of vitamin C within 24 hours of testing; women should not test during their menses.8,9 A strict vegetarian diet, tetracycline, and phenazopyridine may cause inaccurate results.9

Preventive Measures

Almost 25% of women experience recurrent episodes of UTI.10 This is defined as either two uncomplicated UTIs in 6 months or three or more positive cultures within the preceding 12 months.10 UTIs can occur even when precautions are taken, but pharmacists can recommend preventive measures to reduce a patient’s risk for recurrent infections. If a woman is using spermicide-containing contraceptives, she should be counseled about the possible connection between her contraceptive method and recurrent infections, and an alternative form of contraception should be considered. Although studies have not indicated a correlation, behavioral modifications such as staying hydrated, urinating before and after sexual activity, urinating regularly, using tampons instead of sanitary pads and changing them every 3 hours, wiping from front to back, wearing clean cotton underwear and loose-fitting, breathable clothing, and taking showers instead of baths may be helpful. Topical estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women may help prevent UTI recurrences by altering the vaginal flora.6,11 Evidence for use of acupuncture and immunoprophylactic regimens is limited.12

There is little evidence of the efficacy of natural supplements in the prevention of UTIs. Research suggests that the antioxidant proanthocyanidin and the fructose in cranberries can help prevent bacteria, particularly E coli, from clinging to the walls of the urinary tract.13 Cranberry products are available in an array of dosage forms: juice, syrup, capsules, and tablets. Data on the efficacy of cranberry juice in preventing recurrent UTIs are conflicting. A recent Cochrane review determined that cranberry products do not significantly reduce the risk of recurrences compared with placebo.13 Similarly, the use of probiotics has also been considered for the prevention of UTIs. Probiotics support the body’s normal flora, and it is theorized that probiotics form a barrier against pathogens ascending the urinary tract, preventing the adherence, growth, and colonization of the urogenital epithelium by uropathogenic bacteria.14,15 To date, data regarding a protective effect of probiotics against future UTIs have been inconsistent, and additional large, well-designed studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of probiotics.14

Management: Nonprescription Products

Active ingredients found in OTC urinary tract analgesics include phenazopyridine hydrochloride, methenamine, and sodium salicylate (TABLE 1). Phenazopyridine, which provides relief from the pain, burning, itching, and urgency of UTIs, is available in both prescription (100-mg and 200-mg tablets) and OTC form (95-mg and 97.5-mg tablets). The recommended OTC dosage is two tablets three times daily during or after meals with a full glass of water for up to 2 days. Patients with kidney disease or an allergy to dyes should not take this medication. Patients should be advised that their urine may become reddish-orange in color, which is not harmful but can stain clothing. Common adverse effects (AEs) include headache, dizziness, and upset stomach.

Methenamine (an antibacterial) and sodium salicylate (a nonsteroidal inflammatory drug [NSAID]) work in conjunction with one another; sodium salicylate stabilizes the urine pH, allowing methenamine to slow the growth of bacteria along the urinary tract and control the UTI. The recommended dosage is two tablets three times daily. Patients should be advised not to take this product if they are allergic to salicylates, are on a low-sodium diet or anticoagulant therapy, or have stomach problems.

Patients may also take pain relievers, such as NSAIDs or acetaminophen, for general relief of UTI-associated pain.

Role of the Pharmacist

It is imperative that pharmacists urge patients who present with UTI symptoms to consult with their healthcare provider as soon as possible to receive appropriate care. Pharmacists should counsel patients on nonpharmacologic treatments and present the option of nonprescription products and UTI home test kits. Patients who decide to use UTI home test kits should be advised on how to avoid inaccurate results and to discuss their results with their healthcare provider. Patients who decide to use OTC urinary tract analgesics should be counseled on the recommended maximum dosage and duration and on common AEs. It is imperative to remind patients that these products are intended only to provide relief of pain and other related symptoms until the healthcare provider is seen. These products do not eradicate bacteria or replace the use of antibiotic treatment, and they should not be used as monotherapy.

What Causes UTIs?

The bacterium that causes most UTIs is Escherichia coli. UTIs can affect both men and women, but they are more common in women. Although UTIs can affect anyone, some factors that can increase your chance of contracting a UTI include sexual intercourse, menopause, spermicides, pregnancy, older age, obesity, genetics, and antibiotic use.

How Can I Tell if I Have a UTI?

Not all UTIs have obvious symptoms, but signs and symptoms of a possible UTI include the need to urinate often, pain and burning sensations during urination, low fever, nausea, vomiting, feeling ill, and back or abdominal pain. You may also notice that your urine is bloody, cloudy, or odorous.

See your doctor immediately if you think you have a UTI, or ask your pharmacist about purchasing a UTI test kit. If you decide to use the take-home UTI test strips, follow the instructions carefully and be sure to discuss your test results with your doctor.

What Can I Take to Relieve Pain?

Phenazopyridine hydrochloride may relieve your pain, burning, itching, and urgency to urinate within 20 minutes. Avoid taking it if you have kidney disease or are allergic to dyes. Do not worry if your urine turns reddish-orange when you take this medication. This common effect is not harmful, but it can stain clothing.

Methenamine (an antibacterial agent) and sodium salicylate (a nonsteroidal inflammatory drug [NSAID]) work together to slow bacterial growth along the urinary tract and to control the UTI. Do not take this medication if you are allergic to aspirin,  are on a low-sodium diet or anticoagulant therapy, or have stomach problems.

You can also take other pain relievers, such as NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib) or acetaminophen (Tylenol).

What Natural Supplements Can I Take to Prevent Another UTI?

There is little evidence that natural supplements can prevent UTIs, but you can try cranberry supplements or probiotics. Cranberries contain antioxidants that may help prevent bacteria in the urinary tract from sticking to the walls of the urinary tract. Drinking 10 to 30 oz of cranberry juice per day may be beneficial. Probiotics may help prevent UTIs by supporting the body’s natural microorganisms in the flora.

What Steps Can I Take to Prevent Another UTI?

Drink lots of water, urinate before and after sexual activity, change tampons regularly, wipe from front to back, wear cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothing, and take showers instead of baths.

Remember, if you have questions, Consult Your Pharmacist.

REFERENCES

1. Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015;13:269-284.
2. Hooton TM. Clinical practice. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1028-1037.
3. Colgan R, Williams M. Diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:771-776.
4. Mody L, Juthani-Mehta M. JAMA patient page. Urinary tract infections in older women. JAMA. 2014;311:874.
5. Minardi D, d’Anzeo G, Cantoro D, et al. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:333-343.
6. Rowe TA, Juthani-Mehta M. Urinary tract infection in older adults. Aging Health. 2013;9:10.2217/ahe.13.38.
7. Scholes D, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, et al. Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1177-1182.
8. Scolaro KL, Lloyd KB, Helms KL. Devices for home evaluation of women’s health concerns. Am J Health-Syst Pharm AJHP Off J Am Soc Health-Syst Pharm. 2008;65:299-314.
9. Azo Test Strips. FAQs. www.azoproducts.com/products/azo-test-strips. 2017. Accessed August 9, 2017.
10. Epp A, Larochelle A, Lovatsis D, et al. Recurrent urinary tract infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010;32:1082-1101.
11. Beerepoot MA, Geerlings SE, van Haarst EP, et al. Nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Urol. 2013;190:1981-1989.
12. Arnold JJ, Hehn LE, Klein DA. Common questions about recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93:560-569.
13. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(10):CD001321.
14. Schwenger EM, Tejani AM, Loewen PS. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD008772.
15. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Tokas T, Athanasiou S. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Drugs. 2006;66:1253-1261.

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Read More On: INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Источник: https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/urinary-tract-infections-and-selfcare-options

Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care

What to Expect at Home

UTIs can lead to infection. Most often the infection occurs in the bladder itself. At times, the infection can spread to the kidneys.

Common symptoms include:

  • Bad urine odor
  • Pain or burning when you urinate
  • Needing to urinate more often
  • Hard to empty your bladder all the way
  • Strong need to empty your bladder

These symptoms should improve soon after you begin taking antibiotics.

If you are feeling ill, have a low-grade fever, or some pain in your lower back, these symptoms will take 1 to 2 days to improve, and up to 1 week to go away completely.

Taking Your Medicines

You will be given antibiotics to be taken by mouth at home.

  • You may need to take antibiotics for only 3 days, or for up to 7 to 14 days.
  • You should take all of the antibiotics, even if you feel better. If you do not finish all of your antibiotics, the infection could return and may be harder to treat.

Antibiotics may rarely cause side effects, such as nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and other symptoms. Report these to your health care provide. Do not just stop taking the pills.

Make sure your provider knows if you could be pregnant before starting the antibiotics.

Your provider may also give you a drug to relieve the burning pain and urgent need to urinate.

  • Your urine will have an orange or red color to it when you are taking this drug.
  • You will still need to take antibiotics.

Preventing Future Urinary Tract Infections

BATHING AND HYGIENE

To prevent future urinary tract infections, you should:

  • Choose sanitary pads instead of tampons, which some doctors believe make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you use the bathroom.
  • Do not douche or use feminine hygiene sprays or powders. As a general rule, do not use any product containing perfumes in the genital area.
  • Take showers instead of baths. Avoid bath oils.
  • Keep your genital area clean. Clean your genital and anal areas before and after sexual activity.
  • Urinate before and after sexual activity. Drinking 2 glasses of water after sexual activity may help promote urination.
  • Wipe from front to back after using the bathroom.
  • Avoid tight-fitting pants. Wear cotton-cloth underwear and pantyhose, and change both at least once a day.

DIET

The following improvements to your diet may prevent future urinary tract infections:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, 2 to 4 quarts (2 to 4 liters) each day.
  • Do not drink fluids that irritate the bladder, such as alcohol and caffeine.

RECURRING INFECTIONS

Some women have repeated bladder infections. Your provider may suggest that you:

  • Use vaginal estrogen cream if you have dryness caused by menopause.
  • Take a single dose of an antibiotic after sexual contact.
  • Take a cranberry supplement pill after sexual contact.
  • Have a 3-day course of antibiotics at home to use if you develop an infection.
  • Take a single, daily dose of an antibiotic to prevent infections.

Follow-up

See your health care provider after you finish taking antibiotics to make sure that the infection is gone.

If you do not improve or you are having problems with your treatment, talk to your provider sooner.

When to Call the Doctor

Call your provider right away if the following symptoms develop (these may be signs of a possible kidney infection.):

  • Back or side pain
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Vomiting

Also call if UTI symptoms come back shortly after you have been treated with antibiotics.

References

Fayssoux K. Bacterial infections of the urinary tract in women. In: Kellerman RD, Rakel DP, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2021. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:1158-1160.

Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(5):e103-e120. PMID: 21292654 .

Nicolle LE, Drekonja D. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 268.

Sobel JD, Brown P. Urinary tract infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 72. 

Version Info

Last reviewed on: 4/14/2021

Reviewed by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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Источник: https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/selfcare-instructions/urinary-tract-infection-in-women-self-care

Tracking Down Relief for a Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections that can cause serious health problems if left untreated. The infection can spread to your bladder or kidney within three days, which is why women should seek care immediately for a quick diagnosis and prompt treatment.

By visiting with a doctor right away, you can start antibiotics before the infection spreads. According to Bindi Shukla, MD, an urgent care doctor at Duke Urgent Care Croasdaile, “If you think you may have signs of a UTI and develop body aches or lower abdominal pain, you should see a doctor soon.”

Dr. Shukla said the top complaint of a UTI is discomfort when urinating. You may feel pain or a burning sensation, or even see blood in your urine. Frequency of bathroom use is a sign, too. “Some people may have to urinate every minute or two, others every 20 minutes, but there’s always a cluster of symptoms that include a need to urinate more and have discomfort or an uncommon odor with urinating,” she said.

While men can get UTIs, they are more common in women because of the female anatomy. Bacteria that cause UTIs often come from feces, and because urethra -- the tube in which urine travels from the bladder to the outside of the body -- is shorter in women, bacteria have a shorter distance to travel to infect the bladder.

Most cases of UTIs are actually cystitis, an infection in the bladder that causes inflammation and irritation. A kidney infection can bring symptoms that are not typical to cystitis: fever and back pain. If left untreated, it can progress to sepsis, a potentially life-threatening, whole-body infection.

During your doctor’s visit, a urine sample will be collected and tested to confirm the diagnosis. Your doctor may also perform a physical exam and press on your abdomen to test for muscle tenderness or kidney issues. A pelvic exam may be necessary to check for any discharge, rash, or lumps. You’ll also be asked about a fever, chills, body aches, stomach pains, or nausea and vomiting, which can all be part of your body’s reaction to an infection.

An antibiotic is the only medication that will cure a UTI. Depending on the severity and where the infection has traveled, different levels of antibiotics will be recommended. While you’ll feel better quickly, it’s important to complete the entire course of antibiotics. If you stop your antibiotic too quickly, the infection can return and start a vicious cycle.

Bathroom habits can help: Wiping from front to back will avoid pulling bacteria toward your vagina. If you’re prone to UTIs, drinking plenty of liquids is important; water is safer and less expensive than cranberry juice, long touted as preventive medicine for UTIs. The juice could upset your stomach and may be associated with kidney stones. Whatever you’re drinking, urine should be pale yellow to clear as an indication you’re staying hydrated. Increased urination can wash out bacteria.

Dr. Shukla also said that urinating after intercourse can help prevent the spread of bacteria to the urethra and decrease the chances for infection. The use of spermicides, especially in conjunction with condoms and diaphragms, is also associated with recurrent UTIs.

Bindi Shukla, MD, is an urgent care doctor at Duke Urgent Care Croasdaile.

Источник: https://www.dukehealth.org/blog/tracking-down-relief-urinary-tract-infection

Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder.

UTIs can lead to infection. Most often the infection occurs in the bladder itself. At times, the infection can spread to the kidneys.

Common symptoms include:

  • Bad urine odor
  • Pain or burning when you urinate
  • Needing to urinate more often
  • Hard to empty your bladder all the way
  • Strong need to empty your bladder

These symptoms should improve soon after you begin taking antibiotics.

If you are feeling ill, have a low-grade fever, or some pain in your lower back, these symptoms will take 1 to 2 days to improve, and up to 1 week to go away completely.

You will be given antibiotics to be taken by mouth at home.

  • You may need to take antibiotics for only 3 days, or for up to 7 to 14 days.
  • You should take all of the antibiotics, even if you feel better. If you do not finish all of your antibiotics, the infection could return and may be harder to treat.

Antibiotics may rarely cause side effects, such as nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and other symptoms. Report these to your health care provide. Do not just stop taking the pills.

Make sure your provider knows if you could be pregnant before starting the antibiotics.

Your provider may also give you a drug to relieve the burning pain and urgent need to urinate.

  • Your urine will have an orange or red color to it when you are taking this drug.
  • You will still need to take antibiotics.

BATHING AND HYGIENE

To prevent future urinary tract infections, you should:

  • Choose sanitary pads instead of tampons, which some doctors believe make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you use the bathroom.
  • Do not douche or use feminine hygiene sprays or powders. As a general rule, do not use any product containing perfumes in the genital area.
  • Take showers instead of baths. Avoid bath oils.
  • Keep your genital area clean. Clean your genital and anal areas before and after sexual activity.
  • Urinate before and after sexual activity. Drinking 2 glasses of water after sexual activity may help promote urination.
  • Wipe from front to back after using the bathroom.
  • Avoid tight-fitting pants. Wear cotton-cloth underwear and pantyhose, and change both at least once a day.

DIET

The following improvements to your diet may prevent future urinary tract infections:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, 2 to 4 quarts (2 to 4 liters) each day.
  • Do not drink fluids that irritate the bladder, such as alcohol and caffeine.

RECURRING INFECTIONS

Some women have repeated bladder infections. Your provider may suggest that you:

  • Use vaginal estrogen cream if you have dryness caused by menopause.
  • Take a single dose of an antibiotic after sexual contact.
  • Take a cranberry supplement pill after sexual contact.
  • Have a 3-day course of antibiotics at home to use if you develop an infection.
  • Take a single, daily dose of an antibiotic to prevent infections.

See your health care provider after you finish taking antibiotics to make sure that the infection is gone.

If you do not improve or you are having problems with your treatment, talk to your provider sooner.

Call your provider right away if the following symptoms develop (these may be signs of a possible kidney infection.):

  • Back or side pain
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Vomiting

Also call if UTI symptoms come back shortly after you have been treated with antibiotics.

UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care

Fayssoux K. Bacterial infections of the urinary tract in women. In: Kellerman RD, Rakel DP, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2021. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:1158-1160.

Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(5):e103-e120. PMID: 21292654 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21292654/.

Nicolle LE, Drekonja D. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 268.

Sobel JD, Brown P. Urinary tract infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 72. 

Updated by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Browse the Encyclopedia

Источник: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000391.htm

Treatment

How do health care professionals treat a bladder infection?

If you have a bladder infection caused by bacteria, a health care professional is likely to prescribe antibiotics. If the diagnosis is not certain, based on your symptoms or lab test results, you may not need antibiotics. Instead, your health care professional will work to find the cause and the best treatment for your symptoms.

Medicines

Which antibiotic you take is based on the type of bacteria causing your infection and any allergies you may have to antibiotics.

The length of treatment depends on

  • how severe the infection is
  • whether your symptoms and infection go away
  • whether you have repeated infections
  • whether you have problems with your urinary tract

Men may need to take antibiotics longer because bacteria can move into the prostate gland, which surrounds the urethra. Bacteria can hide deep inside prostate tissue.

Follow your health care professional’s instructions carefully and completely when taking antibiotics. Although you may feel relief from your symptoms, make sure to take the entire antibiotic treatment.

If needed, a health care professional may prescribe other medicines to relieve any pain or discomfort from your bladder infection.

At-home treatments

Drink a lot of liquids and urinate often to speed healing. Water is best. Talk with a health care professional if you can’t drink a lot of liquids due to other health problems, such as urinary incontinence, urinary frequency, or heart or kidney failure.

A heating pad on your back or abdomen may help you manage pain from a kidney or bladder infection.

Research

Researchers are studying ways to treat or prevent bladder infections without taking antibiotics. The bacteria that cause these infections can become stronger and harder to fight when a person takes antibiotics repeatedly. Alternate approaches include probiotics, vaginal estrogen, and "watchful waiting." Talk to your health care professional about any treatment for a bladder infection before you start it, including home remedies and supplements. Some supplements can have side effects or react poorly with other medications you take.

Man drinks from a large glass of water as he works on a computer.

How can I prevent a bladder infection?

Changing some of your daily habits and lifestyle choices may help you prevent repeated bladder infections.

Drink enough liquids

Most people should try drinking six to eight, 8-ounce glasses of liquid a day. Talk with a health care professional if you can’t drink this amount due to other health problems, such as urinary incontinence, urinary frequency, or heart or kidney failure.

Be aware of your bathroom habits

Take enough time to fully empty your bladder when urinating—don’t rush it. Urinate after sex to flush away bacteria that may have entered the urethra during sex. Clean the genital area before and after sex.

If you’re a woman, wipe from front to back, especially after a bowel movement, to keep bacteria from getting into the urethra.

Wear loose-fitting clothing

Consider wearing cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes so air can keep the area around the urethra dry.

Consider switching birth control methods if you have repeat bladder infections

If you have trouble with repeat bladder infections, talk with a health care professional about your birth control. Consider switching to a new form of birth control if you use diaphragms, unlubricated condoms, or spermicide, all of which can increase your chances of developing a bladder infection. Consider using lubricated condoms without spermicide or using a nonspermicidal lubricant.

Last Reviewed March 2017

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

The NIDDK would like to thank:
Ann E. Stapleton, MD, FIDSA, FACP, University of Washington School of Medicine

Источник: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/bladder-infection-uti-in-adults/treatment

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bladder infections to catch, especially for women. Most UTIs are caused by bacteria getting into the urinary tract and causing inflammation and pain. “The female anatomy is a set up for infections of the bladders,” explains Sherry A. Ross, MD, a women’s health expert and author of She-ology: The Definitive Guide to Women’s Intimate Health. Period.Dr. Sherry explains that because women have a shorter urethra, which is essentially the tube that leads urine from the bladder out of the body, bacteria can enter much more easily than it can through male anatomy. In fact, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, women are 30 times more likely to get a UTI than men and more than half of women will have at least one UTI in their lifetime. But as much as knowing you’re not in the minority may be reassuring, it doesn’t take away from the stinging, burning, and needing to rush to the bathroom every 10 minutes feeling you get when you have a bladder infection.

5 natural remedies for UTI relief

“A true UTI needs antibiotics to clear the bacteria responsible for the symptoms and infection,” Dr. Sherry explains, so call your doctor if you're experiencing UTI symptoms. While you wait for your appointment, though, there are some home remedies you can try to help relieve some of the discomfort.

Avoid foods and beverages that will irritate your bladder

Drinking coffee and alcohol, and eating spicy food or foods with lots of added sugar will irritate the urinary tract. They can decrease the blood flow to the bladder, which will make it harder for your immune system to fight off the infection.

Drink lots of water and empty your bladder often

According to Chicago-based OB/GYN, Jessica Shepherd, MD, drinking lots of water when you are experiencing UTI symptoms can help flush away the bacteria. “Draining your bladder frequently is essential to getting rid of the bacteria,” Dr. Shepherd explains. The more water you drink, the more you’ll have to relieve yourself.

Use a heating pad

Dr. Shepherd and Dr. Sherry both recommend applying heat to your abdomen for relief from UTI cramps or the burning sensation. “A heating pad or hot water bottle over your lower abdomen can help ease some of the discomfort from a UTI,” Dr. Sherry says. If you’re using an electric heating pad, be careful not to fall asleep with it on or leave it on your skin for long periods of time. This can be dangerous and either burn your skin or worse, cause a fire.

Try an herbal remedy

Recent studies have shown that uva ursi plant extract, also known as bearberry, may help combat UTIs through the plant’s antimicrobial properties. However, there can be side effects, and uva ursi can be harmful if not taken properly, so be sure to consult your doctor before trying the supplement.

Avoid vitamin C if you're already experiencing UTI symptoms

Vitamin C is known to help prevent UTIs by acidifying the urine, which can kill certain bacteria present in the urinary tract. But Dr. Sherry warns if you already have a UTI or are experiencing real symptoms of one, vitamin C will not be effective in killing off bacteria. This is because unless you know the exact bacteria causing the UTI, vitamin C—although helpful—may not be doing enough to kill the infection you’re experiencing.


How to prevent a UTI from striking again

Sick of dealing with urinary tract infections? Really, the best "natural remedy" is simple: just prevent one from striking in the first place! Here's how:

Drink cranberry juice

Although it has often been thought of as a treatment option, cranberry juice can only help as a preventative measure. “Cranberry juice can be helpful in preventing UTIs by making the urine more acidic and preventing harmful bacteria from sticking to the walls of the bladder,” Dr. Sherry explains. “An acidic environment in the urine makes bacterial build-up more difficult and reduces your chance of getting a UTI. But even with this information, studies have conflicting evidence about cranberries being a reliable source for prevention.” So if you’re prone to UTIs, it won’t hurt to drink unsweetened cranberry juice. But it’s definitely not the UTI cure-all it has always been thought to be.

Practice good hygiene after sex and ask your partner to, too

“Overall health with increased water intake and exercise is the best way to improve health and help with decreasing UTIs,” Dr. Shepherd shares. This includes good hygiene and being diligent about cleaning all of your lady parts. And make sure your partner does, too. “Bacteria from sexual intercourse is one of the most common ways women can get a UTI,” Dr. Shepherd explains.

Limit antibiotic use

Although it can’t always be avoided, frequent antibiotic use can actually cause more harm than good and lead to UTIs. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea, which can allow unwanted bacteria to enter the urethra. When fighting off illness, antibiotics can wipe out good as well as bad bacteria, which can leave you more prone to infection. Dr. Sherry recommends taking a daily probiotic to help repopulate the good bacteria in your body, but more research is needed to test its effectiveness in treating UTIs.

Avoid feminine hygiene products with scents and chemicals

“Using feminine products that have perfumes and other irritating chemicals can introduce disruptive bacteria into your body,” Dr. Sherry says. Even more so, Dr. Sherry stresses that if you’re prone to UTIs, any products that will allow unwanted bacteria to enter your body should be avoided. “Avoid diaphragms, vaginal sponges, diva cups, and sex toys if you’re prone to UTIs,” she advises.

Wipe front to back

“Always remember to wipe ‘front to back’ to avoid bringing unwanted bacteria from the anus to the vaginal area,” Dr. Sherry says. A rule as simple as this make all the difference between frequent UTIs and not getting any.

Stay hydrated

“Drinking a lot of water will help keep unwanted bacteria moving out of your body,” Dr. Sherry says. “And, don’t hold in your urine for long periods of time—a general rule of thumb is to urinate every two to three hours or when you first feel the urge.”

Sara ShulmanContributorSarah is a Florida-based freelance writer and personal trainer whose work has appeared in Business Insider, Well + Good, Men's Fitness, TripSavvy, and more.

This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

Источник: https://www.prevention.com/health/a20517012/19-ways-to-ease-the-discomfort-of-a-urinary-tract-infection/

Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder.

UTIs can lead to infection. Most often the infection occurs in the bladder itself. At times, the infection can spread to the kidneys.

Common symptoms include:

  • Bad urine odor
  • Pain or burning when you urinate
  • Needing to urinate more often
  • Hard to empty your bladder all the way
  • Strong need to empty your bladder

These symptoms should improve soon after you begin taking antibiotics.

If you are feeling ill, have a low-grade fever, or some pain in your lower back, these symptoms will take 1 to 2 days to improve, and up to 1 week to go away completely.

You will be given antibiotics to be taken by mouth at home.

  • You may need to take antibiotics for only 3 days, or for up to 7 to 14 days.
  • You should take all of the antibiotics, even if you feel better. If you do not finish all of your antibiotics, the infection could return and may be harder to treat.

Antibiotics may rarely cause side effects, such as nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and other symptoms. Report these to your health care provide. Do not just stop taking the pills.

Make sure your provider knows if you could be pregnant before starting the antibiotics.

Your provider may also give you a drug to relieve the burning pain and urgent need to urinate.

  • Your urine will have home care remedies for uti orange or red color to it when you are taking this drug.
  • You will still need to take antibiotics.

BATHING AND HYGIENE

To prevent future urinary tract infections, you should:

  • Choose sanitary pads instead of tampons, which some doctors believe make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you use the bathroom.
  • Do not douche or use feminine hygiene sprays or powders. As a general rule, do not use any product containing perfumes in the genital area.
  • Take showers instead of baths. Avoid bath oils.
  • Keep your genital area clean. Clean your genital and anal areas before and after sexual activity.
  • Urinate before and after sexual activity. Drinking 2 glasses of water after sexual activity may help promote urination.
  • Wipe from front to back after using the bathroom.
  • Avoid tight-fitting pants. Wear cotton-cloth underwear and pantyhose, and change both at least once a day.

DIET

The following improvements to your diet may prevent future urinary tract infections:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, 2 to 4 quarts (2 to 4 liters) each day.
  • Do not drink fluids that irritate the bladder, such as alcohol and caffeine.

RECURRING INFECTIONS

Some women have repeated bladder infections. Your provider may suggest that you:

  • Use vaginal estrogen cream if you have dryness caused by menopause.
  • Take a single dose of an antibiotic after sexual contact.
  • Take a cranberry supplement pill after sexual contact.
  • Have a 3-day course of antibiotics at home to use if you develop an infection.
  • Take a single, daily dose of an antibiotic to prevent infections.

See your health care provider after you finish taking antibiotics to make sure that the infection is gone.

If you do not improve or you are having problems with your treatment, talk to your provider sooner.

Call your provider right away if the following symptoms develop (these may be signs of a possible kidney infection.):

  • Back or side pain
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Vomiting

Also call if UTI symptoms come back shortly after you have been treated with antibiotics.

UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care

Fayssoux K. Bacterial infections of the urinary tract in women. In: Kellerman RD, Rakel DP, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2021. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:1158-1160.

Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(5):e103-e120. PMID: 21292654 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21292654/.

Nicolle LE, Drekonja D. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 268.

Sobel JD, Brown P. Urinary tract infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 72. 

Updated by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Browse the Encyclopedia

Источник: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000391.htm

Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care

What to Expect at Home

UTIs can lead to infection. Most often the infection occurs in the bladder itself. At times, the infection can spread to the kidneys.

Common symptoms include:

  • Bad urine odor
  • Pain or burning when you urinate
  • Needing to urinate more often
  • Hard to empty your bladder all the way
  • Strong need to empty your bladder

These symptoms should improve soon after you begin taking antibiotics.

If you are feeling ill, have a low-grade fever, or some pain in your lower back, these symptoms will take 1 to 2 days to improve, and up to 1 week to go away completely.

Taking Your Medicines

You will be given antibiotics to be taken by mouth at home.

  • You may need to take antibiotics for only 3 days, or for up to 7 to 14 days.
  • You should take all of the antibiotics, even if you feel better. If you do not finish all of your antibiotics, the infection could return and may be harder to treat.

Antibiotics may rarely cause side effects, such as nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and other symptoms. Report these to your health care provide. Do not just stop taking the pills.

Make sure your provider knows if you could be pregnant before starting the antibiotics.

Your provider may also give you a drug to relieve the burning pain and urgent need to urinate.

  • Your urine will have an orange or red color to it when you are taking this drug.
  • You will still need to take antibiotics.

Preventing Future Urinary Tract Infections

BATHING AND HYGIENE

To prevent future urinary tract infections, you should:

  • Choose sanitary pads instead of tampons, which some doctors believe make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you use the bathroom.
  • Do not douche or use feminine hygiene sprays or powders. As a general rule, do not use any product containing perfumes in the genital area.
  • Take showers instead of baths. Avoid bath oils.
  • Keep your genital area clean. Clean your genital and anal areas before and after sexual activity.
  • Urinate before and after sexual activity. Drinking 2 glasses of water after sexual activity may help promote urination.
  • Wipe from front to back after using the bathroom.
  • Avoid tight-fitting pants. Wear cotton-cloth underwear and pantyhose, and change both at least once a day.

DIET

The following improvements to your diet may prevent future urinary tract infections:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, 2 to 4 quarts (2 to 4 liters) each day.
  • Do not drink fluids that irritate the bladder, such as alcohol and caffeine.

RECURRING INFECTIONS

Some women have repeated bladder infections. Your provider may suggest that you:

  • Use vaginal estrogen cream if you have dryness caused by menopause.
  • Take a single dose of an antibiotic after sexual contact.
  • Take a cranberry supplement pill after sexual contact.
  • Have a 3-day course of antibiotics at home to use if you develop an infection.
  • Take a single, daily dose of an antibiotic to prevent infections.

Follow-up

See your health care provider after you finish taking antibiotics to make sure that the infection is gone.

If you do not improve or you are having problems with your treatment, talk to your provider sooner.

When to Call the Doctor

Call your provider right away if the following symptoms develop (these may be signs of a possible kidney infection.):

  • Back or side pain
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Vomiting

Also call if UTI symptoms come back shortly after you have been treated with antibiotics.

References

Fayssoux K. Bacterial infections of the urinary tract in women. In: Kellerman RD, Rakel DP, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2021. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:1158-1160.

Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(5):e103-e120. PMID: 21292654 .

Nicolle LE, Drekonja D. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. td bank atm near me now ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 268.

Sobel JD, Brown P. Urinary tract infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Home care remedies for uti and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 72. 

Version Info

Last reviewed on: 4/14/2021

Reviewed by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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Источник: https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/selfcare-instructions/urinary-tract-infection-in-women-self-care

Tracking Down Relief for a Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections that can cause serious health problems if left untreated. The infection can spread to your bladder or kidney within three days, which is why women should seek care immediately for a quick diagnosis and prompt treatment.

By visiting with a doctor right away, you can start antibiotics before the infection spreads. According to Bindi Shukla, MD, an urgent care doctor at Duke Urgent Care Croasdaile, “If you think you may have signs of a UTI and develop body aches or lower abdominal pain, you should see a doctor soon.”

Dr. Shukla said the top complaint of a UTI is discomfort when urinating. You may feel pain or a burning sensation, or even see blood in your urine. Frequency of bathroom use is a sign, too. “Some people may have to urinate every minute or two, others every 20 minutes, but there’s always a cluster of symptoms that include a need to urinate more and have discomfort or an uncommon odor with urinating,” she said.

While men can get UTIs, they are more common in women because of the female home care remedies for uti. Bacteria that cause UTIs often come from feces, and because urethra -- the tube in which home care remedies for uti travels from the bladder to the outside of the body -- is shorter in women, bacteria have a shorter distance to travel to infect the bladder.

Most cases of Home care remedies for uti are actually cystitis, an infection in the bladder that causes inflammation and irritation. A kidney infection can bring symptoms that are not typical to cystitis: fever and back pain. If left untreated, home care remedies for uti can progress to sepsis, a potentially life-threatening, whole-body infection.

During your doctor’s visit, a urine sample will be collected and tested to confirm the diagnosis. Your doctor may also perform a physical exam and press on your abdomen to test for muscle tenderness or kidney issues. A pelvic exam may be necessary to check for any discharge, rash, or lumps. You’ll also be asked about a fever, chills, body aches, stomach pains, or nausea and vomiting, which can all be part of your body’s reaction to an green dot prepaid card check balance antibiotic is the only medication that will cure a UTI. Depending on the severity and where the infection has traveled, different levels of antibiotics will be recommended. While you’ll feel better quickly, it’s important to complete the entire course of antibiotics. If you stop your antibiotic too quickly, the infection can return and start a vicious cycle.

Bathroom habits can help: Wiping from front to back will avoid pulling bacteria toward your vagina. If you’re prone to UTIs, drinking lowest brokerage charges for online trading in india of liquids is important; water is safer and less expensive than cranberry juice, long touted as preventive medicine for UTIs. The juice could upset your stomach and may be associated with kidney stones. Whatever you’re drinking, urine should be pale yellow to clear as an indication you’re staying hydrated. Increased urination can wash out bacteria.

Dr. Shukla also said that urinating after intercourse can help prevent the spread country life insurance medicare supplement phone number for providers bacteria to the urethra and decrease the chances for infection. The use of spermicides, especially in conjunction with condoms and diaphragms, is also associated with recurrent UTIs.

Bindi Shukla, MD, is an urgent care doctor at Duke Urgent Care Croasdaile.

Источник: https://www.dukehealth.org/blog/tracking-down-relief-urinary-tract-infection

UTI Home Remedies: Does Cranberry Juice Really Help?

If you have a urinary tract infection (UTI), you want it gone ASAP.

UTI symptoms aren't just inconvenient and annoying, they're downright uncomfortable — with notable ones including a frequent urge to urinate and a burning sensation, or even pain, as you do. Having to deal with these symptoms is common, especially for women.

What's more, UTI recurrence can be fairly common too. The chance of a UTI cropping up again within six months falls just shy of 25% for women between the ages of 18 and 40.

So if you get them frequently, you're likely looking for ways to prevent the next one.

Cranberry juice is a classic UTI home remedy. In fact, maybe the only reason you even stock the juice in the fridge is because you get such infections often — or when you feel one coming on. If you can't stand the sour taste of cranberry juice, you might be thinking about trying a cranberry pill or tablet instead.

But can cranberries, whether the fruit itself, juice or a supplement, actually help wells fargo bank anchorage hours or prevent UTI symptoms?

Cranberry juice for a UTI: Does it really work?

Maybe you're looking for a way to avoid taking antibiotics. Or maybe you just want to take some sort of immediate action to relieve your symptoms as you wait to see your doctor.

Regardless, how might cranberry juice be of use against UTIs?

For starters, the bad news is that cranberry products likely don't help with a UTI once it's already developed. No studies have shown that drinking cranberry juice or taking a cranberry supplement actually works to treat UTIs. Darn. This means you need to visit your doctor if you already have an infection.

As for whether cranberries can prevent a UTI from developing in the first place, the evidence is mixed, and the exact mechanism by which they might help isn't totally clear either.

One prominent theory is that a substance in cranberries, called proanthocyanidins, might help prevent UTI-causing bacteria from sticking to the walls of the bladder and other urinary tract linings. If bacteria can't stick, they're likely to get flushed away the next time you use the bathroom instead. Infection averted.

Makes sense in theory, but what about in practice? Is cranberry juice really an effective way to prevent a UTI? Some studies show a small benefit, while most show none at all.

For instance, a review of 24 large studies investigating cranberry products for UTIs concluded that neither juice nor supplements significantly reduce a person's risk of experiencing an infection.

And even in the few smaller studies that have shown some UTI prevention benefit for cranberry products — cranberry juice, primarily — it's important to note that many participants dropped out or ultimately failed to comply. This suggests that the frequency or amount of cranberry juice needed to achieve this small benefit may not be sustainable for many people.

Supplemental formulations of cranberry, including tablets and powders, might be more palatable than sour-tasting cranberry juice. But they contain differing amounts of proanthocyanidins. In some cases, the amount may not be enough. Without an effective dose, a cranberry product is even less likely to prevent bacteria from sticking to urinary tract linings.

Still, while the science doesn't seem to be there, there's likely no harm in using cranberry products to try to prevent a UTI. Just know that there isn't necessarily a benefit either.

If you do decide to regularly drink cranberry juice for UTI prevention, however, be sure to choose unsweetened cranberry juice from among the many blends containing substantial amounts of added sugar. And always consult your doctor before starting any supplement. You'll need to be sure that it doesn't impact any health conditions you may have or interfere with medications you're taking.

5 UTI prevention tips you might try instead

In summary, if you currently have a UTI, skip the cranberry altogether and schedule an appointment with your doctor instead. A mild UTI may resolve on its own, but antibiotics are sometimes needed to treat them.

And as mentioned, if you get UTIs frequently and are looking for ways to prevent your next one, unsweetened cranberry juice may help. But it might also not.

Here are five other ways to help reduce your risk of getting a UTI:

  • Stay hydrated. Drinking plenty of water adds volume to your urine and helps ensure you're urinating often, helping to dilute and flush out UTI-causing bacteria. Both can reduce the risk of developing an infection.

  • Be careful how you wipe after using the bathroom. If bacteria from the rectum relocate to the vagina or urethra, they can lead to an infection. Wiping from front to back can help prevent this.

  • Try to urinate after having sex. Drinking a glass of water and using the bathroom may help flush out any bacteria. While the supporting evidence for this is somewhat limited, it certainly isn't harmful.

  • Take steps to normalize your vaginal pH. Menopause can change a woman's vaginal pH, making it harder for good bacteria to survive and easier for UTI-causing bacteria to grow. If you're post-menopausal and are experiencing UTIs frequently, ask your doctor about whether vaginal estrogen might be needed to restore your vaginal pH.

  • Change your birth control. Spermicide-treated condoms and diaphragms can lead to unwanted bacterial growth. If you're getting UTIs frequently and use one or both of these forms of birth control, consider choosing a different option.

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Categories: When Should I Worry About.
Tags: Urology, Women's Health, Wellness

Источник: https://www.houstonmethodist.org/blog/articles/2021/nov/uti-home-remedies-does-cranberry-juice-really-help/

Urinary Tract Infections and Self-Care Options

US Pharm. 2017;9(42):4-7.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most commonly occurring infections, affecting approximately 150 million people worldwide each year.1 In the United States alone, the societal costs of UTIs are estimated to be $3.5 billion annually.1 UTIs can affect both men and women, but they are especially common in home care remedies for uti of childbearing age.2 Most women will experience at least one episode during their lifetime; by 32 years of age, more than half of all women will have reported having at least one urinary tract infection.2,3 Almost 25% of women will have a recurrent infection within a year.2

A UTI is an infection of the urinary system. UTIs are classified as uncomplicated and complicated.4Uncomplicated UTIs are those occurring in healthy, premenopausal women with no urinary tract abnormalities.3Complicated UTIs are caused by abnormalities that compromise the urinary tract, such as urinary obstruction, urinary retention, immunosuppression, renal failure, renal transplantation, and presence of foreign objects; pregnancy is another cause.1 Indwelling catheters account for one million cases, or 70% to 80%, of complicated UTIs in the U.S. per year.1 Complicated UTIs occur in both sexes and often affect the upper and lower urinary tracts. UTIs are further categorized based on location: lower UTIs (cystitis) and upper UTIs (pyelonephritis). Pharmacists will frequently encounter patients inquiring about relief from UTI-related symptoms, so it is important that they understand the various OTC products marketed for the home care remedies for uti of UTIs.

Etiology and Risk Factors

Urine is generally sterile, and the causative agents for most UTIs originate in bowel flora that enter the periurethral area. Most UTIs are caused by one organism; UTIs caused by multiple organisms may indicate contamination. The causative agents are gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, as well as some fungi.1 The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli accounts for almost 90% of all episodes.3,5 Other common causative agents include Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, group B streptococcus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida species.

Women are more likely to develop a UTI because their urethras are shorter than men’s.5 Other risk factors include previous episodes of UTI, sexual intercourse, spermicide use, new sexual partner, reduced mobility, changes in vaginal flora, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes, urinary incontinence, kidney stones, prostate enlargement, and history of UTI in a first-degree relative.2,4,5 In the elderly population, other risk factors to consider are age-related changes in immune function, increased exposure to nosocomial pathogens, and an increased number of comorbidities.6 Certain behaviors are thought to contribute to the development of UTIs, such as frequency of united states of america country code and delayed voiding, not voiding pre- and postcoitally, consumption of certain beverages, hot tub usage, douching, wiping patterns, and choice of clothing; BMI may also be a factor. A case-control study found no increased risk of UTI development with these practices.7

Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

Patients with cystitis often present with a frequent, persistent urge to urinate despite passing a small amount, dysuria or a burning sensation during urination, or suprapubic heaviness.7 Patients with pyelonephritis often experience flank pain or tenderness, a low fever (<101 F), chills, nausea, vomiting, and malaise with or without symptoms of cystitis.2 Patients with a lower or upper UTI may experience hematuria or notice that their urine is cloudy or has a strong odor. Elderly patients tend to present with nonspecific symptoms including altered mental status, change in eating habits, lower abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation.6

In most patients who present with signs and symptoms of UTIs, a history of illness is the most important diagnostic tool, especially when symptom onset is sudden or severe and when vaginal discharge and irritation are not present.2,3 Sometimes, however, UTI diagnosis cannot rely solely on patient symptoms because some patients are asymptomatic; this is more common in older adults than in younger adults.6 Laboratory tests, urine-sample tests, and pelvic examinations should be performed in patients with urinary tract symptoms to properly diagnose UTIs.2,3 Laboratory tests for UTIs include assessments for the presence of bacteriuria and pyuria, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, and antibody-coated bacteria.2

Commercially available dipsticks may be used to detect the presence of a UTI. The pharmacist can recommend an OTC UTI home test kit to determine whether causative agents of UTI are present. After use, the patient should call the physician with the results for evaluation and treatment. The available test kits detect leukocyte esterase and nitrite. Testing for these substances increases overall sensitivity and specificity and reduces the risk of false-negative results.8 Self-testing for UTIs has been proven accurate with proper use, but to avoid inaccurate or false results, patients should capital one mobile app verification advised to obtain a clean-catch urine specimen and to avoid consuming more than 250 mg of vitamin C within 24 hours of testing; women should not test during their menses.8,9 A strict vegetarian diet, tetracycline, and phenazopyridine may cause inaccurate results.9

Preventive Measures

Almost 25% of women experience recurrent episodes of UTI.10 This is defined as either two uncomplicated UTIs in 6 months or three or more positive cultures within the preceding 12 months.10 UTIs can occur even when precautions are taken, but pharmacists can recommend preventive measures to reduce a patient’s risk for recurrent infections. If a woman is using spermicide-containing contraceptives, she should be counseled about the possible connection between her contraceptive method and recurrent infections, and an alternative form of contraception should be considered. Although studies have not indicated a correlation, behavioral modifications such as staying hydrated, urinating before and after sexual activity, urinating regularly, using tampons instead of sanitary pads and changing them every 3 hours, wiping from front to back, wearing clean cotton underwear and loose-fitting, breathable clothing, and taking showers instead of baths may be helpful. Topical estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women may help prevent UTI recurrences by altering the vaginal flora.6,11 Evidence for use of acupuncture and immunoprophylactic regimens is limited.12

There is little evidence of the efficacy of natural supplements in the prevention of UTIs. Research suggests that the antioxidant proanthocyanidin and the fructose in cranberries can help prevent bacteria, particularly E coli, from clinging to the walls of the urinary tract.13 Cranberry products are available in an array of dosage forms: juice, syrup, capsules, and tablets. Data on the efficacy of cranberry juice in preventing recurrent UTIs are conflicting. A recent Cochrane review determined that cranberry products do not significantly reduce the risk of recurrences compared with placebo.13 Similarly, the use of probiotics has also been considered for the prevention of UTIs. Probiotics support the body’s normal flora, and it is theorized that probiotics form a barrier against pathogens ascending the urinary tract, preventing the adherence, growth, and colonization of the urogenital epithelium by uropathogenic bacteria.14,15 To date, data regarding a protective effect of probiotics against future UTIs have been inconsistent, and additional large, well-designed studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of probiotics.14

Management: Nonprescription Products

Active ingredients found in OTC urinary tract analgesics include phenazopyridine hydrochloride, methenamine, and sodium salicylate (TABLE 1). Phenazopyridine, which provides relief from the pain, burning, itching, and urgency of UTIs, is available in both prescription (100-mg and 200-mg tablets) and OTC form (95-mg and 97.5-mg tablets). The recommended OTC dosage is two tablets three times daily during or after meals with a full glass of water for up to 2 days. Patients with kidney disease or an allergy to dyes should not take this medication. Patients should be advised that their urine may become reddish-orange in color, which is not harmful but can stain clothing. Common adverse effects (AEs) include headache, dizziness, and upset stomach.

Methenamine (an antibacterial) and sodium salicylate (a nonsteroidal inflammatory drug [NSAID]) work in conjunction with one another; sodium salicylate stabilizes the urine pH, allowing methenamine to slow the growth of bacteria along the urinary tract and control the UTI. The recommended dosage is two tablets three times daily. Patients should be advised not to take this product if they are allergic to salicylates, are on a low-sodium diet or anticoagulant therapy, or have stomach problems.

Patients may also take pain relievers, such as NSAIDs or acetaminophen, for general relief of UTI-associated pain.

Role of the Pharmacist

It is imperative that pharmacists urge patients who present with UTI symptoms to consult with their healthcare provider as soon as possible to receive appropriate care. Pharmacists should counsel patients on nonpharmacologic treatments and present the option of nonprescription products and UTI home test kits. Patients who decide to use UTI home test kits should be advised on how to avoid inaccurate results and to discuss their results with their healthcare provider. Patients who decide to use OTC urinary tract analgesics should be counseled on the recommended maximum dosage and duration and on common AEs. It is imperative to remind patients that these products are intended only to provide relief of pain and other related symptoms until the healthcare provider is seen. These products do not eradicate bacteria or replace the use of antibiotic treatment, and they should not be used as monotherapy.

What Causes UTIs?

The bacterium that causes most UTIs is Escherichia coli. UTIs can affect both men and women, but they are more common in women. Although UTIs can affect anyone, some factors that can increase your chance of contracting a UTI include sexual intercourse, menopause, spermicides, pregnancy, older age, obesity, genetics, and antibiotic use.

How Can I Tell if I Have a UTI?

Not all UTIs have obvious symptoms, but signs and symptoms of a possible UTI include the need to urinate often, pain and burning sensations during urination, low fever, nausea, vomiting, feeling ill, and back or abdominal pain. You may also notice that your urine is bloody, cloudy, or odorous.

See your doctor immediately if you think you have a UTI, or ask your pharmacist about purchasing a UTI test kit. If you decide to use the take-home UTI test strips, follow the instructions carefully and be sure to discuss your test results with your doctor.

What Can I Take to Relieve Pain?

Phenazopyridine hydrochloride may relieve your pain, burning, itching, and urgency to first united bank locations within 20 minutes. Avoid taking it if you have kidney disease or are allergic to dyes. Do not worry if your urine turns reddish-orange when you take this medication. This common effect is not harmful, but it can stain clothing.

Methenamine (an antibacterial agent) and sodium salicylate (a nonsteroidal inflammatory drug [NSAID]) work together to slow bacterial growth along the urinary tract and to control the UTI. Do not take this medication if you are allergic to aspirin,  are on a low-sodium diet or anticoagulant therapy, or have stomach problems.

You can also take other pain relievers, such as NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib) or acetaminophen (Tylenol).

What Natural Supplements Can I Take to Prevent Another UTI?

There is little evidence that natural supplements can prevent UTIs, but you can try cranberry supplements or probiotics. Cranberries contain antioxidants that may help prevent bacteria in the urinary tract from sticking to the walls of the urinary tract. Drinking 10 to 30 oz of cranberry juice per day may be beneficial. Probiotics may help prevent UTIs by supporting the body’s natural microorganisms in the flora.

What Steps Can I Take to Prevent Another UTI?

Drink lots of water, urinate before and after sexual activity, change tampons regularly, wipe from front to back, wear cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothing, and take showers instead of baths.

Remember, if you have questions, Consult Your Pharmacist.

REFERENCES

1. Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015;13:269-284.
2. Hooton TM. Clinical practice. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1028-1037.
3. Colgan R, Williams M. Diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:771-776.
4. Mody L, Juthani-Mehta M. JAMA patient page. Urinary tract infections in older women. JAMA. 2014;311:874.
5. Minardi D, d’Anzeo G, Cantoro D, et al. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:333-343.
6. Rowe TA, Juthani-Mehta M. Urinary tract infection in older adults. Aging Health. 2013;9:10.2217/ahe.13.38.
7. Scholes D, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, et al. Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1177-1182.
8. Scolaro KL, Lloyd KB, Helms KL. Devices for home evaluation of women’s health concerns. Am J Health-Syst Pharm AJHP Off J Am Soc Health-Syst Pharm. 2008;65:299-314.
9. Azo Test Strips. FAQs. www.azoproducts.com/products/azo-test-strips. 2017. Accessed August 9, 2017.
10. Epp A, Larochelle A, Lovatsis D, et al. Recurrent urinary tract infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010;32:1082-1101.
11. Beerepoot MA, Geerlings SE, van Haarst EP, et al. Nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Urol. 2013;190:1981-1989.
12. Arnold JJ, Hehn LE, Klein DA. Common questions about recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93:560-569.
13. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(10):CD001321.
14. Schwenger EM, Tejani AM, Loewen PS. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD008772.
15. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Tokas T, Athanasiou S. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Drugs. 2006;66:1253-1261.

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Read More On: INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Источник: https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/urinary-tract-infections-and-selfcare-options

Large numbers of bacteria live in the area around the vagina and rectum, and also on your skin. Bacteria may get into the urine from the urethra and travel into the bladder. They may even travel up to the kidney. But no matter how far they go, bacteria in the urinary tract can cause problems.

Just as some people are more prone to colds, some people are more prone to UTIs. Women are more likely to get a UTI than men because women have shorter urethras than men, so bacteria have a shorter distance to travel to reach the bladder.

Some factors that can add to your chances of getting a UTI are:

Body Factors

Women who have gone through menopause have a change in the lining of the vagina and lose the protection that estrogen provides, that lowers the chance of getting a UTI. Some women are genetically predisposed to UTIs and have urinary tracts that make it easier for bacteria to cling to them. Sexual intercourse can also affect how often you get UTIs.

Birth Control

Women who use diaphragms have also been found to have a higher risk of UTIs when compared to those who use other forms of birth control. Using condoms with spermicidal foam is also known to be linked to greater risk of getting UTIs in women.

Abnormal Anatomy

You are more likely to get a UTI if your urinary tract has an abnormality or has recently had a device (such as a tube to drain fluid from the body) placed in it. If you are not able to urinate normally because of some type of blockage, you will also have a higher chance of a UTI.

Anatomical abnormalities in the urinary tract may also lead to UTIs. These abnormalities are often found in children at an early age but can still be found in adults. There may be structural abnormalities, such as outpouchings called diverticula, that harbor bacteria in the bladder or urethra or even blockages, such as an enlarged bladder, that keep the body from draining all the urine from the bladder.

Immune System

Issues such as diabetes (high blood sugar) also put people at higher risk for UTIs because the body is not able to fight off germs as well.

Источник: https://www.urologyhealth.org/

Home care remedies for uti -

Large numbers of bacteria live in the area around the vagina and rectum, and also on your skin. Bacteria may get into the urine from the urethra and travel into the bladder. They may even travel up to the kidney. But no matter how far they go, bacteria in the urinary tract can cause problems.

Just as some people are more prone to colds, some people are more prone to UTIs. Women are more likely to get a UTI than men because women have shorter urethras than men, so bacteria have a shorter distance to travel to reach the bladder.

Some factors that can add to your chances of getting a UTI are:

Body Factors

Women who have gone through menopause have a change in the lining of the vagina and lose the protection that estrogen provides, that lowers the chance of getting a UTI. Some women are genetically predisposed to UTIs and have urinary tracts that make it easier for bacteria to cling to them. Sexual intercourse can also affect how often you get UTIs.

Birth Control

Women who use diaphragms have also been found to have a higher risk of UTIs when compared to those who use other forms of birth control. Using condoms with spermicidal foam is also known to be linked to greater risk of getting UTIs in women.

Abnormal Anatomy

You are more likely to get a UTI if your urinary tract has an abnormality or has recently had a device (such as a tube to drain fluid from the body) placed in it. If you are not able to urinate normally because of some type of blockage, you will also have a higher chance of a UTI.

Anatomical abnormalities in the urinary tract may also lead to UTIs. These abnormalities are often found in children at an early age but can still be found in adults. There may be structural abnormalities, such as outpouchings called diverticula, that harbor bacteria in the bladder or urethra or even blockages, such as an enlarged bladder, that keep the body from draining all the urine from the bladder.

Immune System

Issues such as diabetes (high blood sugar) also put people at higher risk for UTIs because the body is not able to fight off germs as well.

Источник: https://www.urologyhealth.org/

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bladder infections to catch, especially for women. Most UTIs are caused by bacteria getting into the urinary tract and causing inflammation and pain. “The female anatomy is a set up for infections of the bladders,” explains Sherry A. Ross, MD, a women’s health expert and author of She-ology: The Definitive Guide to Women’s Intimate Health. Period.Dr. Sherry explains that because women have a shorter urethra, which is essentially the tube that leads urine from the bladder out of the body, bacteria can enter much more easily than it can through male anatomy. In fact, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, women are 30 times more likely to get a UTI than men and more than half of women will have at least one UTI in their lifetime. But as much as knowing you’re not in the minority may be reassuring, it doesn’t take away from the stinging, burning, and needing to rush to the bathroom every 10 minutes feeling you get when you have a bladder infection.

5 natural remedies for UTI relief

“A true UTI needs antibiotics to clear the bacteria responsible for the symptoms and infection,” Dr. Sherry explains, so call your doctor if you're experiencing UTI symptoms. While you wait for your appointment, though, there are some home remedies you can try to help relieve some of the discomfort.

Avoid foods and beverages that will irritate your bladder

Drinking coffee and alcohol, and eating spicy food or foods with lots of added sugar will irritate the urinary tract. They can decrease the blood flow to the bladder, which will make it harder for your immune system to fight off the infection.

Drink lots of water and empty your bladder often

According to Chicago-based OB/GYN, Jessica Shepherd, MD, drinking lots of water when you are experiencing UTI symptoms can help flush away the bacteria. “Draining your bladder frequently is essential to getting rid of the bacteria,” Dr. Shepherd explains. The more water you drink, the more you’ll have to relieve yourself.

Use a heating pad

Dr. Shepherd and Dr. Sherry both recommend applying heat to your abdomen for relief from UTI cramps or the burning sensation. “A heating pad or hot water bottle over your lower abdomen can help ease some of the discomfort from a UTI,” Dr. Sherry says. If you’re using an electric heating pad, be careful not to fall asleep with it on or leave it on your skin for long periods of time. This can be dangerous and either burn your skin or worse, cause a fire.

Try an herbal remedy

Recent studies have shown that uva ursi plant extract, also known as bearberry, may help combat UTIs through the plant’s antimicrobial properties. However, there can be side effects, and uva ursi can be harmful if not taken properly, so be sure to consult your doctor before trying the supplement.

Avoid vitamin C if you're already experiencing UTI symptoms

Vitamin C is known to help prevent UTIs by acidifying the urine, which can kill certain bacteria present in the urinary tract. But Dr. Sherry warns if you already have a UTI or are experiencing real symptoms of one, vitamin C will not be effective in killing off bacteria. This is because unless you know the exact bacteria causing the UTI, vitamin C—although helpful—may not be doing enough to kill the infection you’re experiencing.


How to prevent a UTI from striking again

Sick of dealing with urinary tract infections? Really, the best "natural remedy" is simple: just prevent one from striking in the first place! Here's how:

Drink cranberry juice

Although it has often been thought of as a treatment option, cranberry juice can only help as a preventative measure. “Cranberry juice can be helpful in preventing UTIs by making the urine more acidic and preventing harmful bacteria from sticking to the walls of the bladder,” Dr. Sherry explains. “An acidic environment in the urine makes bacterial build-up more difficult and reduces your chance of getting a UTI. But even with this information, studies have conflicting evidence about cranberries being a reliable source for prevention.” So if you’re prone to UTIs, it won’t hurt to drink unsweetened cranberry juice. But it’s definitely not the UTI cure-all it has always been thought to be.

Practice good hygiene after sex and ask your partner to, too

“Overall health with increased water intake and exercise is the best way to improve health and help with decreasing UTIs,” Dr. Shepherd shares. This includes good hygiene and being diligent about cleaning all of your lady parts. And make sure your partner does, too. “Bacteria from sexual intercourse is one of the most common ways women can get a UTI,” Dr. Shepherd explains.

Limit antibiotic use

Although it can’t always be avoided, frequent antibiotic use can actually cause more harm than good and lead to UTIs. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea, which can allow unwanted bacteria to enter the urethra. When fighting off illness, antibiotics can wipe out good as well as bad bacteria, which can leave you more prone to infection. Dr. Sherry recommends taking a daily probiotic to help repopulate the good bacteria in your body, but more research is needed to test its effectiveness in treating UTIs.

Avoid feminine hygiene products with scents and chemicals

“Using feminine products that have perfumes and other irritating chemicals can introduce disruptive bacteria into your body,” Dr. Sherry says. Even more so, Dr. Sherry stresses that if you’re prone to UTIs, any products that will allow unwanted bacteria to enter your body should be avoided. “Avoid diaphragms, vaginal sponges, diva cups, and sex toys if you’re prone to UTIs,” she advises.

Wipe front to back

“Always remember to wipe ‘front to back’ to avoid bringing unwanted bacteria from the anus to the vaginal area,” Dr. Sherry says. A rule as simple as this make all the difference between frequent UTIs and not getting any.

Stay hydrated

“Drinking a lot of water will help keep unwanted bacteria moving out of your body,” Dr. Sherry says. “And, don’t hold in your urine for long periods of time—a general rule of thumb is to urinate every two to three hours or when you first feel the urge.”

Sara ShulmanContributorSarah is a Florida-based freelance writer and personal trainer whose work has appeared in Business Insider, Well + Good, Men's Fitness, TripSavvy, and more.

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Источник: https://www.prevention.com/health/a20517012/19-ways-to-ease-the-discomfort-of-a-urinary-tract-infection/

Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder.

UTIs can lead to infection. Most often the infection occurs in the bladder itself. At times, the infection can spread to the kidneys.

Common symptoms include:

  • Bad urine odor
  • Pain or burning when you urinate
  • Needing to urinate more often
  • Hard to empty your bladder all the way
  • Strong need to empty your bladder

These symptoms should improve soon after you begin taking antibiotics.

If you are feeling ill, have a low-grade fever, or some pain in your lower back, these symptoms will take 1 to 2 days to improve, and up to 1 week to go away completely.

You will be given antibiotics to be taken by mouth at home.

  • You may need to take antibiotics for only 3 days, or for up to 7 to 14 days.
  • You should take all of the antibiotics, even if you feel better. If you do not finish all of your antibiotics, the infection could return and may be harder to treat.

Antibiotics may rarely cause side effects, such as nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and other symptoms. Report these to your health care provide. Do not just stop taking the pills.

Make sure your provider knows if you could be pregnant before starting the antibiotics.

Your provider may also give you a drug to relieve the burning pain and urgent need to urinate.

  • Your urine will have an orange or red color to it when you are taking this drug.
  • You will still need to take antibiotics.

BATHING AND HYGIENE

To prevent future urinary tract infections, you should:

  • Choose sanitary pads instead of tampons, which some doctors believe make infections more likely. Change your pad each time you use the bathroom.
  • Do not douche or use feminine hygiene sprays or powders. As a general rule, do not use any product containing perfumes in the genital area.
  • Take showers instead of baths. Avoid bath oils.
  • Keep your genital area clean. Clean your genital and anal areas before and after sexual activity.
  • Urinate before and after sexual activity. Drinking 2 glasses of water after sexual activity may help promote urination.
  • Wipe from front to back after using the bathroom.
  • Avoid tight-fitting pants. Wear cotton-cloth underwear and pantyhose, and change both at least once a day.

DIET

The following improvements to your diet may prevent future urinary tract infections:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, 2 to 4 quarts (2 to 4 liters) each day.
  • Do not drink fluids that irritate the bladder, such as alcohol and caffeine.

RECURRING INFECTIONS

Some women have repeated bladder infections. Your provider may suggest that you:

  • Use vaginal estrogen cream if you have dryness caused by menopause.
  • Take a single dose of an antibiotic after sexual contact.
  • Take a cranberry supplement pill after sexual contact.
  • Have a 3-day course of antibiotics at home to use if you develop an infection.
  • Take a single, daily dose of an antibiotic to prevent infections.

See your health care provider after you finish taking antibiotics to make sure that the infection is gone.

If you do not improve or you are having problems with your treatment, talk to your provider sooner.

Call your provider right away if the following symptoms develop (these may be signs of a possible kidney infection.):

  • Back or side pain
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Vomiting

Also call if UTI symptoms come back shortly after you have been treated with antibiotics.

UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care

Fayssoux K. Bacterial infections of the urinary tract in women. In: Kellerman RD, Rakel DP, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2021. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:1158-1160.

Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(5):e103-e120. PMID: 21292654 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21292654/.

Nicolle LE, Drekonja D. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 268.

Sobel JD, Brown P. Urinary tract infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 72. 

Updated by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Browse the Encyclopedia

Источник: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000391.htm

UTI Home Remedies: Does Cranberry Juice Really Help?

If you have a urinary tract infection (UTI), you want it gone ASAP.

UTI symptoms aren't just inconvenient and annoying, they're downright uncomfortable — with notable ones including a frequent urge to urinate and a burning sensation, or even pain, as you do. Having to deal with these symptoms is common, especially for women.

What's more, UTI recurrence can be fairly common too. The chance of a UTI cropping up again within six months falls just shy of 25% for women between the ages of 18 and 40.

So if you get them frequently, you're likely looking for ways to prevent the next one.

Cranberry juice is a classic UTI home remedy. In fact, maybe the only reason you even stock the juice in the fridge is because you get such infections often — or when you feel one coming on. If you can't stand the sour taste of cranberry juice, you might be thinking about trying a cranberry pill or tablet instead.

But can cranberries, whether the fruit itself, juice or a supplement, actually help relieve or prevent UTI symptoms?

Cranberry juice for a UTI: Does it really work?

Maybe you're looking for a way to avoid taking antibiotics. Or maybe you just want to take some sort of immediate action to relieve your symptoms as you wait to see your doctor.

Regardless, how might cranberry juice be of use against UTIs?

For starters, the bad news is that cranberry products likely don't help with a UTI once it's already developed. No studies have shown that drinking cranberry juice or taking a cranberry supplement actually works to treat UTIs. Darn. This means you need to visit your doctor if you already have an infection.

As for whether cranberries can prevent a UTI from developing in the first place, the evidence is mixed, and the exact mechanism by which they might help isn't totally clear either.

One prominent theory is that a substance in cranberries, called proanthocyanidins, might help prevent UTI-causing bacteria from sticking to the walls of the bladder and other urinary tract linings. If bacteria can't stick, they're likely to get flushed away the next time you use the bathroom instead. Infection averted.

Makes sense in theory, but what about in practice? Is cranberry juice really an effective way to prevent a UTI? Some studies show a small benefit, while most show none at all.

For instance, a review of 24 large studies investigating cranberry products for UTIs concluded that neither juice nor supplements significantly reduce a person's risk of experiencing an infection.

And even in the few smaller studies that have shown some UTI prevention benefit for cranberry products — cranberry juice, primarily — it's important to note that many participants dropped out or ultimately failed to comply. This suggests that the frequency or amount of cranberry juice needed to achieve this small benefit may not be sustainable for many people.

Supplemental formulations of cranberry, including tablets and powders, might be more palatable than sour-tasting cranberry juice. But they contain differing amounts of proanthocyanidins. In some cases, the amount may not be enough. Without an effective dose, a cranberry product is even less likely to prevent bacteria from sticking to urinary tract linings.

Still, while the science doesn't seem to be there, there's likely no harm in using cranberry products to try to prevent a UTI. Just know that there isn't necessarily a benefit either.

If you do decide to regularly drink cranberry juice for UTI prevention, however, be sure to choose unsweetened cranberry juice from among the many blends containing substantial amounts of added sugar. And always consult your doctor before starting any supplement. You'll need to be sure that it doesn't impact any health conditions you may have or interfere with medications you're taking.

5 UTI prevention tips you might try instead

In summary, if you currently have a UTI, skip the cranberry altogether and schedule an appointment with your doctor instead. A mild UTI may resolve on its own, but antibiotics are sometimes needed to treat them.

And as mentioned, if you get UTIs frequently and are looking for ways to prevent your next one, unsweetened cranberry juice may help. But it might also not.

Here are five other ways to help reduce your risk of getting a UTI:

  • Stay hydrated. Drinking plenty of water adds volume to your urine and helps ensure you're urinating often, helping to dilute and flush out UTI-causing bacteria. Both can reduce the risk of developing an infection.

  • Be careful how you wipe after using the bathroom. If bacteria from the rectum relocate to the vagina or urethra, they can lead to an infection. Wiping from front to back can help prevent this.

  • Try to urinate after having sex. Drinking a glass of water and using the bathroom may help flush out any bacteria. While the supporting evidence for this is somewhat limited, it certainly isn't harmful.

  • Take steps to normalize your vaginal pH. Menopause can change a woman's vaginal pH, making it harder for good bacteria to survive and easier for UTI-causing bacteria to grow. If you're post-menopausal and are experiencing UTIs frequently, ask your doctor about whether vaginal estrogen might be needed to restore your vaginal pH.

  • Change your birth control. Spermicide-treated condoms and diaphragms can lead to unwanted bacterial growth. If you're getting UTIs frequently and use one or both of these forms of birth control, consider choosing a different option.

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Categories: When Should I Worry About...
Tags: Urology, Women's Health, Wellness

Источник: https://www.houstonmethodist.org/blog/articles/2021/nov/uti-home-remedies-does-cranberry-juice-really-help/

Urinary Tract Infections and Self-Care Options

US Pharm. 2017;9(42):4-7.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most commonly occurring infections, affecting approximately 150 million people worldwide each year.1 In the United States alone, the societal costs of UTIs are estimated to be $3.5 billion annually.1 UTIs can affect both men and women, but they are especially common in women of childbearing age.2 Most women will experience at least one episode during their lifetime; by 32 years of age, more than half of all women will have reported having at least one urinary tract infection.2,3 Almost 25% of women will have a recurrent infection within a year.2

A UTI is an infection of the urinary system. UTIs are classified as uncomplicated and complicated.4Uncomplicated UTIs are those occurring in healthy, premenopausal women with no urinary tract abnormalities.3Complicated UTIs are caused by abnormalities that compromise the urinary tract, such as urinary obstruction, urinary retention, immunosuppression, renal failure, renal transplantation, and presence of foreign objects; pregnancy is another cause.1 Indwelling catheters account for one million cases, or 70% to 80%, of complicated UTIs in the U.S. per year.1 Complicated UTIs occur in both sexes and often affect the upper and lower urinary tracts. UTIs are further categorized based on location: lower UTIs (cystitis) and upper UTIs (pyelonephritis). Pharmacists will frequently encounter patients inquiring about relief from UTI-related symptoms, so it is important that they understand the various OTC products marketed for the management of UTIs.

Etiology and Risk Factors

Urine is generally sterile, and the causative agents for most UTIs originate in bowel flora that enter the periurethral area. Most UTIs are caused by one organism; UTIs caused by multiple organisms may indicate contamination. The causative agents are gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, as well as some fungi.1 The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli accounts for almost 90% of all episodes.3,5 Other common causative agents include Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, group B streptococcus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida species.

Women are more likely to develop a UTI because their urethras are shorter than men’s.5 Other risk factors include previous episodes of UTI, sexual intercourse, spermicide use, new sexual partner, reduced mobility, changes in vaginal flora, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes, urinary incontinence, kidney stones, prostate enlargement, and history of UTI in a first-degree relative.2,4,5 In the elderly population, other risk factors to consider are age-related changes in immune function, increased exposure to nosocomial pathogens, and an increased number of comorbidities.6 Certain behaviors are thought to contribute to the development of UTIs, such as frequency of urination and delayed voiding, not voiding pre- and postcoitally, consumption of certain beverages, hot tub usage, douching, wiping patterns, and choice of clothing; BMI may also be a factor. A case-control study found no increased risk of UTI development with these practices.7

Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

Patients with cystitis often present with a frequent, persistent urge to urinate despite passing a small amount, dysuria or a burning sensation during urination, or suprapubic heaviness.7 Patients with pyelonephritis often experience flank pain or tenderness, a low fever (<101 F), chills, nausea, vomiting, and malaise with or without symptoms of cystitis.2 Patients with a lower or upper UTI may experience hematuria or notice that their urine is cloudy or has a strong odor. Elderly patients tend to present with nonspecific symptoms including altered mental status, change in eating habits, lower abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation.6

In most patients who present with signs and symptoms of UTIs, a history of illness is the most important diagnostic tool, especially when symptom onset is sudden or severe and when vaginal discharge and irritation are not present.2,3 Sometimes, however, UTI diagnosis cannot rely solely on patient symptoms because some patients are asymptomatic; this is more common in older adults than in younger adults.6 Laboratory tests, urine-sample tests, and pelvic examinations should be performed in patients with urinary tract symptoms to properly diagnose UTIs.2,3 Laboratory tests for UTIs include assessments for the presence of bacteriuria and pyuria, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, and antibody-coated bacteria.2

Commercially available dipsticks may be used to detect the presence of a UTI. The pharmacist can recommend an OTC UTI home test kit to determine whether causative agents of UTI are present. After use, the patient should call the physician with the results for evaluation and treatment. The available test kits detect leukocyte esterase and nitrite. Testing for these substances increases overall sensitivity and specificity and reduces the risk of false-negative results.8 Self-testing for UTIs has been proven accurate with proper use, but to avoid inaccurate or false results, patients should be advised to obtain a clean-catch urine specimen and to avoid consuming more than 250 mg of vitamin C within 24 hours of testing; women should not test during their menses.8,9 A strict vegetarian diet, tetracycline, and phenazopyridine may cause inaccurate results.9

Preventive Measures

Almost 25% of women experience recurrent episodes of UTI.10 This is defined as either two uncomplicated UTIs in 6 months or three or more positive cultures within the preceding 12 months.10 UTIs can occur even when precautions are taken, but pharmacists can recommend preventive measures to reduce a patient’s risk for recurrent infections. If a woman is using spermicide-containing contraceptives, she should be counseled about the possible connection between her contraceptive method and recurrent infections, and an alternative form of contraception should be considered. Although studies have not indicated a correlation, behavioral modifications such as staying hydrated, urinating before and after sexual activity, urinating regularly, using tampons instead of sanitary pads and changing them every 3 hours, wiping from front to back, wearing clean cotton underwear and loose-fitting, breathable clothing, and taking showers instead of baths may be helpful. Topical estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women may help prevent UTI recurrences by altering the vaginal flora.6,11 Evidence for use of acupuncture and immunoprophylactic regimens is limited.12

There is little evidence of the efficacy of natural supplements in the prevention of UTIs. Research suggests that the antioxidant proanthocyanidin and the fructose in cranberries can help prevent bacteria, particularly E coli, from clinging to the walls of the urinary tract.13 Cranberry products are available in an array of dosage forms: juice, syrup, capsules, and tablets. Data on the efficacy of cranberry juice in preventing recurrent UTIs are conflicting. A recent Cochrane review determined that cranberry products do not significantly reduce the risk of recurrences compared with placebo.13 Similarly, the use of probiotics has also been considered for the prevention of UTIs. Probiotics support the body’s normal flora, and it is theorized that probiotics form a barrier against pathogens ascending the urinary tract, preventing the adherence, growth, and colonization of the urogenital epithelium by uropathogenic bacteria.14,15 To date, data regarding a protective effect of probiotics against future UTIs have been inconsistent, and additional large, well-designed studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of probiotics.14

Management: Nonprescription Products

Active ingredients found in OTC urinary tract analgesics include phenazopyridine hydrochloride, methenamine, and sodium salicylate (TABLE 1). Phenazopyridine, which provides relief from the pain, burning, itching, and urgency of UTIs, is available in both prescription (100-mg and 200-mg tablets) and OTC form (95-mg and 97.5-mg tablets). The recommended OTC dosage is two tablets three times daily during or after meals with a full glass of water for up to 2 days. Patients with kidney disease or an allergy to dyes should not take this medication. Patients should be advised that their urine may become reddish-orange in color, which is not harmful but can stain clothing. Common adverse effects (AEs) include headache, dizziness, and upset stomach.

Methenamine (an antibacterial) and sodium salicylate (a nonsteroidal inflammatory drug [NSAID]) work in conjunction with one another; sodium salicylate stabilizes the urine pH, allowing methenamine to slow the growth of bacteria along the urinary tract and control the UTI. The recommended dosage is two tablets three times daily. Patients should be advised not to take this product if they are allergic to salicylates, are on a low-sodium diet or anticoagulant therapy, or have stomach problems.

Patients may also take pain relievers, such as NSAIDs or acetaminophen, for general relief of UTI-associated pain.

Role of the Pharmacist

It is imperative that pharmacists urge patients who present with UTI symptoms to consult with their healthcare provider as soon as possible to receive appropriate care. Pharmacists should counsel patients on nonpharmacologic treatments and present the option of nonprescription products and UTI home test kits. Patients who decide to use UTI home test kits should be advised on how to avoid inaccurate results and to discuss their results with their healthcare provider. Patients who decide to use OTC urinary tract analgesics should be counseled on the recommended maximum dosage and duration and on common AEs. It is imperative to remind patients that these products are intended only to provide relief of pain and other related symptoms until the healthcare provider is seen. These products do not eradicate bacteria or replace the use of antibiotic treatment, and they should not be used as monotherapy.

What Causes UTIs?

The bacterium that causes most UTIs is Escherichia coli. UTIs can affect both men and women, but they are more common in women. Although UTIs can affect anyone, some factors that can increase your chance of contracting a UTI include sexual intercourse, menopause, spermicides, pregnancy, older age, obesity, genetics, and antibiotic use.

How Can I Tell if I Have a UTI?

Not all UTIs have obvious symptoms, but signs and symptoms of a possible UTI include the need to urinate often, pain and burning sensations during urination, low fever, nausea, vomiting, feeling ill, and back or abdominal pain. You may also notice that your urine is bloody, cloudy, or odorous.

See your doctor immediately if you think you have a UTI, or ask your pharmacist about purchasing a UTI test kit. If you decide to use the take-home UTI test strips, follow the instructions carefully and be sure to discuss your test results with your doctor.

What Can I Take to Relieve Pain?

Phenazopyridine hydrochloride may relieve your pain, burning, itching, and urgency to urinate within 20 minutes. Avoid taking it if you have kidney disease or are allergic to dyes. Do not worry if your urine turns reddish-orange when you take this medication. This common effect is not harmful, but it can stain clothing.

Methenamine (an antibacterial agent) and sodium salicylate (a nonsteroidal inflammatory drug [NSAID]) work together to slow bacterial growth along the urinary tract and to control the UTI. Do not take this medication if you are allergic to aspirin,  are on a low-sodium diet or anticoagulant therapy, or have stomach problems.

You can also take other pain relievers, such as NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib) or acetaminophen (Tylenol).

What Natural Supplements Can I Take to Prevent Another UTI?

There is little evidence that natural supplements can prevent UTIs, but you can try cranberry supplements or probiotics. Cranberries contain antioxidants that may help prevent bacteria in the urinary tract from sticking to the walls of the urinary tract. Drinking 10 to 30 oz of cranberry juice per day may be beneficial. Probiotics may help prevent UTIs by supporting the body’s natural microorganisms in the flora.

What Steps Can I Take to Prevent Another UTI?

Drink lots of water, urinate before and after sexual activity, change tampons regularly, wipe from front to back, wear cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothing, and take showers instead of baths.

Remember, if you have questions, Consult Your Pharmacist.

REFERENCES

1. Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015;13:269-284.
2. Hooton TM. Clinical practice. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1028-1037.
3. Colgan R, Williams M. Diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:771-776.
4. Mody L, Juthani-Mehta M. JAMA patient page. Urinary tract infections in older women. JAMA. 2014;311:874.
5. Minardi D, d’Anzeo G, Cantoro D, et al. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:333-343.
6. Rowe TA, Juthani-Mehta M. Urinary tract infection in older adults. Aging Health. 2013;9:10.2217/ahe.13.38.
7. Scholes D, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, et al. Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1177-1182.
8. Scolaro KL, Lloyd KB, Helms KL. Devices for home evaluation of women’s health concerns. Am J Health-Syst Pharm AJHP Off J Am Soc Health-Syst Pharm. 2008;65:299-314.
9. Azo Test Strips. FAQs. www.azoproducts.com/products/azo-test-strips. 2017. Accessed August 9, 2017.
10. Epp A, Larochelle A, Lovatsis D, et al. Recurrent urinary tract infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010;32:1082-1101.
11. Beerepoot MA, Geerlings SE, van Haarst EP, et al. Nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Urol. 2013;190:1981-1989.
12. Arnold JJ, Hehn LE, Klein DA. Common questions about recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93:560-569.
13. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(10):CD001321.
14. Schwenger EM, Tejani AM, Loewen PS. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD008772.
15. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Tokas T, Athanasiou S. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Drugs. 2006;66:1253-1261.

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Источник: https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/urinary-tract-infections-and-selfcare-options

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