la edad de oro jose marti libro

Read reviews and buy La edad de oro - (Memoria) by Jose Marti (Paperback) at Target. Choose from Same Day Delivery, Drive Up or Order Pickup. La edad de oro Mart, Jos, 1853 Su profundo humanismo vigente y enaltecido en nuestros das lo ha convertido en un clsico de la literatura infantil de todos los. (Editorial Unión, 2005), El libro de los sentidos (Letras Cubanas, 2010). José Martí, 2008), Del agua refluyente: sobre los versos de La Edad de Oro.

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Los Zapaticos De Rosa - Jose Marti

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Las playas en Los zapaticos de rosa de Jos Mart. Los Zapaticos de Rosa es un poema escrito por Jos Mart. Marti is a symbol of Cuban independence, for he campaigned throughout his life for its liberation and finally died in the war against Spain. anda ve dice la madre anda y sale a navegar y mandame muchas cosas papoder especular. Los zapaticos de rosa de JOse Marti

MSTER DIPLOMA INTERNACIONAL PARA PROFESORES DE LENGUA ESPAOLA

La Organizacin de Pioneros Jos Mart (OPJM) entreg este viernes en La Habana el premio Los zapaticos de rosa, su mxima distincin, a personalidades e instituciones con una importante, especial y sostenida contribucin a la formacin y desarrollo de los nios y adolescentes de nuestro pas.

Se va all, donde muy lejos! Bueno como buen cubano que soy te digo que Jose Marti fue y es un Genio en todo sentido de la palabra , hombre caval con ideas progresitas , reconocido internacionalmente , en sus tiempos fue catalogado como adelantado a su epoca por la forma de pensar y expresarse , te invito a leer uno libro de el que se titula La edad de Oro While written with delicate simplicity for children to understand, Mart's talent for description makes Los zapaticos de rosa so vivid, it is as though the scenes were painted with a brush.

Le llega a los pies la espuma Gritan alegres las dos Y se va, diciendo adis, La del sombrero de pluma. Los Zapaticos De Rosa by Jos Mart Te invitamos a recorrer los poemas de Jos Mart. Los Zapaticos de Rosa Marti, Jose, Mart, Jos, Pupo, Jorge Se vio sacar los pauelos a una rusa y una inglesa, el aya de la francesa se quito los espejuelos.

Se fue la nia a jugar, La espuma blanca baj,

Otorgan en Cuba Premio Los Zapaticos de Rosa de la Unin de No se bien,seora lo que sucedio despues,!le vi a mi hijita en los pies los zapaticos de rosa! Le interesa al pintor las sensaciones que, como observador constante, el escritor de los Zapaticos de Rosa pueda otorgarle al pblico que asiste a la sala de la Biblioteca Nacional. Los Zapaticos De Rosa by Jose Marti, Lulu Delacre, Paperback Sancti Spiritus Teacher Awarded Los Zapaticos de Rosa La Edad de Oro by Jose Marti, Los zapaticos de rosa Los zapaticos de rosa, por Jos Mart Este hombre adems de poltico es un gran escritor en los gneros de la poesa, teatro y ensayo. Zapaticos de rosa por Jose Marti Hay sol bueno y mar de espuma, Y arena fina, y Pilar Quiere salir a estrenar Su sombrerito de pluma. )y que si alguna vez nos encuentra un nio de Amrica por el mundo nos apriete la mano, como a un amigo viejo, y diga donde todo el mundo lo oiga Este.

Este trabajo pretende reflexionar, tomando como punto de partida los cuatro nmeros de la revista infantil La Edad de Oro, redactada ntegramente por Jos Mart, las carencias del pensamiento y la literatura de corte humanstico de los pases de This captivating book, masterfully illustrated by Lulu Delacre, is dedicated with tenderness to the young readers for whom Jos Mart wrote this.

Los zapaticos de rosa ante la crtica Los dos cuadros de Josignacio resaltan la mirada y la forma de la boca de Mart. En el que prevalecen hermosos valores y podemos apreciar La riqueza y la pobreza, la maldad, la compasin, la alegra y la tristeza

Entregan Premio Los Zapaticos de Rosa El estudio de la contigidad, de las especificidades de las inserciones de los versos entre otros artculos de La Edad de Oro prueba que los poemas participan esencialmente del discurso central de la revista. Escribir una carta a uno de los personajes de Los zapaticos de rosa usando el correo electrnico. Its author, Jose Marti dedicated it for children in his original La Edad de Oro book. Mientras, la nia de los zapaticos de rosa se fija en que en el lado de la playa en el que est, el mar est muy triste y. Novelas de Jos Mart Novelas de 1889 Obras literarias de Cuba Poesa en espaol Poemas de 1889. Yo s los nombres extraos De las yerbas y las flores, Y de mortales engaos, Y de sublimes dolores. Emisora Habana Radio Jos Mart y los Zapaticos de rosa

Jos Mar escribi este bello poema Los zapaticos de rosa. No s bien, seora hermosa, Lo que sucedi despus Le vi a mi hijita en los pies Los zapaticos de rosa! Se vio sacar los pauelos A una rusa y a una inglesa El aya de la francesa Se quit los espejuelos.

La edad de oro Mart, Jos, 1853 Su profundo humanismo vigente y enaltecido en nuestros das lo ha convertido en un clsico de la literatura infantil de todos los tiempos desde que fue publicado por vez primera en el tercer nmero de la revista mensual La Edad de. Que figuras literarias se encuentran en el poema de Jos Alas nacer vi en los hombros De las mujeres hermosas Y salir de los escombros Volando las mariposas. Ella va de todo juego, Con aro, y balde y paleta El balde es color violeta El aro es color de fuego.

Contenido Nen traviesa- Beb y el seor Don Pomposo- Los zapaticos de rosa- La mueca negra Access-restricted-item true Addeddate -08-28 202418 Con el decursar del tiempo se ha mantenido la significacin y vigencia de la gran enseanza que se deriva de Los Zapaticos de Rosa, es decir la dicha que puede experimentar una persona, y de modo muy especial un nio o una nia, al hacer algn bien a un infante desposedo y humilde. While written with delicate simplicity for children to understand, Marti's talent for description makes Los zapaticos de Rosa so vivid, it is as though he's painted the scenes with a brush.

Otros poemas que pueden interesarte son Los Zapaticos De Rosa, Mi Caballero, Mi Despensero, No Me Quites Las Canas, Odio El Mar, Para Cecilia Gutirrez Njera Y Maillefert, Aqu puedes acceder a los mismos o ver toda la poesia de. Estructuras ideolgicas y estticas en Los zapaticos de Rosa Los Zapaticos De Rosa A poem from Jose Marti,a Cuban poet. For further information, including links to M4B audio book, online text, reader information, RSS feeds, CD cover or other formats (if available), please go to the LibriVox catalog page for this recording.

LA POESIA MARTIANA LOS ZAPATICOS DE ROSAS Los zapaticos de rosa de Jos Mart, publicado en La Edad

Jos Julin Mart y Prez(1853-1895) Patriota y escritor cubano, que naci en La Habana, Cuba, y falleci en Boca de Dos Ros. Jos Mart Lulu Delacre- When a little girl from a wealthy family gives her pink shoes to a poor girl, their two contrasting worlds meet for a moment, as each considers a way of life she will never know. Coleccin de cuentos para nios y nias por Jos Mart. Los zapaticos de rosa, by Jos Mart Los zapaticos de rosa, es un poema del escritor cubano Jos Mart.Publicado por vez primera en 1889, en el tercer nmero de la revista mensual La Edad de Oro. Familiarizarse con la vida, carcter y dos obras de Jos Mart.

Los Zapaticos de Rosa by Jose Marti, 9781933032122, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. This captivating, masterfully-illustrated book, is dedicated with tenderness to the young readers for whom Jose Marti wrote this beautiful poem. que se aleja de la costa. investiga sobre el autor del poema los zapaticos de rosa y A poem from Jose Marti,a Cuban poet. Los zapaticos de rosa. Le llega a los pies la espuma Gritan alegres las dos Y se va, diciendo adis, La del sombrero de pluma.

Details for Los zapaticos de Rosa Normal view MARC view ISBD view.

Yo he visto en la noche oscura Llover sobre mi cabeza Los rayos de lumbre pura De la divina belleza. Un hombre que es hroe en Cuba, porque organizo la guerra que le dio su independencia. Los Zapaticos de Rosa (Spanish Edition) (Spanish) Audio CD CD, March 1, by Jose Marti (Author), Jorge Pupo (Narrator) 4.5 out of 5 stars 45 ratings See all formats and editions Los zapaticos de rosa by Jos Mart

Los zapaticos de rosa Audiolibros Literatura A continuacin Los Zapaticos de Rosa. Los Zapaticos de Rosa Theatrical Performance Roles de gnero en Los zapaticos de rosa de Jos Mart Autores Susana Carralero Rodrguez , Eglys Martn Astorga Localizacin Espculo Revista de Estudios Literarios , ISSN-e 1139-3637, N. Los zapaticos de Rosa by Jos Mart Click to read more about Los zapaticos de Rosa by Jos Mart. Analizar el contenido de los dos poemas con guas de tareas. No otra cosa puede decirse de Los zapaticos de rosa, iluminado por esas dos verdaderas joyas que lo escoltan El. El Tema de nuestro modesto trabajo, es el estudio literario de la obra los Zapaticos de Rosa de Jos Mart, que nace a mediados del siglo XIX donde el romanticismo, el realismo y las ideas clsicas de la poca llegaban desde Europa a Amrica Latina marcando la vida de los jvenes intelectuales. Los zapaticos de rosa o los zapaticos me aprietan lo que

Los zapaticos de Rosa by Jose Marti I recommend this new book with his poem Los Zapaticos de Rosa. Los Zapaticos de Rosa (Spanish Edition) Marti, Jose, Pupo La reaccin de los cubanos ante el poema de Mart Los zapaticos de rosa. LibriVox recording of La Edad de Oro by Jose Marti. La Edad de Oro Jose Marti Free Download, Borrow, and En La barranca de todos II. Josss Mart-Tomado de La Edad de Oro y dice una mariposa que la vi en el bote zarpar Ahora si podra comprar Los zapaticos de rosas En este poema Mart hace hincapi en los sentimientos humanos y en los valores universales que deben regir la conducta humana.

'Los Zapaticos de Rosa' de Jos Mart Our Stores Are Open Book Annex Membership Educators Gift Cards Stores & Events Help All Books ebooks NOOK Textbooks Newsstand Teens Kids Toys Games & Collectibles Gift, Home & Office Movies & TV Music Book Annex ENVO GRATIS en 1 da desde 19. Entregan Premio Los zapaticos de rosa Los Zapaticos de rosa (The Little Pink Shoes) is a poem by the Cuban writer Jos Mart.

8 Refiere a Censo de poblacin de 1853, del Archivo del Museo Histrico de Guanabacoa. Los Zapaticos de Rosa book by Jose Marti

Los zapaticos de rosa (CD-9781933032122) - The Pink Shoes. Se fue la nia a jugar, La espuma blanca baj, Y pas el tiempo, y pas. Sbado 12, de enero 10 am - 4 pm Biblioteca Scaleybark - localizada en 101 Scaleybark Road Charlotte, NC 28209 (704) 416-6400 Se le pedir leer fragmentos del poema yo del cuento, y las copias impresas estarn. Representacin teatral del poema Los zapaticos de rosa Objetivos Generales. Enfoque Cubano Los Zapaticos de Rosa Los zapaticos de rosa Jos Mart Fueron las dos al jardn Por la calle del laurel La madre cogi un clavel Y Pilar cogi un jazmn. Las aguas son ms salobres, Donde se sientan los pobres, Donde se sientan los viejos! Vida y obra de Jos Mart Libro nuevo o segunda mano, sinopsis, resumen y opiniones. Yo soy un hombre sincero, by Jos Mart

25 mayo, Susel Domnguez Serrano 0 comentarios Educacin, Granma, Los Zapaticos de Rosa, Organizacin de Pioneros Jos Mart El premio especial Los Zapaticos de Rosa, mximo reconocimiento que otorga la Organizacin de Pioneros Jos Mart fue conferido en Granma a tres guas de pioneros. Los Zapaticos de Rosa Jose Marti 9781933032122 Estamos ante un poema en el que la temtica, como suele ocurrir en otros escritos de otros autores, nos muestra una persona enamorada de una mujer, posiblemente ms joven que l, lo que hace que haya rumores, gente que hable y que no apruebe la relacin que hay entre ambos.

los zapaticos de rosas He querido compartir este homenaje para dedicarlo a todos los lectores que gustan de la poesia, sus mensajes ,el amor , la igualdad a la Ami.

Tintero creativo Los zapaticos de rosa de Jos Martoema Para mas informacin vea el catlogo de LibriVox.

Los zapaticos de Rosa Jos Marti By. Abrio la madre los brazos se echo pilar en su pecho, y le saco el traje deshecho, sin adornos y sin lazos.

Los zapaticos de Rosa (Book, 1997) Entregan Premio Los Zapaticos de Rosa.03.30 - 141941 Noticiero Nacional de Radio Varias instituciones y personalidades destacadas en el trabajo con nios y adolescentes recibieron en la capitalina escuela Primaria Repblica Popular de Angola, el premio los Zapaticos de Rosa que otorga anualmente la Organizacin de Pioneros Jos.

Los zapaticos de Rosa Jos Marti Roles de gnero en Los zapaticos de rosa de Jos Mart Humanismo y pedagoga en La Edad de Oro de Jos Mart Un Desde muy joven particip en la liberacin de Cuba de la dominacin espaola.

Los Zapaticos De Rosa - Jose Marti Los zapaticos de rosa es uno de los poemas ms emblemticos de La Edad de Oro de Jos Mart que desnuda los contrastes entre la pobreza extrema y el lujo la generosidad y la bondad de una nia movida por sentimientos elevados de compasin y piedad la impelen a despojarse de objetos valiosos. Se va all, dnde muy lejos! Artist Studio Project (ASP) y Reyna Productions realizarn audiciones para Los Zapaticos de Rosa lectura dramatizada del poema de Jose Mart y el cuento Meique. Disfruta tambin de nuestros poemas del alma, de amor, de amistad , de familia, etc. LOS ZAPATICOS DE ROSA de JOSE MARTI.

Editions of Los Zapaticos De Rosa by Jos Mart Marti, Jose Illustrators Marti, Jose Binding CD Published Date Range 2001 LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers Abri la madre los brazos Se ech Pilar en su pecho, Y sac el traje deshecho, Sin adornos y sin lazos.

It was published for the first time in 1889, in the third issue of the monthly magazine La Edad de Oro. (HABANA RADIOPEDRITO EL PAKETEROYOUTUBE) Como parte de otra entrega audiovisual de la serie 100 CUBANOS RESPONDEN el youtuber Pedrito el Paketero sali por las calles de La Habana para preguntar a los cubanos sobre la obra del Hroe Nacional de Cuba Jos. Los zapaticos de rosa es un poema del escritor cubano Jos Mart. Los zapaticos de una rosa es una obra de obligada referencia dentro de la literatura cubana y latinoamericana. Dona Josignacio dpticos de Jos Mart (Fotos) Jos Mart Los zapaticos de rosa Poema Voz Lola Acevedo Daz Duracin 4 Minutos Ambientacin sonora Gelosoft Escuchar Poema Descargar Audiolibro Gratis Jos Mart (1853-1895) Jos Julin Mart Prez fue un escritor, pensador, filsofo, poeta, ensayista, periodista, traductor y lder nacionalista fundador del Partido Revolucionario Cubano un icono exponente de la Libertad que. It teaches a great life lesson to children, to share and value the things we have, and to understand that there are others kids less fortunate. Le llega a los pies la espuma, 65 gritan alegres las dos y se va, diciendo adis, la del sombrero de pluma. Los zapaticos de rosa A madeimoselle Marie Jos Mart Hay sol bueno y mar de espuma, Y arena fina, y Pilar Quiere salir a estrenar Su so. Aqu la poesa es complemento del todo y sntesis del mundo. Mimi Speaks Los Zapaticos de Rosa por Jos Mart (6) Los Zapaticos de Rosa and Meique Jose Marti will be honoured this Sunday evening in Sancti Spiritus, when the residents of this city will take part in a torch parade to commemorate the 160th birthday of the Cuban National Hero. El acto de entrega del Premio los Zapaticos de Rosa, realizado la vspera en el Memorial Jos Mart, form parte de las celebraciones por el 4 de Abril, el aniversario 50 del triunfo de la Revolucin y coincidi con el aniversario 120 de La Edad de Oro.

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La edad de oro Mart, Jos, 1853. investiga sobre el autor del poema los zapaticos de rosa y. Yo soy un hombre sincero, by Jos Mart. Los Zapaticos de Rosa Jose Marti 9781933032122.

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For other people named José Martí, see José Martí (disambiguation).

This name uses Spanish naming customs; the first or paternal family name is Martí and the second or maternal family name is Pérez.

José Martí
BornJosé Julián Martí Pérez
January 28, 1853
La Habana, Captaincy General of Cuba, Spanish Empire
Died May 19, 1895(1895-05-19) (aged 42)
Dos Ríos, Captaincy General of Cuba, Spanish Empire
Nationality Spaniard
Occupation Poet, writer, philosoper, nationalist leader
Political movementModernismo
Spouse(s) Carmen Zayas Bazan
Children José Francisco "Pepito" Martí
Relatives Mariano Martí Navarro and Leonor Pérez Cabrera (Parents), 7 sisters (Leonor, Mariana, María de Carmen, María de Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores)

José Julián Martí Pérez (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse maɾˈti]; January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban poet, philosopher, essayist, journalist, translator, professor, and publisher, who is considered a Cuban national hero because of his role in the liberation of his country, and he was an important figure in Latin American literature. He was very politically active, and is considered an important revolutionary philosopher and political theorist.[1][2] Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol of Cuba's bid for independence from Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence."[3] From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba, and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans; his death was used as a cry for Cuban independence from Spain by both the Cuban revolutionaries and those Cubans previously reluctant to start a revolt.

Born in Havana, Martí began his political activism at an early age. He traveled extensively in Spain, Latin America, and the United States, raising awareness and support for the cause of Cuban independence. His unification of the Cuban émigré community, particularly in Florida, was crucial to the success of the Cuban War of Independence against Spain. He was a key figure in the planning and execution of this war, as well as the designer of the Cuban Revolutionary Party and its ideology. He died in military action during the Battle of Dos Ríos on May 19, 1895.

Martí is considered one of the great turn-of-the-century Latin American intellectuals. His written works include a series of poems, essays, letters, lectures, novel, and a children's magazine. He wrote for numerous Latin American and American newspapers; he also founded a number of newspapers. His newspaper Patria was an important instrument in his campaign for Cuban independence. After his death, one of his poems from the book, Versos Sencillos (Simple Verses) was adapted to the song "Guantanamera", which has become the definitive patriotic song of Cuba.

The concepts of freedom, liberty, and democracy are prominent themes in all of his works, which were influential on the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío and the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral.[4]

Following the 1959 Cuban Revolution, Marti's ideology became a major driving force in Cuban politics.[5] He is also regarded as Cuba's "martyr" and "patron saint."[6]

Life[]

Early life, Cuba: 1853–70[]

José Julián Martí Pérez was born on January 28, 1853, in Havana, at 41 Paula Street, to Spanish parents, a Valencian father, Mariano Martí Navarro, and Leonor Pérez Cabrera, a native of the Canary Islands. Martí was the elder brother to seven sisters: Leonor, Mariana, Maria de Carmen, Maria de Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores. He was baptized on February 12 in Santo Ángel Custodio church. When he was four, his family moved from Cuba to Valencia, Spain, but two years later they returned to the island where they enrolled José at a local public school, in the Santa Clara neighborhood where his father worked as a prison guard.[7]

In 1865, he enrolled in the Escuela de Instrucción Primaria Superior Municipal de Varones that was headed by Rafael María de Mendive. Mendive was influential in the development of Martí's political philosophies. Also instrumental in his development of a social and political conscience was his best friend Fermín Valdés Domínguez, the son of a wealthy slave-owning family.[8] In April the same year, after hearing the news of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Martí and other young students expressed their pain—through group mourning—for the death of a man who had decreed the abolition of slavery in the United States. In 1866, Martí entered the Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza where Mendive financed his studies.[7]

Martí signed up at the Escuela Profesional de Pintura y Escultura de La Habana (Professional School for Painting and Sculpture of Havana) in September 1867, known as San Alejandro, to take drawing classes. He hoped to flourish in this area but did not find commercial success. In 1867, he also entered the school of San Pablo, established and managed by Mendive, where he enrolled for the second and third years of his bachelor's degree and assisted Mendive with the school's administrative tasks. In April 1868, his poem dedicated to Mendive's wife, A Micaela. En la Muerte de Miguel Ángel appeared in Guanabacoa's newspaper El Álbum.[9]

When the Ten Years' War broke out in Cuba in 1868, clubs of supporters for the Cuban nationalist cause formed all over Cuba, and José and his friend Fermín joined them. Martí had a precocious desire for the independence and freedom of Cuba. He started writing poems about this vision, while, at the same time, trying to do something to achieve this dream. In 1869, he published his first political writings in the only edition of the newspaper El Diablo Cojuelo, published by Fermín Valdés Domínguez. That same year he published "Abdala", a patriotic drama in verse form in the one-volume La Patria Libre newspaper, which he published himself. "Abdala" is about a fictional country called Nubia which struggles for liberation.[10] His sonnet "10 de Octubre", later to become one of his most famous poems, was also written during that year, and was published later in his school newspaper.[9]

In March of that year, colonial authorities shut down the school, interrupting Martí's studies. He came to resent Spanish rule of his homeland at an early age; likewise, he developed a hatred of slavery, which was still practiced in Cuba.[11]

On October 21, 1869, aged 16, he was arrested and incarcerated in the national jail, following an accusation of treason and bribery from the Spanish government upon the discovery of a "reproving" letter, which Martí and Fermín had written to a friend when the friend joined the Spanish army.[12] More than four months later, Martí confessed to the charges and was condemned to six years in prison. His mother tried to free her son (who at 16 was still a minor) by writing letters to the government, and his father went to a lawyer friend for legal support, but these efforts failed. Eventually, Martí fell ill; his legs were severely lacerated by the chains that bound him. As a result, he was transferred to another part of Cuba known as Isla de Pinos instead of further imprisonment. Following that, the Spanish authorities decided to exile him to Spain.[9] In Spain, Martí, who was 18 at the time, was allowed to continue his studies with the hopes that studying in Spain would renew his loyalty to Spain.[13]

Spain: 1871–74[]

In January 1871, Martí embarked on the steam ship Guipuzcoa, which took him from Havana to Cádiz. He settled in Madrid in a guesthouse in Desengaño St. #10. Arriving at the capital he contacted fellow Cuban Carlos Sauvalle, who had been deported to Spain a year before Martí and whose house served as a center of reunions for Cubans in exile. On March 24, Cádiz's newspaper La Soberania Nacional, published Martí's article "Castillo" in which he recalled the sufferings of a friend he met in prison. This article would be reprinted in Sevilla's La Cuestión Cubana and New York's La República. At this time, Martí registered himself as a member of independent studies in the law faculty of the Central University of Madrid.[14] While studying here, Martí openly participated in discourse on the Cuban issue, debating through the Spanish press and circulating documents protesting Spanish activities in Cuba.

Martí's maltreatment at the hands of the Spaniards and consequent deportation to Spain in 1871 inspired a tract, Political Imprisonment in Cuba, published in July. This pamphlet's purpose was to move the Spanish public to do something about its government's brutalities in Cuba and promoted the issue of Cuban independence.[15] In September, from the pages of El Jurado Federal, Martí and Sauvalle accused the newspaper La Prensa of having calumniated the Cuban residents in Madrid. During his stay in Madrid, Martí frequented the Ateneo and the National Library, the Café de los Artistas, and the British, Swiss and Iberian breweries. In November he became sick and had an operation, paid for by Sauvalle.[14]

On November 27, 1871, eight medical students, who had been accused (without evidence) of the desecration of a Spanish grave, were executed in Havana.[14] In June 1872, Fermín Valdés was arrested because of the November 27 incident. His sentence of six years of jail was pardoned, and he was exiled to Spain where he reunited with Martí. On November 27, 1872, the printed matter Dia 27 de Noviembre de 1871 (27 November 1871) written by Martí and signed by Fermín Valdés Domínguez and Pedro J. de la Torre circulated Madrid. A group of Cubans held a funeral in the Caballero de Gracia church, the first anniversary of the medical students' execution.[16]

In 1873, Martí's "A mis Hermanos Muertos el 27 de Noviembre" was published by Fermín Valdés. In February, for the first time, the Cuban flag appeared in Madrid, hanging from Martí's balcony in Concepción Jerónima, where he lived for a few years. In the same month, the Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic by the Cortes on February 11, 1873 reaffirmed Cuba as inseparable to Spain, Martí responded with an essay, The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution, and sent it to the Prime Minister, pointing out that this new freely elected body of deputies that had proclaimed a republic based on democracy had been hypocritical not to grant Cuba its independence.[17] He sent examples of his work to Nestor Ponce de Leon, a member of the Junta Central Revolucionaria de Nueva York (Central revolutionary committee of New York), to whom he would express his will to collaborate on the fight for the independence of Cuba.[16]

In May, he moved to Zaragoza, accompanied by Fermín Valdés to continue his studies in law at the Universidad Literaria. The newspaper La Cuestión Cubana of Sevilla, published numerous articles from Martí.[16]

In June 1874, Martí graduated with a degree in Civil Law and Canon Law. In August he signed up as an external student at the Facultad de Filosofia y Letras de Zaragoza, where he finished his degree by October. In November he returned to Madrid and then left to Paris. There he met Auguste Vacquerie, a poet, and Victor Hugo. In December 1874 he embarked from Le Havre for Mexico.[18] Prevented from returning to Cuba, Martí went instead to Mexico and Guatemala. During these travels, he taught and wrote, advocating continuously for Cuba's independence.[19]

México and Guatemala: 1875–78[]

See also: María García Granados y Saborío

In 1875, Martí lived on Calle Moneda in Mexico City near the Zócalo, a prestigious address of the time. One floor above him lived Manuel Antonio Mercado, Secretary of the Distrito Federal, who became one of Martí's best friends. On March 2, 1875, he published his first article for Vicente Villada's Revista Universal, a broadsheet discussing politics, literature, and general business commerce. On March 12, his Spanish translation of Hugo's Mes Fils (1874) began serialization in Revista Universal. Martí then joined the editorial staff, editing the Boletín section of the publication.

In these writings, he expressed his opinions about current events in Mexico. On May 27, in the newspaper Revista Universal, he responded to the anti-Cuban-independence arguments in La Colonia Española, a newspaper for Spanish citizens living in Mexico. In December, Sociedad Gorostiza (Gorostiza Society), a group of writers and artists, accepted Martí as a member, where he met his future wife, Carmen Zayas Bazán, during his frequent visits to her Cuban father's house to meet with the Gorostiza group.[20]

On January 1, 1876, in Oaxaca, elements opposed to Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada's government, led by Gen. Porfirio Díaz, proclaimed the Plan de Tuxtepec, which instigated a bloody civil war. Martí and Mexican colleagues established the Sociedad Alarcón, composed of dramatists, actors, and critics. At this point, Martí began collaborating with the newspaper El Socialista as leader of the Gran Círculo Obrero (Great Labor Circle) organization of liberals and reformists who supported Lerdo de Tejada. In March, the newspaper proposed a series of candidates as delegates, including Martí, to the first Congreso Obrero, or congress of the workers. On June 4, La Sociedad Esperanza de Empleados (Employees' Hope Society) designated Martí as delegate to the Congreso Obrero. On December 7, Martí published his article Alea Jacta Est in the newspaper El Federalista, bitterly criticizing the Porfiristas' armed assault upon the constitutional government in place. On December 16, he published the article "Extranjero" (foreigner; abroad), in which he repeated his denunciation of the Porfiristas and bade farewell to Mexico.[20]

In 1877, using his second name and second surname[21] Julián Pérez as pseudonym, Martí embarked for Havana, hoping to arrange to move his family away to Mexico City from Havana. He returned to Mexico, however, entering at the port of Progreso from which, via Isla de Mujeres and Belize, he travelled south to progressive Guatemala City. He took residence in the prosperous suburb of Ciudad Vieja, home of Guatemala's artists and Intelligentsia of the day, on Cuarta Avenida (Fourth Avenue), 3 km south of Guatemala City. While there, he was commissioned by the government to write the play Patria y Libertad (Drama Indio) (Country and Liberty (an Indian Drama)). He met personally the president, Justo Rufino Barrios, about this project. On April 22, the newspaper El Progreso published his article "Los códigos Nuevos" (The New Laws) pertaining to the then newly enacted Civil Code. On May 29, he was appointed head of the Department of French, English, Italian and German Literature, History and Philosophy, on the faculty of philosophy and arts of the Universidad Nacional. On July 25, he lectured for the opening evening of the literary society 'Sociedad Literaria El Porvenir', at the Teatro Colón (the since-renamed Teatro Nacional[22]), at which function he was appointed vice-president of the Society, and acquiring the moniker "el doctor torrente," or Doctor Torrent, in view of his rhetorical style. Martí taught composition classes free at the academia de niñas de centroamérica girls' academy, among whose students he enthralled young María García Granados y Saborío, daughter of Guatemalan president Miguel García Granados. The schoolgirl's crush was unrequited, however, as he went again to México, where he met Carmen Zayas Bazán and whom he later married.[23]

In 1878, Martí returned to Guatemala and published his book Guatemala, edited in Mexico. On May 10, socialite María García Granados died of lung disease; her unrequited love for Martí branded her, poignantly, as 'la niña de Guatemala, la que se murió de amor' (the Guatemalan girl who died of love). Following her death, Martí returned to Cuba. There, he resigned signing the Pact of Zanjón which ended the Cuban Ten Years' War, but had no effect on Cuba's status as a colony. He met Afro-Cuban revolutionary Juan Gualberto Gómez, who would be his lifelong partner in the independence struggle and a stalwart defender of his legacy during this same journey. He married Carmen Zayas Bazán on Havana's Calle Tulipán Street at this time. In October, his application to practice law in Cuba was refused, and thereafter he immersed himself in radical efforts, such as for the Comité Revolucionario Cubano de Nueva York (Cuban Revolutionary Committee of New York). On November 22, 1878 his son José Francisco, known fondly as "Pepito", was born.[24]

United States and Venezuela: 1880–90[]

In 1881, after a brief stay in New York, Martí travelled to Venezuela and founded in Caracas the Revista Venezolana, or Venezuelan Review. The journal incurred the wrath of Venezuela's dictator, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, and Martí was forced to return to New York.[25] There, Martí joined General Calixto García's Cuban revolutionary committee, composed of Cuban exiles advocating independence. Here Martí openly supported Cuba's struggle for liberation, and worked as a journalist for La Nación of Buenos Aires and for several Central American journals,[19] especially La Opinion Liberal in Mexico City.[26] The article "El ajusticiamiento de Guiteau," an account of President Garfield's murderer's trial, was published in La Opinion Liberal in 1881, and later selected for inclusion in The Library of America's anthology of American True Crime writing. In addition, Martí wrote poems and translated novels to Spanish. He worked for Appleton and Company and, "on his own, translated and published Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona. His repertory of original work included plays, a novel, poetry, a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro, and a newspaper, Patria, which became the official organ of the Cuban Revolutionary party".[27] He also served as a consul for Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay. Throughout this work, he preached the "freedom of Cuba with an enthusiasm that swelled the ranks of those eager to strive with him for it".[19]

Tension existed within the Cuban revolutionary committee between Martí and his military compatriots. Martí feared a military dictatorship would be established in Cuba upon independence, and suspected Dominican-born General Máximo Gómez of having these intentions.[28] Martí knew that the independence of Cuba needed time and careful planning. Ultimately, Martí refused to cooperate with Máximo Gómez and Antonio Maceo Grajales, two Cuban military leaders from the Ten Years' War, when they wanted to invade immediately in 1884. Martí knew that it was too early to attempt to win back Cuba, and later events proved him right.[19]

United States, Central America and the West Indies: 1891–94[]

On January 1, 1891, Martí's essay "Nuestra America" was published in New York's Revista Ilustrada, and on the 30th of that month in Mexico's El Partido Liberal. He actively participated in the Conferencia Monetaria Internacional (The International Monetary Conference) in New York during that time as well. On June 30 his wife and son arrived in New York. After a short time, in which Carmen Zayas Bazán realized that Martí's dedication to Cuban independence surpassed that of supporting his family, she returned to Havana with her son on August 27. Martí would never see them again. The fact that his wife never shared the convictions central to his life was an enormous personal tragedy for Martí.[29] He turned for solace to Carmen Miyares de Mantilla, a Venezuelan who ran a boarding house in New York, and he is presumed to be the father of her daughter María Mantilla, who was in turn the mother of the actor Cesar Romero, who proudly claimed to be Martí's grandson. In September Martí became sick again. He intervened in the commemorative acts of The Independents, causing the Spanish consul in New York to complain to the Argentine and Uruguayan governments. Consequently, Martí resigned from the Argentinean, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan consulates. In October he published his book Versos Sencillos.

On November 26 he was invited by the Club Ignacio Agramonte, an organization founded by Cuban immigrants in Ybor City, Tampa, Florida, to a celebration to collect funding for the cause of Cuban independence. There he gave a lecture known as "Con Todos, y para el Bien de Todos", which was reprinted in Spanish language newspapers and periodicals across the United States. The following night, another lecture, " Los Pinos Nuevos", was given by Martí in another Tampa gathering in honor of the medical students killed in Cuba in 1871. In November artist Herman Norman painted a portrait of José Martí.[30]

On January 5, 1892, Martí participated in a reunion of the emigration representatives, in Cayo Hueso (Key West), the Cuban community where the Bases del Partido Revolucionario (Basis of the Cuban Revolutionary Party) was passed. He began the process of organizing the newly formed party. To raise support and collect funding for the independence movement, he visited tobacco factories, where he gave speeches to the workers and united them in the cause. In March 1892 the first edition of the Patria newspaper, related to the Cuban Revolutionary Party, was published, funded and directed by Martí. During Martí's Key West years, his secretary was Dolores Castellanos (1870-1948), a Cuban-American woman born in Key West, who also served as president of the Protectoras de la Patria: Club Político de Cubanas, a Cuban women's political club in support of Martí's cause, and for whom Martí wrote a poem titled "A Dolores Castellanos." On April 8, he was chosen delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party by the Cayo Hueso Club in Tampa and New York. From July to September 1892 he traveled through Florida, Washington, Philadelphia, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica on an organization mission among the exiled Cubans. On this mission, Martí made numerous speeches and visited various tobacco factories. On December 16 he was poisoned in Tampa.[31]

In 1893, Martí traveled through the United States, Central America and the West Indies, visiting different Cuban clubs. His visits were received with a growing enthusiasm and raised badly needed funds for the revolutionary cause. On May 24 he met Rubén Darío, the Nicaraguan poet in a theatre act in Hardman Hall, New York City. On June 3 he had an interview with Máximo Gómez in Montecristi, Dominican Republic, where they planned the uprising. In July he met with General Antonio Maceo Grajales in San Jose, Costa Rica.[31]

In 1894 he continued traveling for propagation and organizing the revolutionary movement. On January 27 he published "A Cuba!" in the newspaper Patria where he denounced collusion between the Spanish and American interests. In July he visited the president of the Mexican Republic, Porfirio Díaz, and travelled to Veracruz. In August he prepared and arranged the armed expedition that would begin the Cuban revolution.[32]

Return to Cuba: 1895[]

On January 12, 1895, the North American authorities stopped the steamship Lagonda and two other suspicious ships, Amadis, and Baracoa at the Fernandina port in Florida, confiscating weapons and ruining Plan de Fernandina (Fernandina Plan). On January 29, Martí drew up the order of the uprising, signing it with general Jose Maria Rodriguez and Enrique Collazo. Juan Gualberto Gómez was assigned to orchestrate war preparations for La Habana Province, and was able to work right under the noses of the relatively unconcerned Spanish authorities.[33] Martí decided to move to Montecristi, Dominican Republic to join Máximo Gómez and to plan out the uprising.[34]

The uprising finally took place on February 24, 1895. A month later, Martí and Máximo Gómez declared the Manifesto de Montecristi, an "exposition of the purposes and principles of the Cuban revolution".[35] Martí had persuaded Gómez to lead an expedition into Cuba.

Before leaving for Cuba, Martí wrote his "literary will" on April 1, 1895, leaving his personal papers and manuscripts to Gonzalo de Quesada, with instructions for editing. Knowing that the majority of his writing in newspapers in Honduras, Uruguay, and Chile would disappear over time, Martí instructed Quesada to arrange his papers in volumes. The volumes were to be arranged in the following way: volumes one and two, North Americas; volume three, Hispanic Americas; volume four, North American Scenes; volume five, Books about the Americas (this included both North and South America); volume six, Literature, education and painting. Another volume included his poetry.[35]

The expedition, composed of Martí, Gómez, Ángel Guerra, Francisco Borreo, Cesar Salas and Marcos del Rosario, left Montecristi for Cuba on April 1, 1895.[34] Despite delays and desertion by some members, they got to Cuba. They landed at Playitas, near Cape Maisí and Imías, Cuba, on April 11. Once there, they made contact with the Cuban rebels, who were headed by the Maceo brothers, and started fighting against Spanish troops. The revolt did not go as planned, "mainly because the call to revolution received no immediate, spontaneous support from the masses."[36] By May 13, the expedition reached Dos Rios. On May 19, Gomez faced Ximenez de Sandoval's troops and ordered Martí to stay rearguard, but Martí separated from the bulk of the Cuban forces, and entered the Spanish line.[34]

Death[]

José Martí was killed in battle against Spanish troops at the Battle of Dos Ríos, near the confluence of the rivers Contramaestre and Cauto, on May 19, 1895. Gómez had recognized that the Spaniards had a strong position between palm trees, so he ordered his men to disengage. Martí was alone and seeing a young courier ride by he said: "Joven, a la carga!" meaning: "Young man, charge!" This was around midday, and he was dressed in a black jacket while riding a white horse, which made him an easy target for the Spanish. After Martí was shot, the young trooper, Angel de la Guardia, lost his horse and returned to report the loss. The Spanish took possession of the body, buried it close by, then exhumed the body upon realization of its identity. He is buried in Santa Ifigenia Cemetery in Santiago de Cuba. Many have argued that Maceo and others had always spurned Martí for never participating in combat, which may have compelled Martí to that ill-fated suicidal two-man charge. Some of his Versos Sencillos had a premonitory quality: "No me entierren en lo oscuro/ A morir como un traidor/ Yo soy bueno y como bueno/ Moriré de cara al sol." ("Do not bury me in darkness / to die like a traitor / I am good, and as a good man / I will die facing the sun.")

The death of Martí was a blow to the "aspirations of the Cuban rebels, inside and outside of the island, but the fighting continued with alternating successes and failures until the entry of the United States into the war in 1898".[37]

Political ideology[]

Marti wrote extensively about Spanish colonial control and the threat of US expansionism into Cuba. To him, it was unnatural that Cuba was controlled and oppressed by the Spanish government, when it had its own unique identity and culture. In his pamphlet from February 11, 1873, called "The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution", he argued that "Cubans do not live as Spaniards live.... They are nourished by a different system of trade, have links with different countries, and express their happiness through quite contrary customs. There are no common aspirations or identical goals linking the two peoples, or beloved memories to unite them .... Peoples are only united by ties of fraternity and love.".[38]

Martí opposed slavery and criticized Spain for failing to abolish it. In a speech to Cuban immigrants in Steck Hall, New York, on January 24, 1879, he stated that the war against Spain needed to be fought, recalled the heroism and suffering of the Ten Years' War, which, he declared, had qualified Cuba as a real nation with a right to independence. Spain had not ratified the conditions of the peace treaty, had falsified elections, continued excessive taxation, and had failed to abolish slavery. Cuba needed to be free.[39]

Martí proposed in a letter to Máximo Gómez in 1882 the formation of a revolutionary party, which he considered essential in the prevention of Cuba falling back on the Home Rule Party (Partido Autonomista) after the Pact of Zanjón.[40] The Home Rule Party was a peace-seeking party that would stop short of the outright independence that Martí thought Cuba needed. But he was aware that there were social divisions in Cuba, especially racial divisions, that needed to be addressed as well.[41] He thought war was necessary to achieve Cuba's freedom, despite his basic ideology of conciliation, respect, dignity, and balance. The establishment of the patria (fatherland) with a good government would unite Cubans of all social classes and colours in harmony.[42] Together with other Cubans resident in New York, Martí started laying the grounds for the Revolutionary Party, stressing the need for a democratic organization as the basic structure before any military leaders were to join. The military would have to subordinate themselves to the interests of the fatherland. Gómez later rejoined Martí's plans, promising to comply.

Martí's consolidation of support among the Cuban expatriates, especially in Florida, was key in the planning and execution of the invasion of Cuba. His speeches to Cuban tobacco workers in Tampa and Key West motivated and united them; this is considered the most important political achievement of his life.[43] At this point he refined his ideological platform, basing it on a Cuba held together by pride in being Cuban, a society that ensured "the welfare and prosperity of all Cubans"[44] independently of class, occupation or race. Faith in the cause could not die, and the military would not try for domination. All pro-independence Cubans would participate, with no sector predominating. From this he established the Cuban Revolutionary Party in early 1892.

Martí and the CRP were devoted to secretly organizing the anti-Spanish war. Martí's newspaper, Patria, was a key instrument of this campaign, where Martí delineated his final plans for Cuba. Through this medium he argued against the exploitative colonialism of Spain in Cuba, criticized the Home Rule (Autonomista) Party for having aims that fell considerably short of full independence, and warned against U.S. annexationism which he felt could only be prevented by Cuba's successful independence.[45] He specified his plans for the future Cuban Republic, a multi-class and multi-racial democratic republic based on universal suffrage, with an egalitarian economic base to develop fully Cuba's productive resources and an equitable distribution of land among citizens, with enlightened and virtuous politicians.[46]

From Martí's 'Campaign Diaries', written during the final expedition in Cuba, it seems evident that Martí would have reached the highest position in the future Republic of Arms.[47] This was not to be; his death occurred before the Assembly of Cuba was set up. Until his very last minute, Martí dedicated his life to achieve full independence for Cuba. His uncompromising belief in democracy and freedom for his fatherland is what characterized his political ideology.

Martí and the United States[]

Martí demonstrated an anti-imperialist attitude from an early age, and was conscious of the perceived danger the United States posed for Latin America. While critiquing the United States for its stereotypes of Latin Americans and preoccupation with capitalism, Martí also related the American struggle for independence from Britain with the Cuban nationalist movement.[48] At the same time, he recognized the advantages of the European or North American civilizations, which were open to the reforms that Latin American countries needed in order to detach themselves from the colonial heritage of Spain. Martí's distrust of North American politics had developed during the 1880s, due to the intervention threats that loomed on Mexico and Guatemala, and indirectly on Cuba's future. Over time Martí became increasingly alarmed about the United States' intentions for Cuba. The United States desperately needed new markets for its industrial products because of the economic crisis it was experiencing, and the media was talking about the purchase of Cuba from Spain.[49] Cuba was a profitable, fertile country with an important strategic position in the Gulf of Mexico.[50] Martí felt that the interests of Cuba's future lay with its sister nations in Latin America, and were opposite to those of the United States.[51]

Another trait that Martí admired was the work ethic that characterized American society. On various occasions Martí conveyed his deep admiration for the immigrant-based society, "whose principal aspiration he interpreted as being to construct a truly modern country, based upon hard work and progressive ideas." Martí stated that he was "never surprised in any country of the world [he had] visited. Here [he] was surprised ... [he] remarked that no one stood quietly on the corners, no door was shut an instant, no man was quiet. [He] stopped [him]self, [he] looked respectfully on this people, and [he] said goodbye forever to that lazy life and poetical inutility of our European countries".[52]

Martí found American society to be so great, he thought Latin America should consider imitating America. Martí argued that if the US "could reach such a high standard of living in so short a time, and despite, too, its lack of unifying traditions, could not the same be expected of Latin America?"[52] However, Martí thought that US expansionism represented the Spanish American republics' "greatest danger". Martí was amazed at how education was directed towards helping the development of the nation and once again encouraged Latin American countries to follow the example set by North American society.[53] At the same time, he criticized the elitist educational systems of Cuba and the rest of Latin America. Often, Martí recommended countries in Latin America to "send representatives to learn more relevant techniques in the United States". Once this was done, Martí hoped that this representatives would bring a "much-needed modernization to the Latin American agricultural policies".[54]

However, not everything was to be admired by Martí. When it came to politics Martí wrote that politics in the US had "adopted a carnival atmosphere ... especially during election time".[55] He saw acts of corruption among candidates, such as bribing "the constituents with vast quantities of beer, while impressive parades wound their way through New York's crowded streets, past masses of billboards, all exhorting the public to vote for the different political candidates".[55] Martí criticized and condemned the elites of the United States as they "pulled the main political strings behind the scenes". According to Martí, the elites "deserved severe censure" as they were the biggest threat to the "ideals with which the United States was first conceived".[55]

Martí started to believe that the US had abused its potential. Racism was abundant. Different races were being discriminated against; political life "was both cynically regarded by the public at large and widely abused by 'professional politicians'; industrial magnates and powerful labor groups faced each other menacingly". All of this convinced Martí that a large-scale social conflict was imminent in the United States.[56]

On the positive side, Martí was astonished by the "inviolable right of freedom of speech which all U.S. citizens possessed". Marti applauded the United States' Constitution which allowed freedom of speech to all its citizens, no matter what political beliefs they had. In May 1883, while attending political meetings he heard "the call for revolution – and more specifically the destruction of the capitalist system". Marti could not believe that revolution was advocated and was amazed that this could happen because this "could have led to its own destruction". Marti also gave his support to the women's suffrage movements, and was "pleased that women here [took] advantage of this privilege in order to make their voices heard". According to Marti, free speech was essential if any nation was to be civilized and he expressed his "profund admiration for these many basic liberties and opportunities open to the vast majority of American citizens".[57]

The works of Marti contain many comparisons between the ways of life of North and Latin America. The former was seen as "hardy, 'soulless', and, at times, cruel society, but one which, nevertheless, had been based upon a firm foundation of liberty and on a tradition of liberty".[57] Although North American society had its flaws, they tended to be "of minor importance when compared to the broad sweep of social inequality, and to the widespread abuse of power prevalent in Latin America".[57]

Once it became apparent that the United States were actually going to purchase Cuba and intended to Americanize it, Marti "spoke out loudly and bravely against such action, stating the opinion of many Cubans on the United States of America."[58]

Invention of a Latin American identity[]

José Martí as a liberator believed that the Latin American countries needed to know the reality of their own history. Martí also saw the necessity of a country having its own literature. These reflections started in Mexico from 1875 and are connected to the Mexican Reform, where prominent people like Ignacio Manuel Altamirano and Guillermo Prieto had situated themselves in front of a cultural renovation in Mexico, taking on the same approach as Esteban Echeverría thirty years before in Argentina. In the second "Boletin" that Martí published in the Revista Universal (May 11, 1875) one can already see Martí's approach, which was fundamentally Latin American. His wish to build a national or Latin American identity was nothing new or unusual in those days; however, no Latin-American intellectual of that time had approached as clearly as Martí the task of building a national identity. He insisted on the necessity of building institutions and laws that matched the natural elements of each country, and recalled the failure of the applications of French and American civil codes in the new Latin American republics. Martí believed that "el hombre del sur", the man of the South, should choose an appropriate development strategy matching his character, the peculiarity of his culture and history, and the nature that determined his being.[59]

Influence in Revolutionary Cuba[]

Despite the history of post-1959 Cuba's affiliation as a Communist state, it has been acknowledged that it is in fact Marti's ideology which serves as the main driving force of the ruling Cuban Communist Party.[5][60] Regarded as Cuba's "martyr" and "patron saint,"[6] several landmarks in Cuba are dedicated to Marti.[5][6] Following his death in 2016, former Cuban leader Fidel Castro, who played a major role in promoting Marti's image in Revolutionary Cuba,[61] was buried next to Marti in Santiago.[62][63]

Writings[]

Martí as a writer covered a range of genres. In addition to producing newspaper articles and keeping up an extensive correspondence (his letters are included in the collection of his complete works), he wrote a serialized novel, composed poetry, wrote essays and published four issues of a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro[64](The Golden Age, 1889). His essays and articles occupy more than fifty volumes of his complete works. His prose was extensively read and influenced the modernist generation, especially the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío, whom Martí called "my son" when they met in New York in 1893.[65]

Martí did not publish any books: only two notebooks (cuadernos) of verses, in editions outside of the market, and a number of political tracts. The rest (an enormous amount) was left dispersed in numerous newspapers and magazines, in letters, in diaries and personal notes, in other unedited texts, in frequently improvised speeches, and some lost forever. Five years after his death, the first volume of his Obras was published. A novel appeared in this collection in 1911: Amistad funesta, which Martí had made known was published under a pseudonym in 1885. In 1913, also in this edition, his third poetic collection that he had kept unedited: Versos Libres. His Diario de Campaña (Campaign Diary) was published in 1941. Later still, in 1980, Nicaraguan poet Ernesto Mejía Sánchez produced a set of about thirty of Martí's articles written for the Mexican newspaper El Partido Liberal that weren't included in any of his so-called Obras Completas editions. From 1882 to 1891, Martí collaborated in La Nación , a Buenos Aires newspaper. His texts from La Nación have been collected in Anuario del centro de Estudios Martianos.

Over the course of his journalistic career, he wrote for numerous newspapers, starting with El Diablo Cojuelo (The Limping Devil) and La Patria Libre (The Free Fatherland), both of which he helped to found in 1869 in Cuba and which established the extent of his political commitment and vision for Cuba. In Spain he wrote for La Colonia Española,in Mexico for La Revista Universal, and in Venezuela for Revista Venezolana, which he founded. In New York he contributed to Venezuelan periodical La Opinión Nacional, Buenos Aires newspaper La Nación, Mexico's La Opinion Liberal, and America's The Hour.[66]

The first critical edition of Martí's complete works began to appear in 1983 in José Martí: Obras completas. Edición crítica. The critical edition of his complete poems was published in 1985 in José Martí: Poesía completa. Edición critica.

Volume two of his Obras Completas includes his famous essay 'Nuestra America' which "comprises a variety of subjects relating to Spanish America about which Marti studied and wrote. Here it is noted that after Cuba his interest was directed mostly to Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela. The various sections of this part are about general matters and international conferences; economic, social and political questions; literature and art; agrarian and industrial problems; immigration; education; relations with the United States and Spanish America; travel notes".[67]

According to Marti, the intention behind the publication of "La edad de oro" was "so that American children may know how people used to live, and how they live nowadays, in America and in other countries; how many things are made, such as glass and iron, steam engines and suspension bridges and electric light; so that when a child sees a coloured stone he will know why the stone is coloured. ... We shall tell them about everything which is done in factories, where things happen which are stranger and more interesting than the magic in fairy stories. These things are real magic, more marvelous than any. ... We write for children because it is they who know how to love, because it is children who are the hope for the world".[68]

Marti's "Versos Sencillos" was written "in the town of Haines Falls, New York, where his doctor has sent [him] to regain his strength 'where streams flowed and clouds gathered in upon themeselves'".[69] The poetry encountered in this work is "in many [ways] autobiographical and allows readers to see Marti the man and the patriot and to judge what was important to him at a crucial time in Cuban history".[69]

Martí's writings reflected his own views both socially and politically. "Cultivo Una Rosa Blanca" is one of his poems that emphasize his views in hopes of betterment for society:

I cultivate a white rose
In July as in January
For the sincere friend
Who gives me his hand frankly
And for the cruel person who tears
out the heart with which I live,
I cultivate neither nettles nor thorns:
I cultivate a white rose[70]

This poem is a clear description of Martí's societal hopes for his homeland. Within the poem, he talks about how regardless of the person, whether kind or cruel he cultivates a white rose, meaning that he remains peaceful. This coincides with his ideology about establishing unity amongst the people, more so those of Cuba, through a common identity, with no regards to ethnic and racial differences.[71] This doctrine could be accomplished if one treated his enemy with peace as he would treat a friend. The kindness of one person should be shared with all people, regardless of personal conflict. By following the moral that lies within "Cultivo Rosa Blanca", Martí's vision of Cuban solidarity could be possible, creating a more peaceful society that would emanate through future generations.

After his breakthrough in Cuba literature, José Martí went on to contribute his works to newspapers, magazines, and books that reflected his political and social views. Because of his early death, Martí was unable to publish a vast collection of poetry; even so, his literary contributions have made him a renowned figure in literature, influencing many writers, and people in general, to aspire to follow in the footsteps of Martí.

Style[]

Martí's style of writing is difficult to categorize. He used many aphorisms—short, memorable lines that convey truth and/or wisdom—and long complex sentences. He is considered a major contributor to the Spanish American literary movement known as Modernismo and has been linked to Latin American consciousness of the modern age and modernity.[72] His chronicles combined elements of literary portraiture, dramatic narration, and a dioramic scope. His poetry contained "fresh and astonishing images along with deceptively simple sentiments".[73] As an orator (for he made many speeches) he was known for his cascading structure, powerful aphorisms, and detailed descriptions. More important than his style is how he uses that style to put into service his ideas, making "advanced" convincing notions. Throughout his writing he made reference to historical figures and events, and used constant allusions to literature, current news and cultural matters. For this reason, he may be difficult to read and translate.[74]

His didactic spirit encouraged him to establish a magazine for children, La Edad de Oro (1889) which contained a short essay titled "Tres Heroes" (three heroes), representative of his talent to adapt his expression to his audience; in this case, to make the young reader conscious of and amazed by the extraordinary bravery of the three men, Bolivar, Hidalgo, and San Martín. This is his style to teach delightfully.[75]

Translation[]

José Martí is universally honored as a great poet, patriot and martyr of Cuban Independence, but he was also a translator of some note. Although he translated literary material for the sheer joy of it, much of the translating he did was imposed on him by economic necessity during his many years of exile in the United States. Martí learned English at an early age, and had begun to translate at thirteen. He continued translating for the rest of his life, including his time as a student in Spain, although the period of his greatest productivity was during his stay in New York from 1880 until he returned to Cuba in 1895.[76]

In New York he was what we would call today a "freelancer" as well as an "in house" translator. He translated several books for the publishing house of D. Appleton, and did a series of translations for newspapers. As a revolutionary activist in Cuba's long struggle for independence he translated into English a number of articles and pamphlets supporting that movement.[77] In addition to fluent English, Martí also spoke French, Italian, Latin and Classical Greek fluently, the latter learned so he could read the Greek classical works in the original.[78]

There was clearly a dichotomy in Martí's feeling about the kind of work he was translating. Like many professionals, he undertook for money translation tasks which had little intellectual or emotional appeal for him. Although Martí never presented a systematic theory of translation nor did he write extensively about his approach to translation, he did jot down occasional thoughts on the subject, showcasing his awareness of the translator's dilemma of the faithful versus the beautiful and stating that "translation should be natural, so that it appears that the book were written in the language to which it has been translated".[79]

Modernism[]

The modernists, in general, use a subjective language. Martí's stylistic creed is part of the necessity to de-codify the logic rigor and the linguistic construction and to eliminate the intellectual, abstract and systematic expression. There is the deliberate intention and awareness to expand the expressive system of the language. The style changes the form of thinking. Without falling into unilateralism, Martí values the expression because language is an impression and a feeling through the form. Modernism mostly searches for the visions and realities, the expression takes in the impressions, the state of mind, without reflection and without concept. This is the law of subjectivity. We can see this in works of Martí, one of the first modernists, who conceives the literary task like an invisible unity, an expressive totality, considering the style like "a form of the content" (forma del contenido).[80]

The difference that Martí established between prose and poetry are conceptual. Poetry, as he believes, is a language of the permanent subjective: the intuition and the vision. The prose is an instrument and a method of spreading the ideas, and has the goal of elevating, encouraging and animating these ideas rather than having the expression of tearing up the heart, complaining and moaning. The prose is a service to his people.[81]

Martí produces a system of specific signs "an ideological code" (código ideológico). These symbols claim their moral value and construct signs of ethic conduct. Martí's modernism was a spiritual attitude that was reflected on the language. All his writing defines his moral world. One could also say that his ideological and spiritual sphere is fortified in his writing.[81]

The difference between Martí and other modernist initiators such as Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, Julian del Casal, and José Asunción Silva (and the similarity between him and Manuel González Prada) lies in the profound and transcendent value that he gave to literature, converting prose into an article or the work of a journalist. This hard work was important in giving literature authentic and independent value and distancing it from mere formal amusement. Manuel Gutiérez Nájera, Rubén Darío, Miguel de Unamuno and José Enrique Rodó saved the Martinian articles, which will have an endless value in the writings of the American continent.[82]

Apart from Martinian articles. essay writing and literature starts to authorize itself as an alternative and privileged way to talk about politics. Literature starts to apply itself the only hermeneutics able to resolve the enigmas of a Latin American identity.[82]

Legacy[]

Martí's dedication to the cause of Cuban independence and his passionate belief in democracy and justice has made him a hero for all Cubans, a symbol of unity, the "Apostle",[83] a great leader. His writings have created a platform for all that he went through during the duration of this period in time.[84] His ultimate goal of building a democratic, just, and stable republic in Cuba and his obsession with the practical execution of this goal led him to become the most charismatic leader of the 1895 colonial revolution. His work with the Cuban émigré community, enlisting the support of Cuban workers and socialist leaders to form the Cuban Revolutionary Party, put into motion the Cuban war of independence.[85] His foresight into the future, shown in his warnings against American political interests for Cuba, was confirmed by the swift occupation of Cuba by the United States following the Spanish–American War. His belief in the inseparability of Cuban and Latin American sovereignty and the expression thereof in his writings have contributed to the shape of the modern Latin American Identity. Through his beliefs for Cuban and Latin American sovereignty, Cuba revolted on former allies.[84] This is why Cuba became an independent nation. His works are a cornerstone of Latin American and political literature and his prolific contributions to the fields of journalism, poetry, and prose are highly acclaimed.[86]

Martí's writings on the concepts of Cuban nationalism fuelled the 1895 revolution and have continued to inform conflicting visions of the Cuban nation. The Cuban nation-state under Fidel Castro consistently claimed Martí as a crucial inspiration for its Communist revolutionary government. During Castro's tenure, the politics and death of Marti were used to justify certain actions of the Cuban state.[87] The Cuban government claimed that Marti had supported a single party system, creating a precedent for a communist government.[87] The vast amount of writing that Marti produced in his lifetime makes it difficult to determine his exact political ideology, but his major goal was the liberation of Cuba from Spain and the establishment of a democratic republican government.[88] Despite Marti never having supported communism or single party systems,[87] Cuban leaders repeatedly claimed that Marti's Partido Revolucionario Cubano was a "forerunner of the Communist Party".[87] Martí's nuanced, often ambivalent positions on the most important issues of his day[89] have led Marxist interpreters to see a class conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie as the main theme of his works, while others, namely the Cuban diasporic communities in Miami and elsewhere have identified a liberal-capitalist emphasis.[90] These Cuban exiles still honor Martí as a figure of hope for the Cuban nation in exile and condemn Castro's government for manipulating his works and creating a "Castroite Martí" to justify its "intolerance and abridgments of human rights".[91] His writings thus remain a key ideological weapon in the battle over the fate of the Cuban nation.

One further example of his legacy is that his name has been chosen for several institutions or NGOs from various countries, such as Romania, where a public school from Bucharest and the Romanian-Cuban Friendship Association from Targoviste are both named "Jose Marti".

Havana's international airport is named after Martí.

A gigantic statue of Martí was unveiled in Havana on his 123rd birth anniversary, and Cuban president Raul Castro was present at the ceremony.[92]

The National Association of Hispanic Publications, a non-profit organization to promote Hispanic publications, each year designates the José Martí Awards for excellence in Hispanic media. The awards are given for Editorial Articles, Editorial Sections, Design, Photographs, Marketing, and Best Overall Categories.[93]

List of selected works[]

Martí's fundamental works published during his life

  • 1869 January: Abdala
  • 1869 January: "10 de octubre"
  • 1871: El presidio político en Cuba
  • 1873: La República Española ante la revolución cubana
  • 1875: Amor con amor se paga
  • 1882: Ismaelillo
  • 1882 February: Ryan vs. Sullivan
  • 1882 February: Un incendio
  • 1882 July: El ajusticiamiento de Guiteau
  • 1883 January: "Batallas de la Paz"
  • 1883 March: " Que son graneros humanos"
  • 1883 March: Karl Marx ha muerto
  • 1883 March:El Puente de Brooklyn
  • 1883 September: "En Coney Island se vacía Nueva York"
  • 1883 December:" Los políticos de oficio"
  • 1883 December: "Bufalo Bil"
  • 1884 April:"Los caminadores"
  • 1884 November: Norteamericanos
  • 1884 November:El juego de pelota de pies
  • 1885: Amistad funesta
  • 1885 January:Teatro en Nueva York
  • 1885 '"Una gran rosa de bronce encendida"
  • 1885 March:Los fundadores de la constitución
  • 1885 June: "Somos pueblo original"
  • 1885 August: "Los políticos tiene sus púgiles"
  • 1886 May: Las revueltas anarquistas de Chicago
  • 1886 September: " La ensenanza"
  • 1886 October: "La Estatua de la Libertad"
  • 1887 April: El poeta Walt Whitman
  • 1887 April: El Madison Square
  • 1887 November: Ejecución de los dirigentes anarquistas de Chicago
  • 1887 November: La gran Nevada
  • 1888 May: El ferrocarril elevado
  • 1888 August: Verano en Nueva York
  • 1888 November: " Ojos abiertos, y gargantas secas"
  • 1888 November: "Amanece y ya es fragor"
  • 1889: 'La edad de oro'
  • 1889 May: El centenario de George Washington
  • 1889 July: Bañistas
  • 1889 August: "Nube Roja"
  • 1889 September: "La caza de negros"
  • 1890 November: " El jardín de las orquídeas"
  • 1891 October:Versos Sencillos
  • 1891 January: "Nuestra América"
  • 1894 January: " ¡A Cuba!"
  • 1895: Manifiesto de Montecristi- coauthor with Máximo Gómez

Martí's major posthumous works

See also[]

  • International José Martí Prize
  • Radio y Televisión Martí
  • José Rizal, Philippine national hero also executed by the Spanish in 1896
  • Bust of José Martí, Houston, Texas

Notes[]

  1. ↑Hudson, Michael. "Speech to the Communist Party of Cuba". http://michael-hudson.com/2000/01/speech-to-the-communist-party-of-cuba/. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  2. ↑Mace, Elisabeth. "The economic thinking of Jose Marti: Legacy foundation for the integration of America". Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. https://archive.is/20150908183320/http://www.akimoo.com/2013/the-economic-thinking-of-jose-marti-legacy-foundation-for-the-integration-of-america/. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  3. ↑"Jose Marti, apostle of Cuban Independence". http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/marti/marti.htm. 
  4. ↑Garganigo, John F. Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997. P 272
  5. 5.05.15.2https://www.peoplesworld.org/article/jose-marti-soul-of-the-cuban-revolution/
  6. 6.06.16.2https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/jose-martis-bust-on-pico-turquino
  7. 7.07.1Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 15
  8. ↑Fidalgo 1998, p. 26
  9. 9.09.19.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 16
  10. ↑López 2006, p. 232
  11. ↑"End of Slavery in Cuba". http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/race/EndSlave.htm. 
  12. ↑Jones 1953, p. 398
  13. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 18
  14. 14.014.114.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 23
  15. ↑Martí 1963a, p. 48
  16. 16.016.116.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 24
  17. ↑Pérez-Galdós Ortiz 1999, p. 45
  18. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 30
  19. 19.019.119.219.3Jones 1953, p. 399
  20. 20.020.1Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 46
  21. ↑It is common, and in fact legal, practice in Spanish-speaking societies to use and include the maternal surname as the "second" last name, such that both surnames are the legal and customary surname of an individual. E.g., Pérez López means that in non-Spanish societies esp. anglophone societies, Pérez is the correct surname to which to refer; otherwise, 'both' names together are the legal surname.
  22. ↑Guatemala was one of the first regions of the New World to be exposed to European music
  23. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 52
  24. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 56
  25. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 107
  26. ↑Gray 1966, p. 389
  27. ↑Gray 1966, p. 390
  28. ↑García Cisneros 1986, p. 56
  29. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 4
  30. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 159
  31. 31.031.1Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 167
  32. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 184
  33. ↑Tone 2006, p. 43
  34. 34.034.134.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 191
  35. 35.035.1Gray 1966, p. 391
  36. ↑Tone 2006, p. 48
  37. ↑Gray 1966, p. 392
  38. ↑Martí 1963b, pp. 93–94
  39. ↑Scott 1984, p. 87
  40. ↑Ramos 2001, pp. 34–35
  41. ↑Martí 1963c, p. 172
  42. ↑Martí 1963d, p. 192
  43. ↑Ronning 1990, p. 103
  44. ↑Martí 1963e, p. 270
  45. ↑Bueno 1997, p. 158
  46. ↑Abel 1986, p. 26
  47. ↑Turton 1986, p. 57
  48. ↑Giles, Paul (Spring 2004). "The Parallel Worlds of Jose Marti". pp. 185–190. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/169486/pdf. Retrieved 16 November 2017. 
  49. ↑Holden & Zolov 2000, p. 249
  50. ↑Turton 1986, p. 47
  51. ↑Holden & Solov 2000, p. 179
  52. 52.052.1Kirk 1977, p. 278
  53. ↑Kirk 1977, pp. 278–79 Martí thought that US expansionism represented the Spanish American republics' "greatest danger"
  54. ↑Kirk 1977, p. 279
  55. 55.055.155.2Kirk 1977, p. 280
  56. ↑Kirk 1977, p. 281
  57. 57.057.157.2Kirk 1977, p. 282
  58. ↑Kirk 1977, p. 284
  59. ↑Fernández 1995, p. 46[Clarification needed]
  60. ↑http://en.escambray.cu/2017/fidel-castro-loyal-follower-of-jose-marti/
  61. ↑https://www.jstor.org/stable/24485980?seq=1
  62. ↑https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-38201169
  63. ↑https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/fidel-castro-en/article117762148.html
  64. ↑Lally, Carolyn. "Foreign Language Program Articulation: Current Practice and Future Prospects." 2001. p. 54.
  65. ↑Garganigo et al., p. 272[Clarification needed]
  66. ↑Martí 1992, p. 8[Clarification needed]
  67. ↑Roscoe 1947, p. 280
  68. ↑Nassif 1994, p. 2
  69. 69.069.1Oberhelman 2001, p. 475
  70. ↑Martí, José, Manuel A.Tellechea Versos Sencillos. U of Houston: Arte Público Press, 1997
  71. ↑ Morukian, Maria. "Cubanidad: Survival of Cuban Culture Identity in the 21st Century".
  72. ↑Fernández Retamar 1970, p. 38
  73. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 6
  74. ↑Hernández Pardo 2000, p. 146
  75. ↑Garganigo, p. 273[Clarification needed]
  76. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 13
  77. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 15
  78. ↑Fernández Retamar 1970, p. 16
  79. ↑"la traducción debe ser natural, para que parezca como si el libro hubiese sido escrito en la lengua al que lo traduces." De la Cuesta 1996, p. 7
  80. ↑Serna 2002, p. 13
  81. 81.081.1Serna 2002, p. 14
  82. 82.082.1Serna 2002, p. 16
  83. ↑Lopez 2006, p. 11
  84. 84.084.1Jordan, David (1993). Revolutionary Cuba and the End of the Cold War. University Press Of America. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-8191-8998-1. 
  85. ↑Ronning 1990, p. 3
  86. ↑Cairo 2003, p. 25
  87. 87.087.187.287.3Ripoll, Carlos (1994). "The Falsification of Jose Marti in Cuba". pp. 3–38. JSTOR 24485768. 
  88. ↑Lecuona, Rafael (March 1991). "Jose Marti and Fidel Castro". pp. 45–61. JSTOR 20751650. 
  89. ↑Lopez 2006, p. 12
  90. ↑Ripoll 1984, p. 45
  91. ↑Ripoll 1984, p. 40
  92. ↑"Cuba unveils US statue of national hero Jose Marti". https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/01/cuba-unveils-statue-national-hero-jose-marti-180129071328989.html. 
  93. ↑"José Martí Awards". National Association of Hispanic Publications. 2016-11-17. https://nahp.org/about-nahp/jose-marti-awards/. 

References[]

  • Abel, Christopher. José Martí: Revolutionary Democrat. London: Athlone. 1986.
  • Alborch Bataller, Carmen, ed (1995). "José Martí: obra y vida". Ministerio de Cultura, Ediciones Siruela. ISBN 978-84-7844-300-0. .
  • Bueno, Salvador (1997). "José Martí y su periódico Patria". Puvill. ISBN 978-84-85202-75-1. .
  • Cairo, Ana. Jose Marti y la novela de la cultura cubana. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. 2003.
  • De La Cuesta, Leonel Antonio. Martí, Traductor. Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca. 1996.
  • Fernández, Teodosio (1995). "José Martí: historia y literatura ante el fin del siglo XIX". In Alemany Bay, Carmen; Muñoz, Ramiro; Rovira, José Carlos. Universidad de Alicante. pp. ??. ISBN 978-84-7908-308-3. .[page needed]
  • Fernández Retamar, Roberto (1970). "Martí". Biblioteca de Marcha. OCLC 253831187. .
  • Fidalgo, Jose Antonio. "El Doctor Fermín Valdés-Domínguez, Hombre de Ciencias y Su Posible Influencia Recíproca Con José Martí" Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Pública 1998 (84) pp. 26–34
  • Fountain, Anne (2003). "José Martí and U.S. Writers". University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-2617-6. .
  • García Cisneros, Florencio (1986). "Máximo Gómez: caudillo o dictador?". Librería & Distribuidora Universal. ISBN 978-0-9617456-0-8. .
  • Garganigo, John F.; Costa, Rene; Heller, Ben, eds (1997). "Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas". Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-825100-0. .[Clarification needed]
  • Gray, Richard B. (April 1966). "The Quesadas of Cuba: Biographers and Editors of José Martí y Pérez". Academy of American Franciscan History. pp. 389–403. Digital object identifier:10.2307/979019. JSTOR 979019. .
  • Hernández Pardo, Héctor (2000). "Luz para el siglo XXI: actualidad del pensamiento de José Martí". Ediciones Libertarias. ISBN 978-84-7954-561-1. .
  • Holden, Robert H.; Zolov, Eric (2000). "Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History". Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512993-9. .
  • Jones, Willis Knapp (December 1953). "The Martí Centenary". Blackwell Publishing. pp. 398–402. Digital object identifier:10.2307/320047. JSTOR 320047. .
  • Kirk, John M. (November 1977). "Jose Marti and the United States: A Further Interpretation". Cambridge University Press. pp. 275–90. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0022216X00020617. JSTOR 156129. http://DalSpace.library.dal.ca/bitstream/10222/21684/1/kirk_1977.pdf. .
  • Kirk, John M. José Martí, Mentor of the Cuban Nation. Tampa: University Presses of Florida, c1983.
  • López, Alfred J. (2006). "José Martí and the Future of Cuban Nationalisms". University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-2999-3. .
  • López, Alfred J. (2014). "José Martí: A Revolutionary Life". University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-73906-2. .
  • Martí, José (1963a). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 46–50. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963b). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 93–97. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963c). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 172–73. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963d). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963e). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 266–70. OCLC 263517908. .[page needed]
  • Martí, José (1992). "La edad de oro: edición crítica anotada y prologada". In Fernández Retamar, Roberto. Fondo de cultura económica. ISBN 978-968-16-3503-9. .[Clarification needed]
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  • Nassif, Ricardo. "Jose Martí (1853–95) ". Originally published in Prospects:the quarterly review of comparative education(Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. XXIV, no. 1/2, 1994, pp. 107–19
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  • Pérez-Galdós Ortiz, Víctor. José Martí: Visión de un Hombre Universal. Barcelona: Puvill Libros Ltd. 1999.
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  • Ripoll, Carlos. Jose Marti and the United States, and the Marxist interpretation of Cuban History. New Jersey: Transaction Inc. 1984.
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Источник: https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Mart%C3%AD

José Martí

Cuban poet, philosopher and nationalist (1853–1895)

For other people named José Martí, see José Martí (disambiguation).

In this Spanish name, the first or paternal surname is Martí and the second or maternal family name is Pérez.

José Martí

José Martí in c. 1892

José Martí in c. 1892

BornJosé Julián Martí Pérez
January 28, 1853
La Habana, Captaincy General of Cuba, Spanish Empire
DiedMay 19, 1895(1895-05-19) (aged 42)
Dos Ríos, Captaincy General of Cuba, Spanish Empire
OccupationPoet, writer, philosopher, nationalist leader
NationalityCuban
Literary movementModernismo
SpouseCarmen Zayas Bazan
ChildrenJosé Francisco "Pepito" Martí; María Mantilla (mother of famous Hollywood actor Cesar Romero who was his grandson)
RelativesMariano Martí Navarro and Leonor Pérez Cabrera (Parents), 7 sisters (Leonor, Mariana, María de Carmen, María de Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores)

José Julián Martí Pérez (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse maɾˈti]; January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban poet, philosopher, essayist, journalist, translator, professor, and publisher, who is considered a Cuban national hero because of his role in the liberation of his country. He was also an important figure in Latin American literature. He was very politically active and is considered an important revolutionaryphilosopher and political theorist.[1][2] Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol of Cuba's bid for independence from the Spanish Empire in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence".[3] From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba, and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans; his death was used as a cry for Cuban independence from Spain by both the Cuban revolutionaries and those Cubans previously reluctant to start a revolt.

Born in Havana, Martí began his political activism at an early age. He traveled extensively in Spain, Latin America, and the United States, raising awareness and support for the cause of Cuban independence. His unification of the Cuban émigré community, particularly in Florida, was crucial to the success of the Cuban War of Independence against Spain. He was a key figure in the planning and execution of this war, as well as the designer of the Cuban Revolutionary Party and its ideology. He died in military action during the Battle of Dos Ríos on May 19, 1895. Martí is considered one of the great turn-of-the-century Latin American intellectuals. His written works include a series of poems, essays, letters, lectures, novel, and a children's magazine.

He wrote for numerous Latin American and American newspapers; he also founded a number of newspapers. His newspaper Patria was an important instrument in his campaign for Cuban independence. After his death, one of his poems from the book, Versos Sencillos (Simple Verses) was adapted to the song "Guantanamera", which has become the definitive patriotic song of Cuba. The concepts of freedom, liberty, and democracy are prominent themes in all of his works, which were influential on the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío and the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral.[4] Following the 1959 Cuban Revolution, Martí's ideology became a major driving force in Cuban politics.[5] He is also regarded as Cuba's "martyr."[6]

Life[edit]

Early life, Cuba: 1853–70[edit]

41 Paula Street, Havana, birthplace of José Martí
A sign at the Miracle del Mocadoret square, Valencia (Spain) where José Martí spent his childhood

José Julián Martí Pérez was born on January 28, 1853, in Havana, at 41 Paula Street, to Spanish parents, a Valencian father, Mariano Martí Navarro, and Leonor Pérez Cabrera, a native of the Canary Islands. Martí was the elder brother to seven sisters: Leonor, Mariana, María del Carmen, María del Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores. He was baptized on February 12 in Santo Ángel Custodio church. When he was four, his family moved from Cuba to Valencia, Spain, but two years later they returned to the island where they enrolled José at a local public school, in the Santa Clara neighborhood where his father worked as a prison guard.[7]

In 1865, he enrolled in the Escuela de Instrucción Primaria Superior Municipal de Varones that was headed by Rafael María de Mendive. Mendive was influential in the development of Martí's political philosophies. Also instrumental in his development of a social and political conscience was his best friend Fermín Valdés Domínguez, the son of a wealthy slave-owning family.[8] In April the same year, after hearing the news of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Martí and other young students expressed their pain—through group mourning—for the death of a man who had decreed the abolition of slavery in the United States. In 1866, Martí entered the Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza where Mendive financed his studies.[7]

Martí signed up at the Escuela Profesional de Pintura y Escultura de La Habana (Professional School for Painting and Sculpture of Havana) in September 1867, known as San Alejandro, to take drawing classes. He hoped to flourish in this area but did not find commercial success. In 1867, he also entered the school of San Pablo, established and managed by Mendive, where he enrolled for the second and third years of his bachelor's degree and assisted Mendive with the school's administrative tasks. In April 1868, his poem dedicated to Mendive's wife, A Micaela. En la Muerte de Miguel Ángel appeared in Guanabacoa's newspaper El Álbum.[9]

When the Ten Years' War broke out in Cuba in 1868, clubs of supporters for the Cuban nationalist cause formed all over Cuba, and José and his friend Fermín joined them. Martí had a precocious desire for the independence and freedom of Cuba. He started writing poems about this vision, while, at the same time, trying to do something to achieve this dream. In 1869, he published his first political writings in the only edition of the newspaper El Diablo Cojuelo, published by Fermín Valdés Domínguez. That same year he published "Abdala", a patriotic drama in verse form in the one-volume La Patria Libre newspaper, which he published himself. "Abdala" is about a fictional country called Nubia which struggles for liberation.[10] His sonnet "10 de Octubre", later to become one of his most famous poems, was also written during that year, and was published later in his school newspaper.[9]

In March of that year, colonial authorities shut down the school, interrupting Martí's studies. He came to resent Spanish rule of his homeland at an early age; likewise, he developed a hatred of slavery, which was still practiced in Cuba.[11]

On October 21, 1869, aged 16, he was arrested and incarcerated in the national jail, following an accusation of treason and bribery from the Spanish government upon the discovery of a "reproving" letter, which Martí and Fermín had written to a friend when the friend joined the Spanish army.[12] More than four months later, Martí confessed to the charges and was condemned to six years in prison. His mother tried to free her son (who at 16 was still a minor) by writing letters to the government, and his father went to a lawyer friend for legal support, but these efforts failed. Eventually, Martí fell ill; his legs were severely lacerated by the chains that bound him. As a result, he was transferred to another part of Cuba known as Isla de Pinos instead of further imprisonment. Following that, the Spanish authorities decided to exile him to Spain.[9] In Spain, Martí, who was 18 at the time, was allowed to continue his studies with the hopes that studying in Spain would renew his loyalty to Spain.[13]

Spain: 1871–74[edit]

In January 1871, Martí embarked on the steam ship Guipuzcoa, which took him from Havana to Cádiz. He settled in Madrid in a guesthouse in Desengaño St. #10. Arriving at the capitol he contacted fellow Cuban Carlos Sauvalle, who had been deported to Spain a year before Martí and whose house served as a center of reunions for Cubans in exile. On March 24, Cádiz's newspaper La Soberania Nacional, published Martí's article "Castillo" in which he recalled the sufferings of a friend he met in prison. This article would be reprinted in Sevilla's La Cuestión Cubana and New York's La República. At this time, Martí registered himself as a member of independent studies in the law faculty of the Central University of Madrid.[14] While studying here, Martí openly participated in discourse on the Cuban issue, debating through the Spanish press and circulating documents protesting Spanish activities in Cuba.

Martí's maltreatment at the hands of the Spaniards and consequent deportation to Spain in 1871 inspired a tract, Political Imprisonment in Cuba, published in July. This pamphlet's purpose was to move the Spanish public to do something about its government's brutalities in Cuba and promoted the issue of Cuban independence.[15] In September, from the pages of El Jurado Federal, Martí and Sauvalle accused the newspaper La Prensa of having calumniated the Cuban residents in Madrid. During his stay in Madrid, Martí frequented the Ateneo and the National Library, the Café de los Artistas, and the British, Swiss and Iberian breweries. In November he became sick and had an operation, paid for by Sauvalle.[14]

On November 27, 1871, eight medical students, who had been accused (without evidence) of the desecration of a Spanish grave, were executed in Havana.[14] In June 1872, Fermín Valdés was arrested because of the November 27 incident. His sentence of six years of jail was pardoned, and he was exiled to Spain where he reunited with Martí. On November 27, 1872, the printed matter Dia 27 de Noviembre de 1871 (27 November 1871) written by Martí and signed by Fermín Valdés Domínguez and Pedro J. de la Torre circulated Madrid. A group of Cubans held a funeral in the Caballero de Gracia church, the first anniversary of the medical students' execution.[16]

In 1873, Martí's "A mis Hermanos Muertos el 27 de Noviembre" was published by Fermín Valdés. In February, for the first time, the Cuban flag appeared in Madrid, hanging from Martí's balcony in Concepción Jerónima, where he lived for a few years. In the same month, the Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic by the Cortes on February 11, 1873 reaffirmed Cuba as inseparable to Spain, Martí responded with an essay, The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution, and sent it to the Prime Minister, pointing out that this new freely elected body of deputies that had proclaimed a republic based on democracy had been hypocritical not to grant Cuba its independence.[17] He sent examples of his work to Nestor Ponce de Leon, a member of the Junta Central Revolucionaria de Nueva York (Central revolutionary committee of New York), to whom he would express his will to collaborate on the fight for the independence of Cuba.[16]

In May, he moved to Zaragoza, accompanied by Fermín Valdés to continue his studies in law at the Universidad Literaria. The newspaper La Cuestión Cubana of Sevilla, published numerous articles from Martí.[16]

In June 1874, Martí graduated with a degree in Civil Law and Canon Law. In August he signed up as an external student at the Facultad de Filosofia y Letras de Zaragoza, where he finished his degree by October. In November he returned to Madrid and then left to Paris. There he met Auguste Vacquerie, a poet, and Victor Hugo. In December 1874 he embarked from Le Havre for Mexico.[18] Prevented from returning to Cuba, Martí went instead to Mexico and Guatemala. During these travels, he taught and wrote, advocating continuously for Cuba's independence.[19]

México and Guatemala: 1875–78[edit]

See also: María García Granados y Saborío

In 1875, Martí lived on Calle Moneda in Mexico City near the Zócalo, a prestigious address of the time. One floor above him lived Manuel Antonio Mercado, Secretary of the Distrito Federal, who became one of Martí's best friends. On March 2, 1875, he published his first article for Vicente Villada's Revista Universal, a broadsheet discussing politics, literature, and general business commerce. On March 12, his Spanish translation of Hugo's Mes Fils (1874) began serialization in Revista Universal. Martí then joined the editorial staff, editing the Boletín section of the publication.

In these writings, he expressed his opinions about current events in Mexico. On May 27, in the newspaper Revista Universal, he responded to the anti-Cuban-independence arguments in La Colonia Española, a newspaper for Spanish citizens living in Mexico. In December, Sociedad Gorostiza (Gorostiza Society), a group of writers and artists, accepted Martí as a member, where he met his future wife, Carmen Zayas Bazán, during his frequent visits to her Cuban father's house to meet with the Gorostiza group.[20]

On January 1, 1876, in Oaxaca, elements opposed to Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada's government, led by Gen. Porfirio Díaz, proclaimed the Plan de Tuxtepec, which instigated a bloody civil war. Martí and Mexican colleagues established the Sociedad Alarcón, composed of dramatists, actors, and critics. At this point, Martí began collaborating with the newspaper El Socialista as leader of the Gran Círculo Obrero (Great Labor Circle) organization of liberals and reformists who supported Lerdo de Tejada. In March, the newspaper proposed a series of candidates as delegates, including Martí, to the first Congreso Obrero, or congress of the workers. On June 4, La Sociedad Esperanza de Empleados (Employees' Hope Society) designated Martí as delegate to the Congreso Obrero. On December 7, Martí published his article Alea Jacta Est in the newspaper El Federalista, bitterly criticizing the Porfiristas' armed assault upon the constitutional government in place. On December 16, he published the article "Extranjero" (foreigner; abroad), in which he repeated his denunciation of the Porfiristas and bade farewell to Mexico.[20]

In 1877, using his second name and second surname[21] Julián Pérez as pseudonym, Martí embarked for Havana, hoping to arrange to move his family away to Mexico City from Havana. He returned to Mexico, however, entering at the port of Progreso from which, via Isla de Mujeres and Belize, he travelled south to progressive Guatemala City. He took residence in the prosperous suburb of Ciudad Vieja, home of Guatemala's artists and intelligentsia of the day, on Cuarta Avenida (Fourth Avenue), 3 km south of Guatemala City. While there, he was commissioned by the government to write the play Patria y Libertad (Drama Indio) (Country and Liberty (an Indian Drama)). He met personally the president, Justo Rufino Barrios, about this project. On April 22, the newspaper El Progreso published his article "Los códigos Nuevos" (The New Laws) pertaining to the then newly enacted Civil Code. On May 29, he was appointed head of the Department of French, English, Italian and German Literature, History and Philosophy, on the faculty of philosophy and arts of the Universidad Nacional. On July 25, he lectured for the opening evening of the literary society 'Sociedad Literaria El Porvenir', at the Teatro Colón (the since-renamed Teatro Nacional[22]), at which function he was appointed vice-president of the Society, and acquiring the moniker "el doctor torrente," or Doctor Torrent, in view of his rhetorical style. Martí taught composition classes free at the Academia de Niñas de Centroamérica girls' academy, among whose students he enthralled young María García Granados y Saborío, daughter of Guatemalan president Miguel García Granados. The schoolgirl's crush was unrequited, however, as he went again to México, where he met Carmen Zayas Bazán and whom he later married.[23]

In 1878, Martí returned to Guatemala and published his book Guatemala, edited in Mexico. On May 10, socialite María García Granados died of lung disease; her unrequited love for Martí branded her, poignantly, as 'la niña de Guatemala, la que se murió de amor' (the Guatemalan girl who died of love). Following her death, Martí returned to Cuba. There, he resigned signing the Pact of Zanjón which ended the Cuban Ten Years' War, but had no effect on Cuba's status as a colony. He met Afro-Cuban revolutionary Juan Gualberto Gómez, who would be his lifelong partner in the independence struggle and a stalwart defender of his legacy during this same journey. He married Carmen Zayas Bazán on Havana's Calle Tulipán Street at this time. In October, his application to practice law in Cuba was refused, and thereafter he immersed himself in radical efforts, such as for the Comité Revolucionario Cubano de Nueva York (Cuban Revolutionary Committee of New York). On November 22, 1878 his son José Francisco, known fondly as "Pepito", was born.[24]

United States and Venezuela: 1880–90[edit]

In 1881, after a brief stay in New York, Martí travelled to Venezuela and founded in Caracas the Revista Venezolana, or Venezuelan Review. The journal incurred the wrath of Venezuela's dictator, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, and Martí was forced to return to New York.[25] There, Martí joined General Calixto García's Cuban revolutionary committee, composed of Cuban exiles advocating independence. Here Martí openly supported Cuba's struggle for liberation, and worked as a journalist for La Nación of Buenos Aires and for several Central American journals,[19] especially La Opinion Liberal in Mexico City.[26] The article "El ajusticiamiento de Guiteau," an account of President Garfield's murderer's trial, was published in La Opinion Liberal in 1881, and later selected for inclusion in The Library of America's anthology of American True Crime writing. In addition, Martí wrote poems and translated novels to Spanish. He worked for Appleton and Company and, "on his own, translated and published Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona. His repertory of original work included plays, a novel, poetry, a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro, and a newspaper, Patria, which became the official organ of the Cuban Revolutionary party".[27] He also served as a consul for Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay. Throughout this work, he preached the "freedom of Cuba with an enthusiasm that swelled the ranks of those eager to strive with him for it".[19]

Tension existed within the Cuban revolutionary committee between Martí and his military compatriots. Martí feared a military dictatorship would be established in Cuba upon independence, and suspected Dominican-born General Máximo Gómez of having these intentions.[28] Martí knew that the independence of Cuba needed time and careful planning. Ultimately, Martí refused to cooperate with Máximo Gómez and Antonio Maceo Grajales, two Cuban military leaders from the Ten Years' War, when they wanted to invade immediately in 1884. Martí knew that it was too early to attempt to win back Cuba, and later events proved him right.[19]

United States, Central America and the West Indies: 1891–94[edit]

On January 1, 1891, Martí's essay "Nuestra America" was published in New York's Revista Ilustrada, and on the 30th of that month in Mexico's El Partido Liberal. He actively participated in the Conferencia Monetaria Internacional (The International Monetary Conference) in New York during that time as well. On June 30 his wife and son arrived in New York. After a short time, during which Carmen Zayas Bazán realized that Martí's dedication to Cuban independence surpassed that of supporting his family, she returned to Havana with her son on August 27. Martí would never see them again. The fact that his wife never shared the convictions central to his life was an enormous personal tragedy for Martí.[29] He turned for solace to Carmen Miyares de Mantilla, a Venezuelan who ran a boarding house in New York, and he is presumed to be the father of her daughter María Mantilla, who was in turn the mother of the actor Cesar Romero, who proudly claimed to be Martí's grandson. In September Martí became sick again. He intervened in the commemorative acts of The Independents, causing the Spanish consul in New York to complain to the Argentine and Uruguayan governments. Consequently, Martí resigned from the Argentinean, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan consulates. In October he published his book Versos Sencillos.

On November 26 he was invited by the Club Ignacio Agramonte, an organization founded by Cuban immigrants in Ybor City, Tampa, Florida, to a celebration to collect funding for the cause of Cuban independence. There he gave a lecture known as "Con Todos, y para el Bien de Todos", which was reprinted in Spanish language newspapers and periodicals across the United States. The following night, another lecture, " Los Pinos Nuevos", was given by Martí in another Tampa gathering in honor of the medical students killed in Cuba in 1871. In November artist Herman Norman painted a portrait of José Martí.[30]

On January 5, 1892, Martí participated in a reunion of the emigration representatives, in Cayo Hueso (Key West), the Cuban community where the Bases del Partido Revolucionario (Basis of the Cuban Revolutionary Party) was passed. He began the process of organizing the newly formed party. To raise support and collect funding for the independence movement, he visited tobacco factories, where he gave speeches to the workers and united them in the cause. In March 1892 the first edition of the Patria newspaper, related to the Cuban Revolutionary Party, was published, funded and directed by Martí. During Martí's Key West years, his secretary was Dolores Castellanos (1870-1948), a Cuban-American woman born in Key West, who also served as president of the Protectoras de la Patria: Club Político de Cubanas, a Cuban women's political club in support of Martí's cause, and for whom Martí wrote a poem titled "A Dolores Castellanos." On April 8, he was chosen delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party by the Cayo Hueso Club in Tampa and New York.

From July to September 1892 he traveled through Florida, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica on an organization mission among the exiled Cubans. On this mission, Martí made numerous speeches and visited various tobacco factories. On December 16 he was poisoned in Tampa.[31]

In 1893, Martí traveled through the United States, Central America and the West Indies, visiting different Cuban clubs. His visits were received with a growing enthusiasm and raised badly needed funds for the revolutionary cause. On May 24 he met Rubén Darío, the Nicaraguan poet in a theatre act in Hardman Hall, New York City. On June 3 he had an interview with Máximo Gómez in Montecristi, Dominican Republic, where they planned the uprising. In July he met with General Antonio Maceo Grajales in San Jose, Costa Rica.[31]

In 1894 he continued traveling for propagation and organizing the revolutionary movement. On January 27 he published "A Cuba!" in the newspaper Patria where he denounced collusion between the Spanish and American interests. In July he visited the president of the Mexican Republic, Porfirio Díaz, and travelled to Veracruz. In August he prepared and arranged the armed expedition that would begin the Cuban revolution.[32]

Return to Cuba: 1895[edit]

José Martí depicted on the 1915 gold 5 Cuban pesocoin.

On January 12, 1895, the North American authorities stopped the steamship Lagonda and two other suspicious ships, Amadis and Baracoa, at the port of Fernandina in Florida, confiscating weapons and ruining Plan de Fernandina (Fernandina Plan). On January 29, Martí drew up the order of the uprising, signing it with general Jose Maria Rodriguez and Enrique Collazo. Juan Gualberto Gómez was assigned to orchestrate war preparations for La Habana Province, and was able to work right under the noses of the relatively unconcerned Spanish authorities.[33] Martí decided to move to Montecristi, Dominican Republic to join Máximo Gómez and to plan out the uprising.[34]

The uprising finally took place on February 24, 1895. A month later, Martí and Máximo Gómez declared the Manifesto de Montecristi, an "exposition of the purposes and principles of the Cuban revolution".[35] Martí had persuaded Gómez to lead an expedition into Cuba.

Before leaving for Cuba, Martí wrote his "literary will" on April 1, 1895, leaving his personal papers and manuscripts to Gonzalo de Quesada, with instructions for editing. Knowing that the majority of his writing in newspapers in Honduras, Uruguay, and Chile would disappear over time, Martí instructed Quesada to arrange his papers in volumes. The volumes were to be arranged in the following way: volumes one and two, North Americas; volume three, Hispanic Americas; volume four, North American Scenes; volume five, Books about the Americas (this included both North and South America); volume six, Literature, education and painting. Another volume included his poetry.[35]

The expedition, composed of Martí, Gómez, Ángel Guerra, Francisco Borreo, Cesar Salas and Marcos del Rosario, left Montecristi for Cuba on April 1, 1895.[34] Despite delays and desertion by some members, they got to Cuba, landing at Playitas, near Cape Maisí and Imías, Cuba, on April 11. Once there, they made contact with the Cuban rebels, who were headed by the Maceo brothers, and started fighting against Spanish troops. The revolt did not go as planned, "mainly because the call to revolution received no immediate, spontaneous support from the masses."[36] By May 13, the expedition reached Dos Rios. On May 19, Gomez faced Ximenez de Sandoval's troops and ordered Martí to stay with the rearguard, but Martí became separated from the bulk of the Cuban forces, and entered the Spanish line.[34]

Death[edit]

José Martí was killed in battle against Spanish troops at the Battle of Dos Ríos, near the confluence of the rivers Contramaestre and Cauto, on May 19, 1895. Gómez had recognized that the Spaniards had a strong position between palm trees, so he ordered his men to disengage. Martí was alone and seeing a young courier ride by said: "Joven, ¡a la carga!" meaning: "Young man, charge!" This was around midday, and he was dressed in a black jacket while riding a white horse, which made him an easy target for the Spanish. After Martí was shot, the young trooper, Angel de la Guardia, lost his horse and returned to report the loss. The Spanish took possession of the body, buried it close by, then exhumed the body upon realization of its identity. He was buried in Santa Ifigenia Cemetery in Santiago de Cuba. Many have argued that Maceo and others had always spurned Martí for never participating in combat, which may have compelled Martí to that ill-fated two-man charge. Some of his Versos Sencillos can seem premonition-like: "No me entierren en lo oscuro/ A morir como un traidor/ Yo soy bueno y como bueno/ Moriré de cara al sol." ("Do not bury me in darkness / to die like a traitor / I am good, and as a good man / I will die facing the sun.")

The death of Martí was a blow to the "aspirations of the Cuban rebels, inside and outside of the island, but the fighting continued with alternating successes and failures until the entry of the United States into the war in 1898".[37]

Political ideology[edit]

Liberalism[edit]

Martí's political ideas were shaped by his early encounter with Krausist liberalism and its defense of spirituality and solidarity.[38][39][40][41]Radical liberalism in Latin America during this time period often took on a nationalist and anti-imperialist cast, as shown by the examples of Francisco Bilbao in Chile, Benito Juárez in Mexico, José Santos Zelaya in Nicaragua, and Ramón Emeterio Betances in Puerto Rico, whom Martí deeply admired and considered one of his teachers.[42][43] An increasingly radicalized liberalism emphasizing democratic participation, economic equality, national sovereignty, and supplemented by his exposure to doctrines such as Georgism, remained the dominant basis of Martí's outlook.[44][45]

Cuban independence[edit]

Martí wrote extensively about Spanish colonial control and the threat of US expansionism into Cuba. To him, it was unnatural that Cuba was controlled and oppressed by the Spanish government, when it had its own unique identity and culture. In his pamphlet from February 11, 1873, called "The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution", he argued that "Cubans do not live as Spaniards live.... They are nourished by a different system of trade, have links with different countries, and express their happiness through quite contrary customs. There are no common aspirations or identical goals linking the two peoples, or beloved memories to unite them. ... Peoples are only united by ties of fraternity and love.".[46]

Slavery[edit]

Martí opposed slavery and criticized Spain for failing to abolish it. In a speech to Cuban immigrants in Steck Hall, New York, on January 24, 1879, he stated that the war against Spain needed to be fought, recalled the heroism and suffering of the Ten Years' War, which, he declared, had qualified Cuba as a real nation with a right to independence. Spain had not ratified the conditions of the peace treaty, had falsified elections, continued excessive taxation, and had failed to abolish slavery. Cuba needed to be free.[47]

Revolutionary tactics[edit]

Martí proposed in a letter to Máximo Gómez in 1882 the formation of a revolutionary party, which he considered essential in the prevention of Cuba falling back on the Home Rule Party (Partido Autonomista) after the Pact of Zanjón.[48] The Home Rule Party was a peace-seeking party that would stop short of the outright independence that Martí thought Cuba needed. But he was aware that there were social divisions in Cuba, especially racial divisions, that needed to be addressed as well.[49] He thought war was necessary to achieve Cuba's freedom, despite his basic ideology of conciliation, respect, dignity, and balance. The establishment of the patria (fatherland) with a good government would unite Cubans of all social classes and colours in harmony.[50] Together with other Cubans resident in New York, Martí started laying the grounds for the Revolutionary Party, stressing the need for a democratic organization as the basic structure before any military leaders were to join. The military would have to subordinate themselves to the interests of the fatherland. Gómez later rejoined Martí's plans, promising to comply.

Martí's consolidation of support among the Cuban expatriates, especially in Florida, was key in the planning and execution of the invasion of Cuba. His speeches to Cuban tobacco workers in Tampa and Key West motivated and united them; this is considered the most important political achievement of his life.[51] At this point he refined his ideological platform, basing it on a Cuba held together by pride in being Cuban, a society that ensured "the welfare and prosperity of all Cubans"[52] independently of class, occupation or race. Faith in the cause could not die, and the military would not try for domination. All pro-independence Cubans would participate, with no sector predominating. From this he established the Cuban Revolutionary Party in early 1892.

Martí and the CRP were devoted to secretly organizing the anti-Spanish war. Martí's newspaper, Patria, was a key instrument of this campaign, where Martí delineated his final plans for Cuba. Through this medium he argued against the exploitative colonialism of Spain in Cuba, criticized the Home Rule (Autonomista) Party for having aims that fell considerably short of full independence, and warned against U.S. annexationism which he felt could only be prevented by Cuba's successful independence.[53] He specified his plans for the future Cuban Republic, a multi-class and multi-racial democratic republic based on universal suffrage, with an egalitarian economic base to develop fully Cuba's productive resources and an equitable distribution of land among citizens, with enlightened and virtuous politicians.[54]

From Martí's 'Campaign Diaries', written during the final expedition in Cuba, it seems evident that Martí would have reached the highest position in the future Republic of Arms.[55] This was not to be; his death occurred before the Assembly of Cuba was set up. Until his last minute, Martí dedicated his life to achieve full independence for Cuba. His uncompromising belief in democracy and freedom for his fatherland is what characterized his political ideology.

United States[edit]

Monument of Martí in West New York, NJ. Translated, it reads "The Fatherland is an altar, not a stepping stone."

Martí demonstrated an anti-imperialist attitude from an early age, and was convinced that the United States posed a danger for Latin America. While critiquing the United States for its stereotypes of Latin Americans and preoccupation with capitalism, Martí also drew parallels with the American Revolution and the nationalist movement in Cuba.[56] At the same time, he recognized the advantages of the European or North American civilizations, which were open to the reforms that Latin American countries needed in order to detach themselves from the colonial heritage of Spain. Martí's distrust of North American politics had developed during the 1880s, due to the intervention threats that loomed on Mexico and Guatemala, and indirectly on Cuba's future. Over time Martí became increasingly alarmed about the United States' intentions for Cuba. The United States desperately needed new markets for its industrial products because of the economic crisis it was experiencing, and the media was talking about the purchase of Cuba from Spain.[57] Cuba was a profitable, fertile country with an important strategic position in the Gulf of Mexico.[58] Martí felt that the interests of Cuba's future lay with its sister nations in Latin America, and were opposite to those of the United States.[59]

Another trait that Martí admired was the work ethic that characterized North American society. On various occasions Martí conveyed his deep admiration for the immigrant-based society, "whose principal aspiration he interpreted as being to construct a truly modern country, based upon hard work and progressive ideas." Martí stated that he was "never surprised in any country of the world [he had] visited. Here [he] was surprised... [he] remarked that no one stood quietly on the corners, no door was shut an instant, no man was quiet. [He] stopped [him]self, [he] looked respectfully on this people, and [he] said goodbye forever to that lazy life and poetical inutility of our European countries".[60]

Although Martí opposed US intervention in Cuba, he found American society to be so great that he believed Latin America should consider imitating the United States. Martí argued that if the US "could reach such a high standard of living in so short a time, and despite, too, its lack of unifying traditions, could not the same be expected of Latin America?"[60] However, Martí believed US expansionism represented Spanish American republics' "greatest danger."[61] Martí was amazed at how education was directed towards helping the development of the nation and once again encouraged Latin American countries to follow the example set by North American society. At the same time, he criticized the elitist educational systems of Cuba and the rest of Latin America. Often, Martí recommended countries in Latin America to "send representatives to learn more relevant techniques in the United States". Once this was done, Martí hoped that this representatives would bring a "much-needed modernization to the Latin American agricultural policies".[62]

However, not everything in the United States was to be admired by Martí. When it came to politics Martí wrote that politics in the US had "adopted a carnival atmosphere... especially during election time".[63] He saw acts of corruption among candidates, such as bribing "the constituents with vast quantities of beer, while impressive parades wound their way through New York's crowded streets, past masses of billboards, all exhorting the public to vote for the different political candidates".[63] Martí criticized and condemned the elites of the United States as they "pulled the main political strings behind the scenes". According to Martí, the elites "deserved severe censure" as they were the biggest threat to the "ideals with which the United States was first conceived".[63]

Martí started to believe that the US had abused its potential. Racism was abundant. Different races were being discriminated against; political life "was both cynically regarded by the public at large and widely abused by 'professional politicians'; industrial magnates and powerful labor groups faced each other menacingly". All of this convinced Martí that a large-scale social conflict was imminent in the United States.[64]

On the positive side, Martí was astonished by the "inviolable right of freedom of speech which all U.S. citizens possessed". Martí applauded the United States' Constitution which allowed freedom of speech to all its citizens, no matter what political beliefs they had. In May 1883, while attending political meetings he heard "the call for revolution – and more specifically the destruction of the capitalist system". Martí was amazed that the country maintained freedom of speech even with respect to calls that "could have led to its own destruction". Martí also gave his support to the women's suffrage movements, and was "pleased that women here [took] advantage of this privilege in order to make their voices heard". According to Martí, free speech was essential if any nation was to be civilized and he expressed his "profound admiration for these many basic liberties and opportunities open to the vast majority of U.S. citizens".[65]

The works of Martí contain many comparisons between the ways of life of North and Latin America. The former was seen as "hardy, 'soulless', and, at times, cruel society, but one which, nevertheless, had been based upon a firm foundation of liberty and on a tradition of liberty".[65] Although North American society had its flaws, they tended to be "of minor importance when compared to the broad sweep of social inequality, and to the widespread abuse of power prevalent in Latin America".[65]

Once it became apparent that the United States were actually going to purchase Cuba and intended to Americanize it, Martí "spoke out loudly and bravely against such action, stating the opinion of many Cubans on the United States of America."[66]

Latin American identity[edit]

José Martí as a liberator believed that the Latin American countries needed to know the reality of their own history. Martí also saw the necessity of a country having its own literature. These reflections started in Mexico from 1875 and are connected to the Mexican Reform, where prominent liberals like Ignacio Manuel Altamirano and Guillermo Prieto had situated themselves in front of a cultural renovation in Mexico, taking on the same approach as Esteban Echeverría thirty years before in Argentina. In the second "Boletin" that Martí published in the Revista Universal (May 11, 1875) one can already see Martí's approach, which was fundamentally Latin American. His wish to build a national or Latin American identity was nothing new or unusual in those days; however, no Latin-American intellectual of that time had approached as clearly as Martí the task of building a national identity. He insisted on the necessity of building institutions and laws that matched the natural elements of each country, and recalled the failure of the applications of French and American civil codes in the new Latin American republics. Martí believed that "el hombre del sur", the man of the South, should choose an appropriate development strategy matching his character, the peculiarity of his culture and history, and the nature that determined his being.[67]

Writings[edit]

Martí as a writer covered a range of genres. In addition to producing newspaper articles and keeping up an extensive correspondence (his letters are included in the collection of his complete works), he wrote a serialized novel, composed poetry, wrote essays, and published four issues of a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro[68](The Golden Age, 1889). His essays and articles occupy more than fifty volumes of his complete works. His prose was extensively read and influenced the modernist generation, especially the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío, whom Martí called "my son" when they met in New York in 1893.[69]

Martí did not publish any books: only two notebooks (Cuadernos) of verses, in editions outside of the market, and a number of political tracts. The rest (an enormous amount) was left dispersed in numerous newspapers and magazines, in letters, in diaries and personal notes, in other unedited texts, in frequently improvised speeches, and some lost forever. Five years after his death, the first volume of his Obras was published. A novel appeared in this collection in 1911: Amistad funesta, which Martí had made known was published under a pseudonym in 1885. In 1913, also in this edition, his third poetic collection that he had kept unedited: Versos Libres. His Diario de Campaña (Campaign Diary) was published in 1941. Later still, in 1980, Nicaraguan poet Ernesto Mejía Sánchez produced a set of about thirty of Martí's articles written for the Mexican newspaper El Partido Liberal that weren't included in any of his so-called Obras Completas editions. From 1882 to 1891, Martí collaborated in La Nación, a Buenos Aires newspaper. His texts from La Nación have been collected in Anuario del centro de Estudios Martíanos.

Over the course of his journalistic career, he wrote for numerous newspapers, starting with El Diablo Cojuelo (The Limping Devil) and La Patria Libre (The Free Fatherland), both of which he helped to found in 1869 in Cuba and which established the extent of his political commitment and vision for Cuba. In Spain he wrote for La Colonia Española,in Mexico for La Revista Universal, and in Venezuela for Revista Venezolana, which he founded. In New York he contributed to Venezuelan periodical La Opinión Nacional, Buenos Aires newspaper La Nación, Mexico's La Opinion Liberal, and The Hour from the U.S.[70]

The first critical edition of Martí's complete works began to appear in 1983 in José Martí: Obras completas. Edición crítica. The critical edition of his complete poems was published in 1985 in José Martí: Poesía completa. Edición critica.

Volume two of his Obras Completas includes his famous essay 'Nuestra America' which "comprises a variety of subjects relating to Spanish America about which Martí studied and wrote. Here it is noted that after Cuba his interest was directed mostly to Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela. The various sections of this part are about general matters and international conferences; economic, social and political questions; literature and art; agrarian and industrial problems; immigration; education; relations with the United States and Spanish America; travel notes".[71]

According to Martí, the intention behind the publication of "La edad de oro" was "so that American children may know how people used to live, and how they live nowadays, in the United States and in other countries; how many things are made, such as glass and iron, steam engines and suspension bridges and electric light; so that when a child sees a coloured stone he will know why the stone is coloured. ... We shall tell them about everything which is done in factories, where things happen which are stranger and more interesting than the magic in fairy stories. These things are real magic, more marvelous than any. ... We write for children because it is they who know how to love, because it is children who are the hope for the world".[72]

Martí's "Versos Sencillos" was written "in the town of Haines Falls, New York, where his doctor has sent [him] to regain his strength 'where streams flowed and clouds gathered in upon themeselves'".[73] The poetry encountered in this work is "in many [ways] autobiographical and allows readers to see Martí the man and the patriot and to judge what was important to him at a crucial time in Cuban history".[73]

Martí's writings reflected his own views both socially and politically. "Cultivo Una Rosa Blanca" is one of his poems that emphasize his views in hopes of betterment for society:

I cultivate a white rose
In July as in January
For the sincere friend
Who gives me his hand frankly
And for the cruel person who tears
out the heart with which I live,
I cultivate neither nettles nor thorns:
I cultivate a white rose[74]

This poem is a clear description of Martí's societal hopes for his homeland. Within the poem, he talks about how regardless of the person, whether kind or cruel he cultivates a white rose, meaning that he remains peaceful. This coincides with his ideology about establishing unity amongst the people, more so those of Cuba, through a common identity, with no regards to ethnic and racial differences.[75] This doctrine could be accomplished if one treated his enemy with peace as he would treat a friend. The kindness of one person should be shared with all people, regardless of personal conflict. By following the moral that lies within "Cultivo Rosa Blanca", Martí's vision of Cuban solidarity could be possible, creating a more peaceful society that would emanate through future generations.

After his breakthrough in Cuba literature, José Martí went on to contribute his works to newspapers, magazines, and books that reflected his political and social views. Because of his early death, Martí was unable to publish a vast collection of poetry; even so, his literary contributions have made him a renowned figure in literature, influencing many writers, and people in general, to aspire to follow in the footsteps of Martí.

Style[edit]

Martí's style of writing is difficult to categorize. He used many aphorisms—short, memorable lines that convey truth and/or wisdom—and long complex sentences. He is considered a major contributor to the Spanish American literary movement known as Modernismo and has been linked to Latin American consciousness of the modern age and modernity.[76] His chronicles combined elements of literary portraiture, dramatic narration, and a dioramic scope. His poetry contained "fresh and astonishing images along with deceptively simple sentiments".[77] As an orator (for he made many speeches) he was known for his cascading structure, powerful aphorisms, and detailed descriptions. More important than his style is how he uses that style to put into service his ideas, making "advanced" convincing notions. Throughout his writing he made reference to historical figures and events, and used constant allusions to literature, current news and cultural matters. For this reason, he may be difficult to read and translate.[78]

His didactic spirit encouraged him to establish a magazine for children, La Edad de Oro (1889) which contained a short essay titled "Tres Heroes" (three heroes), representative of his talent to adapt his expression to his audience; in this case, to make the young reader conscious of and amazed by the extraordinary bravery of the three men, Bolivar, Hidalgo, and San Martín. This is his style to teach delightfully.[79]

Translation[edit]

José Martí is universally honored as a great poet, patriot and martyr of Cuban Independence, but he was also a translator of some note. Although he translated literary material for the sheer joy of it, much of the translating he did was imposed on him by economic necessity during his many years of exile in the United States. Martí learned English at an early age, and had begun to translate at thirteen. He continued translating for the rest of his life, including his time as a student in Spain, although the period of his greatest productivity was during his stay in New York from 1880 until he returned to Cuba in 1895.[80]

Statue of Jose Martí in a government school named after him in Delhi

In New York he was what is known today as a "freelancer," as well as an "in house" translator. He translated several books for the publishing house of D. Appleton, and did a series of translations for newspapers. As a revolutionary activist in Cuba's long struggle for independence he translated into English a number of articles and pamphlets supporting that movement.[81] In addition to fluent English, Martí also spoke French, Italian, Latin and Classical Greek fluently, the latter learned so he could read the Greek classical works in the original.[82]

There was clearly a dichotomy in Martí's feeling about the kind of work he was translating. Like many professionals, he undertook for money translation tasks which had little intellectual or emotional appeal for him. Although Martí never presented a systematic theory of translation nor did he write extensively about his approach to translation, he did jot down occasional thoughts on the subject, showcasing his awareness of the translator's dilemma of the faithful versus the beautiful and stating that "translation should be natural, so that it appears that the book were written in the language to which it has been translated".[83]

Modernism[edit]

The modernists, in general, use a subjective language. Martí's stylistic creed is part of the necessity to de-codify the logic rigor and the linguistic construction and to eliminate the intellectual, abstract and systematic expression. There is the deliberate intention and awareness to expand the expressive system of the language. The style changes the form of thinking. Without falling into unilateralism, Martí values the expression because language is an impression and a feeling through the form. Modernism mostly searches for the visions and realities, the expression takes in the impressions, the state of mind, without reflection and without concept. This is the law of subjectivity. We can see this in works of Martí, one of the first modernists, who conceives the literary task like an invisible unity, an expressive totality, considering the style like "a form of the content" (forma del contenido).[84]

The difference that Martí established between prose and poetry are conceptual. Poetry, as he believes, is a language of the permanent subjective: the intuition and the vision. The prose is an instrument and a method of spreading the ideas, and has the goal of elevating, encouraging and animating these ideas rather than having the expression of tearing up the heart, complaining and moaning. The prose is a service to his people.[85]

Martí produces a system of specific signs "an ideological code" (código ideológico). These symbols claim their moral value and construct signs of ethic conduct. Martí's modernism was a spiritual attitude that was reflected on the language. All his writing defines his moral world. One could also say that his ideological and spiritual sphere is fortified in his writing.[85]

The difference between Martí and other modernist initiators such as Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, Julian del Casal, and José Asunción Silva (and the similarity between him and Manuel González Prada) lies in the profound and transcendent value that he gave to literature, converting prose into an article or the work of a journalist. This hard work was important in giving literature authentic and independent value and distancing it from mere formal amusement. Manuel Gutiérez Nájera, Rubén Darío, Miguel de Unamuno and José Enrique Rodó saved the Martínian articles, which will have an endless value in the writings of the American continent.[86]

Apart from Martínian articles. essay writing and literature starts to authorize itself as an alternative and privileged way to talk about politics. Literature starts to apply itself the only hermeneutics able to resolve the enigmas of a Latin American identity.[86]

Legacy[edit]

Symbol of Cuban independence[edit]

Martí's dedication to the cause of Cuban independence and his passionate belief in democracy and justice has made him a hero for all Cubans, a symbol of unity, the "Apostle",[87] a great leader. His writings have created a platform for all that he went through during the duration of this period in time.[88] His ultimate goal of building a democratic, just, and stable republic in Cuba and his obsession with the practical execution of this goal led him to become the most charismatic leader of the 1895 colonial revolution. His work with the Cuban émigré community, enlisting the support of Cuban workers and socialist leaders to form the Cuban Revolutionary Party, put into motion the Cuban war of independence.[89] His foresight into the future, shown in his warnings against American political interests for Cuba, was confirmed by the swift occupation of Cuba by the United States following the Spanish–American War. His belief in the inseparability of Cuban and Latin American sovereignty and the expression thereof in his writings have contributed to the shape of the modern Latin American Identity. Through his beliefs for Cuban and Latin American sovereignty, Cuba revolted on former allies.[88] This is why Cuba became an independent nation. His works are a cornerstone of Latin American and political literature and his prolific contributions to the fields of journalism, poetry, and prose are highly acclaimed.[90]

Influence on the Cuban Communist Party[edit]

Despite the history of post-1959 Cuba's affiliation as a Communist state, it has been acknowledged that it is in fact Martí's ideology which serves as the main driving force of the ruling Cuban Communist Party.[91][5] Regarded as Cuba's "martyr" and "patron saint,"[6] several landmarks in Cuba are dedicated to Martí.[6][5] Following his death in 2016, former Cuban leader Fidel Castro, who played a major role in promoting Martí's image in Revolutionary Cuba,[92] was buried next to Martí in Santiago.[93][94] Martí's writings on the concepts of Cuban nationalism fuelled the 1895 revolution and have continued to inform conflicting visions of the Cuban nation. The Cuban nation-state under Fidel Castro consistently claimed Martí as a crucial inspiration for its Communist revolutionary government. During Castro's tenure, the politics and death of Martí were used to justify certain actions of the Cuban state.[95] The Cuban government claimed that Martí had supported a single party system, creating a precedent for a communist government.[95]

The vast amount of writing that Martí produced in his lifetime makes it difficult to determine his exact political ideology, but his major goal was the liberation of Cuba from Spain and the establishment of a democratic republican government.[96] Despite Martí never having supported communism or single party systems,[95] Cuban leaders repeatedly claimed that Martí's Partido Revolucionario Cubano was a "forerunner of the Communist Party".[95]

Martí's nuanced, often ambivalent positions on the most important issues of his day[97] have led Marxist interpreters to see a class conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie as the main theme of his works, while others, namely the Cuban diasporic communities in Miami and elsewhere have identified a liberal-capitalist emphasis.[98] These Cuban exiles still honor Martí as a figure of hope for the Cuban nation in exile and condemn Castro's government for manipulating his works and creating a "Castroite Martí" to justify its "intolerance and abridgments of human rights".[99] His writings thus remain a key ideological weapon in the battle over the fate of the Cuban nation.

Memorials and tributes[edit]

José Martí International Airport, Havana's international airport, is named after Martí. A statue of Martí was unveiled in Havana on his 123rd birth anniversary, with President Raúl Castro attending the ceremony.[100] The José Martí Memorial in the Vedado neighborhood of Havana includes a 109-m tower and is the largest monument in the world dedicated to a writer.

The National Association of Hispanic Publications, a non-profit organization to promote Hispanic publications, each year designates the José Martí Awards for excellence in Hispanic media.[101]

On the waterfront of Cap-Haïtien, Haiti, a city that José Martí visited three times,[102] a power station is named after him.[103] The home where he resided during his final visit in 1895[104] bears a marble plaque.[105] Place José Martí (José Martí Square), featuring a bust of the poet, was inaugurated in 2014.[106]

In Romania, a Bucharest public school and the Romanian-Cuban Friendship Association from Targoviste are both named "Jose Martí".

List of selected works[edit]

Martí's fundamental works published during his life

  • 1869 January: Abdala
  • 1869 January: "10 de octubre"
  • 1871: El presidio político en Cuba
  • 1873: La República Española ante la revolución cubana
  • 1875: Amor con amor se paga
  • 1882: Ismaelillo
  • 1882 February: Ryan vs. Sullivan
  • 1882 February: Un incendio
  • 1882 July: El ajusticiamiento de Guiteau
  • 1883 January: "Batallas de la Paz"
  • 1883 March: " Que son graneros humanos"
  • 1883 March: Karl Marx ha muerto
  • 1883 March:El Puente de Brooklyn
  • 1883 September: "En Coney Island se vacía Nueva York"
  • 1883 December:" Los políticos de oficio"
  • 1883 December: "Bufalo Bil"
  • 1884 April:"Los caminadores"
  • 1884 November: Norteamericanos
  • 1884 November:El juego de pelota de pies
  • 1885: Amistad funesta
  • 1885 January:Teatro en Nueva York
  • 1885 '"Una gran rosa de bronce encendida"
  • 1885 March:Los fundadores de la constitución
  • 1885 June: "Somos pueblo original"
  • 1885 August: "Los políticos tiene sus púgiles"
  • 1886 May: Las revueltas anarquistas de Chicago
  • 1886 September: " La ensenanza"
  • 1886 October: "La Estatua de la Libertad"
  • 1887 April: El poeta Walt Whitman
  • 1887 April: El Madison Square
  • 1887 November: Ejecución de los dirigentes anarquistas de Chicago
  • 1887 November: La gran Nevada
  • 1888 May: El ferrocarril elevado
  • 1888 August: Verano en Nueva York
  • 1888 November: " Ojos abiertos, y gargantas secas"
  • 1888 November: "Amanece y ya es fragor"
  • 1889: 'La edad de oro'
  • 1889 May: El centenario de George Washington
  • 1889 July: Bañistas
  • 1889 August: "Nube Roja"
  • 1889 September: "La caza de negros"
  • 1890 November: " El jardín de las orquídeas"
  • 1891 October:Versos Sencillos
  • 1891 January: "Nuestra América"
  • 1894 January: " ¡A Cuba!"
  • 1895: Manifiesto de Montecristi- coauthor with Máximo Gómez

Martí's major posthumous works

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Hudson, Michael (15 January 2000). "Speech to the Communist Party of Cuba". Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  2. ^Mace, Elisabeth. "The economic thinking of Jose Marti: Legacy foundation for the integration of America". Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  3. ^"Jose Marti, apostle of Cuban Independence". www.historyofcuba.com. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
  4. ^Garganigo, John F. Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997. P 272
  5. ^ abc"José Martí, soul of the Cuban Revolution". 22 January 2018.
  6. ^ abc"José Martí Bust on Cuba's Highest Peak".
  7. ^ abAlborch Bataller 1995, p. 15
  8. ^Fidalgo 1998, p. 26
  9. ^ abcAlborch Bataller 1995, p. 16
  10. ^López 2006, p. 232
  11. ^"End of Slavery in Cuba". www.historyofcuba.com. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
  12. ^Jones 1953, p. 398
  13. ^Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 18
  14. ^ abcAlborch Bataller 1995, p. 23
  15. ^Martí 1963a, p. 48
  16. ^ abcAlborch Bataller 1995, p. 24
  17. ^Pérez-Galdós Ortiz 1999, p. 45
  18. ^Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 30
  19. ^ abcdJones 1953, p. 399
  20. ^ abAlborch Bataller 1995, p. 46
  21. ^It is common, and in fact legal, practice in Spanish-speaking societies to use and include the maternal surname as the "second" last name, such that both surnames are the legal and customary surname of an individual. E.g., Pérez López means that in non-Spanish societies esp. anglophone societies, Pérez is the correct surname to which to refer; otherwise, 'both' names together are the legal surname.
  22. ^Guatemala was one of the first regions of the New World to be exposed to European music
  23. ^Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 52
  24. ^Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 56
  25. ^Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 107
  26. ^Gray 1966, p. 389
  27. ^Gray 1966, p. 390
  28. ^García Cisneros 1986, p. 56
  29. ^Fountain 2003, p. 4
  30. ^Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 159
  31. ^ abAlborch Bataller 1995, p. 167
  32. ^Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 184
  33. ^Tone 2006, p. 43
  34. ^ abcAlborch Bataller 1995, p. 191
  35. ^ abGray 1966, p. 391
  36. ^Tone 2006, p. 48
  37. ^Gray 1966, p. 392
  38. ^Nuccetelli, Susana (2020). An Introduction to Latin American Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 139–145.
  39. ^Ortega Paredes, Juan J. (2007). "José Martí: su concepto de democracia en el Partido Revolucionario Cubano". Revista de Ciencias Sociales. 115: 100.
  40. ^Jorrin, Miguel (1970). Latin American Political Thought and Ideology. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 161–162.
  41. ^Conde, Guillermo Hierrezuelo (2014). "Il pensiero politico di José Martí". Revista de Estudios Históricos - Juridicos (36): 518–521. doi:10.4067/S0716-54552014000100020.
  42. ^Arroyo, Jossianna (2013). Writing Secrecy in Caribbean Freemasonry. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 102.
  43. ^Hidalgo Paz, Ibrahim (2008). "Puerto Rico en el Partido Revolucionario Cubano, 1895-1898". Revista de la Biblioteca Nacional José Martí. 1 (2): 87–100.
  44. ^Abel, Christopher (2015). José Marti: Revolutionary Democrat. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 137–139.
  45. ^Fernandez, Raul A. (1998). José Martí's "Our America": From National to Hemispheric Cultural Studies. Duke University Press. p. 215.
  46. ^Martí 1963b, pp. 93–94
  47. ^Scott 1984, p. 87 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFScott1984 (help)
  48. ^Ramos 2001, pp. 34–35
  49. ^Martí 1963c, p. 172
  50. ^Martí 1963d, p. 192
  51. ^Ronning 1990, p. 103
  52. ^Martí 1963e, p. 270
  53. ^Bueno 1997, p. 158
  54. ^Abel 1986, p. 26
  55. ^Turton 1986, p. 57
  56. ^Giles, Paul (Spring 2004). "The Parallel Worlds of Jose Marti". Radical History Review. 2004 (89): 185–190. doi:10.1215/01636545-2004-89-185. S2CID 144839689. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  57. ^Holden & Zolov 2000, p. 249
  58. ^Turton 1986, p. 47
  59. ^Holden & Solov 2000, p. 179 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHoldenSolov2000 (help)
  60. ^ abKirk 1977, p. 278
  61. ^Kirk 1977, pp. 278–79 Martí thought that US expansionism represented the Spanish American republics' "greatest danger"
  62. ^Kirk 1977, p. 279
  63. ^ abcKirk 1977, p. 280
  64. ^Kirk 1977, p. 281
  65. ^ abcKirk 1977, p. 282
  66. ^Kirk 1977, p. 284
  67. ^Fernández 1995, p. 46[clarification needed]
  68. ^Lally, Carolyn. "Foreign Language Program Articulation: Current Practice and Future Prospects." 2001. p. 54.
  69. ^Garganigo et al., p. 272[clarification needed]
  70. ^Martí 1992, p. 8[clarification needed]
  71. ^Roscoe 1947, p. 280
  72. ^Nassif 1994, p. 2 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNassif1994 (help)
  73. ^ abOberhelman 2001, p. 475
  74. ^Martí, José, Manuel A.Tellechea Versos Sencillos. U of Houston: Arte Público Press, 1997
  75. ^ Morukian, Maria. "Cubanidad: Survival of Cuban Culture Identity in the 21st Century".
  76. ^Fernández Retamar 1970, p. 38
  77. ^Fountain 2003, p. 6
  78. ^Hernández Pardo 2000, p. 146
  79. ^Garganigo, p. 273[clarification needed]
  80. ^Fountain 2003, p. 13
  81. ^Fountain 2003, p. 15
  82. ^Fernández Retamar 1970, p. 16
  83. ^"la traducción debe ser natural, para que parezca como si el libro hubiese sido escrito en la lengua al que lo traduces." De la Cuesta 1996, p. 7 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDe_la_Cuesta1996 (help)
  84. ^Serna 2002, p. 13
  85. ^ abSerna 2002, p. 14
  86. ^ abSerna 2002, p. 16
  87. ^Lopez 2006, p. 11
  88. ^ abJordan, David (1993). Revolutionary Cuba and the End of the Cold War. University Press Of America. pp. 15–17. ISBN .
  89. ^Ronning 1990, p. 3 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRonning1990 (help)
  90. ^Cairo 2003, p. 25
  91. ^"Fidel Castro, Loyal Follower of Jose Marti – Escambray". 30 November 2017.
  92. ^Santí, Enrico Mario (1986). "José Martí and the Cuban Revolution". Cuban Studies. 16: 139–150. JSTOR 24485980.
  93. ^"Fidel Castro's ashes buried in Cuba". BBC News. 4 December 2016.
  94. ^https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/fidel-castro-en/article117762148.html[bare URL]
  95. ^ abcdRipoll, Carlos (1994). "The Falsification of Jose Marti in Cuba". Cuban Studies. 24: 3–38. JSTOR 24485768.
  96. ^Lecuona, Rafael (March 1991). "Jose Marti and Fidel Castro". International Journal on World Peace. 8 (1): 45–61. JSTOR 20751650.
  97. ^Lopez 2006, p. 12 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLopez2006 (help)
  98. ^Ripoll 1984, p. 45 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRipoll1984 (help)
  99. ^Ripoll 1984, p. 40 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRipoll1984 (help)
  100. ^"Cuba unveils US statue of national hero Jose Marti". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
  101. ^"José Martí Awards". National Association of Hispanic Publications. 2016-11-17.
  102. ^"Ils rendent hommage à José Martí au Cap-Haïtien". misiones.minrex.gob.cu (in French). Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  103. ^"Centrale thermique Jose Marti : les fruits ne tiennent pas la promesse des fleurs". www.haitiz.com (in French). Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  104. ^"La maison de José Marti au Cap-Haïtien". laurent.quevilly.pagesperso-orange.fr (in French). Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  105. ^"José Marti Square in Cap-Haitian". www.haitianphotos.com. Retrieved 2021-11-09.
  106. ^"Haiti - Politic : President Martelly inaugurates the Jose Marti Square in Cap-Haitien". www.haitilibre.com. Retrieved 2021-11-09.

References[edit]

  • Abel, Christopher. José Martí: Revolutionary Democrat. London: Athlone. 1986.
  • Alborch Bataller, Carmen, ed. (1995), José Martí: obra y vida, Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, Ediciones Siruela, ISBN .
  • Bueno, Salvador (1997), José Martí y su periódico Patria, Barcelona: Puvill, ISBN .
  • Cairo, Ana. Jose Marti y la novela de la cultura cubana. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. 2003.
  • De La Cuesta, Leonel Antonio. Martí, Traductor. Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca. 1996.
  • Fernández, Teodosio (1995), "José Martí y la invención de la identidad hispanoamericana", in Alemany Bay, Carmen; Muñoz, Ramiro; Rovira, José Carlos (eds.), José Martí: historia y literatura ante el fin del siglo XIX, Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, pp. ??, ISBN .[page needed]
  • Fernández Retamar, Roberto (1970), Martí, Montevideo: Biblioteca de Marcha, OCLC 253831187.
  • Fidalgo, Jose Antonio. "El Doctor Fermín Valdés-Domínguez, Hombre de Ciencias y Su Posible Influencia Recíproca Con José Martí" Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Pública 1998 (84) pp. 26–34
  • Fountain, Anne (2003), José Martí and U.S. Writers, Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, ISBN .
  • García Cisneros, Florencio (1986), Máximo Gómez: caudillo o dictador?, Miami, FL: Librería & Distribuidora Universal, ISBN .
  • Garganigo, John F.; Costa, Rene; Heller, Ben, eds. (1997), Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, ISBN .[clarification needed]
  • Gray, Richard B. (April 1966), "The Quesadas of Cuba: Biographers and Editors of José Martí y Pérez", The Americas, Academy of American Franciscan History, 22 (4): 389–403, doi:10.2307/979019, JSTOR 979019.
  • Hernández Pardo, Héctor (2000), Luz para el siglo XXI: actualidad del pensamiento de José Martí, Madrid: Ediciones Libertarias, ISBN .
  • Holden, Robert H.; Zolov, Eric (2000), Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN .
  • Jones, Willis Knapp (December 1953), "The Martí Centenary", The Modern Language Journal, Blackwell Publishing, 37 (8): 398–402, doi:10.2307/320047, JSTOR 320047.
  • Kirk, John M. (November 1977), "Jose Marti and the United States: A Further Interpretation"(PDF), Journal of Latin American Studies, Cambridge University Press, 9 (2): 275–90, doi:10.1017/S0022216X00020617, JSTOR 156129.
  • Kirk, John M. José Martí, Mentor of the Cuban Nation. Tampa: University Presses of Florida, c1983.
  • López, Alfred J. (2006), José Martí and the Future of Cuban Nationalisms, Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, ISBN .
  • López, Alfred J. (2014), José Martí: A Revolutionary Life, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, ISBN .
  • Martí, José (1963a), "El presidio político en Cuba. Madrid 1871", Obras Completas, 1, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, pp. 46–50, OCLC 263517905.
  • Martí, José (1963b), "La República española ante la revolución cubana", Obras Completas, 1, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, pp. 93–97, OCLC 263517905.
  • Martí, José (1963c), "Letter to Antonio Maceo, 20 July 1882", Obras Completas, 1, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, pp. 172–73, OCLC 263517905.
  • Martí, José (1963d), "Letter to Enrique Trujillo, 6 July 1885", Obras Completas, 1, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, OCLC 263517905.
  • Martí, José (1963e), "Speech known as "Con todos y para el bien de todos" given in Tampa, 26 November 1891", Obras Completas, 4, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, pp. 266–70, OCLC 263517908.[page needed]
  • Martí, José (1992), Fernández Retamar, Roberto (ed.), La edad de oro: edición crítica anotada y prologada, Mexico: Fondo de cultura económica, ISBN .[clarification needed]
  • Martí, José, Manuel A.Tellechea Versos Sencillos. U of Houston: Arte Público Press, 1997
  • Morukian, Maria. "Cubanidad: Survival of Cuban Culture Identity in the 21st Century".
  • Nassif, Ricardo. "Jose Martí (1853–95) ". Originally published in Prospects:the quarterly review of comparative education(Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. XXIV, no. 1/2, 1994, pp. 107–19
  • Oberhelman, Harley D. (September 2001), "Reviewed work(s): Versos Sencillos by José Martí. A Translation by Anne Fountain", Hispania, American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, 84 (3): 474–75, doi:10.2307/3657792, JSTOR 3657792.
  • Pérez-Galdós Ortiz, Víctor. José Martí: Visión de un Hombre Universal. Barcelona: Puvill Libros Ltd. 1999.
  • Quiroz, Alfonso. "The Cuban Republic and José Martí: reception and use of a national symbol". Lexington Books, 2006
  • Ripoll, Carlos. Jose Marti and the United States, and the Marxist interpretation of Cuban History. New Jersey: Transaction Inc. 1984.
  • Ronning, C. Neale. Jose Marti and the emigre colony in Key West. New York: Praeger. 1990.
  • Roscoe, Hill R. (October 1947), "Book Reviews", The Americas, Academy of American Franciscan History, 4 (2): 278–80, JSTOR 977985.
  • Schulman, Ivan A.Símbolo y color en la obra de José Martí. Editorial Gredos, 1960.
  • Scott, Rebecca J. "Explaining Abolition: Contradiction, Adaptation, and Challenge in Cuban Slave Society, 1860–1886". Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 83–111
  • Serna, Mercedes (2002), Del modernismo y la vanguardia: José Martí, Julio Herrera y Reissig, Vicente Huidobro, Nicanor Parra, Lima: Ediciones El Santo Oficio, ISBN .
  • Tone, John L. (2006), War and Genocide in Cuba 1895, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 
  • Turton, Peter (1986),
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Mart%C3%AD

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La Edad de Oro
La Edad de Oro
Author:Jose Marti
La Edad de Oro fue una revista mensual para los niños, del cubano José Martí. La Edad de Oro mantiene su frescura, belleza y vigencia más de un siglo después, hablando a los niños en un lenguaje universal que no conoce tiempos ni distancias. La primera revista vio la luz en julio de 1889, durante la estancia de Martí en Nueva York para preparar ...  more »la guerra que le daría la independencia a Cuba del colonialismo español, y en la que Martí perdería la vida. Realizando un esfuerzo sobrenatural entre tantas responsabilidades, Martí logró publicar 4 números de la revista La Edad de Oro. La revista tenía 32 páginas y contaba con bellos grabados e ilustraciones. Los textos de la revista son cuentos, ensayos y poesías que muestran ejemplarmente el humanismo e idealismo martianos. La universalidad de los valores humanos nos llega a través de un amplio espectro de temas y épocas tratadas. La Edad de Oro se propone incitar en el pequeño lector la búsqueda del conocimiento, del amor y la justicia. Los cuatro números de la revista fueron recogidos en un libro con el mismo nombre que se ha publicado sinnúmero de veces y que forma parte del canon literario cubano y latinoamericano.libro escrito,por.José Julián Martí Pérez (La Habana, 28 de enero de 1853 - Dos Ríos, 19 de mayo de 1895) fue un político republicano democrático, pensador, escritor, periodista, filósofo y poeta cubano, creador del Partido Revolucionario Cubano y organizador de la Guerra del 95 o Guerra Necesaria, llamada así a la Guerra de Independencia de Cuba. Perteneció al movimiento literario del modernismo.  « less


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JOSÉ MARTÍ, UN CUBANO UNIVERSAL

“Las verdades elementales caben en el ala de un colibrí”. (José Martí) 28/01/2011 Compilación: Casal d’Amistat CatalàCubà de Barcelona

Aniversario del nacimiento de JOSÉ MARTÍ

JOSÉ MARTÍ, UN CUBANO UNIVERSAL

José Martí, Héroe Nacional de Cuba 1. Biografía del autor 2. Obra •

Martí periodista



Martí pensador



Martí escritor



Teatro



Poesía



Cuentos



Otros textos

3. Cronología: José Martí (1853-1895) 4. Otra conexión a su figura •

Direcciones principales



Curiosidades y semblanzas



Algunos monumentos a José Martí



Frases célebres de Martí



Contexto histórico-cultural-artístico



Influencias de José Marti

5. El autor y su obra en la red

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Artículos y libros localizables en la red



Foros de debate y discusión sobre el autor



Bibliografía sobre el autor y su obra



Otros ENLACES de interés

JOSÉ Título MARTÍ, del documento UN CUBANO UNIVERSAL

1. Biografía del autor José Martí nació en La Habana el 28 de enero de 1853. Hijo de los españoles Mariano Martí y Leonor Pérez, su vida fue una auténtica lucha a favor de la libertad en Cuba y para Cuba. Desde su juventud fue simpatizante del levantamiento del 68, lo que le supuso al año siguiente su primer paso por la prisión por conspirador. En 1871 fue desterrado a España, donde aprovechó para estudiar Filosofía y Letras y Derecho. En 1875 comenzó un periplo de años de constantes viajes a México (donde se casa el 20 de diciembre con la camagüeyana Carmen Zayas Bazán), Guatemala (donde conoció a María García Granados, la famosa «Niña de Guatemala» de sus Versos sencillos (foto izquierda) y Nueva York, tras el que regresó temporalmente a Cuba en 1878. Trabajó allí como profesor, pero sin abandonar su constante preocupación política, y vio nacer a su hijo José Francisco el 22 de noviembre. En 1879 fue descubierta la conspiración que organizaba con el Movimiento, y fue desterrado de nuevo a España, para en 1880 establecerse como periodista en Nueva York, donde comenzó a contactar con militares cubanos, como el general Calixto García, y donde entró a formar parte como presidente del Comité Revolucionario Cubano. Pasó una pequeña temporada en Venezuela durante 1881, de donde también fue expulsado por causas ideológicas, para volver a Nueva York en 1882 y dedicarse allí a preparar la revolución final que consiguiera la independencia de Cuba: además de escribir y publicar Nuestra América el 10 de enero de 1891 en La Revista Ilustrada de Nueva York, consiguió dinero, armas, embarcaciones, entrenó a los revolucionarios, buscó apoyo internacional y mantuvo el espíritu de rebelión de los cubanos, para lo que realizó diversos viajes por países de Latinoamérica. En 1895, cuando todo estaba preparado, les fue confiscado el contingente logístico por parte del gobierno estadounidense, y contra viento y marea lograron prepararlo todo para, en mayo de 1895 Martí, junto con Máximo Gómez y otros más, desembarcar en Playitas y avanzar tierra adentro para reunirse con otras fuerzas revolucionarias. El 19 de mayo de aquel año las fuerzas del Apóstol, sobrenombre por el que ha sido conocido después por sus compatriotas, se enfrentaron al ejército español en Dos Ríos, batalla en la que murió el 19 de mayo el inspirador y héroe de la independencia cubana sin que sus https wfb dor state ma us webfile wsi pudieran siquiera rescatar su cuerpo. >>Ir a inicio Página 3

JOSÉ MARTÍ, UNTítulo CUBANO del documento UNIVERSAL

2. Obra En José Martí encontramos ya los rasgos que caracterizarían una de las épocas más fecundas no sólo para el arte, sino para todas las manifestaciones artísticas y humanas acaecidas con el cambio de siglo. Lo que se ha dado en llamar Modernismo surge ya en su prosa audaz y en su profunda poesía, pero no sólo ahí, sino en cualquiera de las demás expresiones literarias que conforman un todo en el caso de Martí.

Martí periodista Entre 1880 y 1892, José Martí publicó más de cuat roci entas cró ni cas sobr e Hispanoamérica, Estados Unidos y Europa, “José Martí” Titulo: Versos Sencillos. así como un centenar de acertados y bellos retratos. Su publicación corrió a cargo de José Miguel Pérez Hernández Técnica: Acrílico sobre tela. diarios como La Nación de Buenos Aires, La Tamaño: 83 cm X 62 cm Año: 1999 Opinión Nacional de Caracas, La Opinión Pública de Montevideo, La República de Tegucigalpa, El Partido Liberal de México y Las Américas de Nueva York. En el conjunto de su obra, la parte periodística ocupa voluminosamente casi la mitad de su producción literaria, dato que redunda si observamos que la mayoría del resto de su producción apareció primeramente publicada en periódicos. No se debe menospreciar este aspecto no ya en la obra de Martí, sino en la de otros autores modernistas como él, pues la prensa escrita fue el medio de difusión de una estética identificativa de un grupo muy amplio de escritores, pensadores y artistas de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. En Martí, por ejemplo, sus crónicas sirvieron para introducir elementos tan variopintos y alejados entre sí como los consejos para dormir con gorra, las nuevas vajillas para tomar el té, las guerras y la política internacional, la educación, la arquitectura, la moda y todos aquellos adelantos vinculados a la ciencia y a la literatura. Todo ello no fue óbice para que reflexionara sobre la ética y la condición humana mediante imágenes detalladas, información exhaustiva, gracejo narrativo y un estilo personalísimo que le llevó a ser una de las más genuinas personalidades periodísticas del momento, entremezclando rasgos del género en Francia con otros adquiridos en su estancia en Nueva York, donde colaboró en algunos diarios como The Hour o The Sun. >>Ir a inicio

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JOSÉ TítuloMARTÍ, del documento UN CUBANO UNIVERSAL

Martí pensador Sin duda, la faceta que ha hecho de José Martí algo más que un mito fue su ideario político. A pesar de que su lucha directa se circunscribió a «su» Cuba, concibió la libertad de los países de Latinoamérica como un todo. Su idea de libertad nunca pudo partir de la República española, pues la inconsecuencia de lo que ésta propugnaba con amegy bank dickinson tx hechos que Martí observaba en la «Metrópoli» le convenció de que el problema cubano sólo podría ser resuelto fuera de los marcos políticos del poder español. Las dos tesis principales del pensamiento martiano son, por una parte, abogar por la entrega de la riqueza nacional, cuya distribución exclusiva en pocas manos le parecía injusta; por otra, la cuestión indígena que afrontan las jóvenes naciones americanas como uno de los más tristes resultados de la dominación colonial sufrida, en la cual los indios fueron aplastados y reducidos a la condición de bestias; resucitarles el hombre que llevan dentro debe ser la tarea primera de todos aquellos que aspiren a una patria libre. El futuro de la revolución vinculado, en su opinión, a y a la unión de los pueblos, habría garantía alguna de revolución. Precisamente por a la intervención del autoritarismo intentado imponer al movimiento identificó nunca con éste. Según el Apóstol, independizar a América los últimos restos del afianzar la unión de las jóvenes contener así los impulsos

americana está la raza indígena pues sin ella no triunfo para esa ello se opuso siempre militar que se había revolucionario y no se Cuba era, primero, arrancar de colonialismo español y, segundo, repúblicas hispanoamericanas para imperialistas de los Estados Unidos.

El testimonio político más importante de Martí es su ensayo titulado Nuestra América: no es un manifiesto americanista en el que se predique un fatuo nacionalismo o en el que se cante la superioridad de los valores autóctonos de los pueblos de hispanoamérica, sino que plantea, fundamentalmente, un programa político-cultural establecido de acuerdo con las necesidades más urgentes del continente. No hay romanticismo en la afirmación del hombre natural, de la Naturaleza americana. La afirmación de estos elementos cumple una determinada función política porque únicamente a partir de ellos podrá realizarse una liberación total. Nuestra América no es un canto a un pasado glorioso ni una invitación de retorno a él. >>Ir a inicio Página 5

JOSÉ MARTÍ, UNTítulo CUBANO del documento UNIVERSAL

Martí, que está mucho más cerca de Marx que de Rousseau, afirma lo natural para poder mostrar mejor el proceso de inversión de valores producido por el dominio colonial. Con la colonización se impuso para América una serie de costumbres y tradiciones que impidieron el desenvolvimiento de sus culturas nativas. De esta manera se produjo la típica sustitución de valores que toda potencia imperial realiza, y por la que se engendran las colonias. Este deplorable cuadro lo describió Martí con plasticidad asombrosa al escribir:

«Éramos una visión, con el pecho de atleta, las manos de petimetre y la frente de niño. Éramos una máscara, con los calzones de Inglaterra, el chaleco parisiense, el chaquetón de Norte América y la montera de España.» Una de las preocupaciones máximas que plasma Martí aquí es la integración de todos los cubanos bajo una única bandera de amor y respeto al hombre, que, a su juicio, debía ser la norma suprema de la futura república:

«Yo quiero que la ley primera de nuestra república sea el culto de los cubanos a la dignidad plena del hombre. En la mejilla ha de sentir todo hombre verdadero el golpe que reciba cualquier mejilla de hombre.» El humanismo que desprenden estas palabras es la constante más profunda del quehacer político martiano, y la piedra angular de la reconstrucción del movimiento revolucionario cubano.

>>Ir a inicio Página 6

JOSÉ TítuloMARTÍ, del documento UN CUBANO UNIVERSAL

Martí escritor Si sus incursiones en el teatro (Abdala, Adúltera y Amor con amor se paga) no tuvieron mucha fortuna, su única irrupción en el mundo de la novela, Amistad funesta (Lucía Jerez), si bien no podemos decir que sea una obra maestra del género, sí introduce por primera vez en el mismo los rasgos que caracterizarían a la novela modernista (o lírica, denominada por muchos críticos), especialmente en lo referido al lenguaje, insólitamente plástico y musical, de gran aliento imaginativo y de brillantez expresiva, lo que lo acredita como un gran prosista y como iniciador de una época, la modernista, que con él se abre. Una de las incursiones literarias más sorprendentes y atrevidas de Martí son sus cuentos, especialmente los publicados en La Edad de Oro, revista infantil editada íntegramente ciber inc él, que salió a la luz entre julio y octubre de 1889. Sorprendente porque extraña que el Apóstol, metido de lleno en empresas políticas y revolucionarias, dedicara gran parte de su valioso tiempo a una tarea tan poco productiva entonces como la literaria, y más si cabe si consideramos que iba dirigida a los niños. La respuesta está en su espíritu y sus proyectos revolucionarios. Con la lectura de los cinco números que salieron a la luz de la revista el lector puede darse cuenta de que no es literatura «sólo» para niños: su función es netamente educadora, pero en un sentido más amplio, y ello es debido al ideal políticosocial de Martí, en el que el niño es el futuro, y ese futuro debe ser de progreso y de virtud. Para conseguir los fines que persigue (léase libertad, búsqueda de la verdad, americanismo, utilidad, independencia de Cuba, desarrollo) hay que educar al niño adecuadamente, pues él es la base de un futuro mejor. Su idea de la pedagogía no es la de enseñar la realidad a los niños, sino dársela a comprender, presentársela de modo que la puedan entender, para que lleguen a participar de los grandes problemas de América, como el racismo (en «El Padre Las Casas»), la desigualdad social, la pobreza (en «Los zapaticos de Rosa», «La muñeca negra», «Los dos príncipes»), la libertad (en «Tres héroes») y problemas universales como la bondad moral y las virtudes (en «La perla de la mora», «Cada uno a su oficio», «Nené traviesa», «El camarón encantado»), o la muerte, tan presente en muchos cuentos. A todo ello, unirá un estilo sencillo pero bello, tratando de hacer del deleite una vía y una manera de aprendizaje. En sus cuentos infantiles podemos ver una particular ordenación gramatical y un uso de términos-clave que se repiten a lo largo de ellos en posiciones estratégicas. Su sintaxis lineal, fluida, ordenada, sin interrupciones, con abundancia de conjunciones, más propias del lenguaje infantil, les confiere cierto sentido y musicalidad que hacen de ellos auténtica 1st birthday gift basket ideas bella literatura. >>Ir a inicio Página 7

JOSÉ MARTÍ, UNTítulo CUBANO del documento UNIVERSAL

Cierto tono infantil encontramos también en Ismaelillo, su primer libro de versos, que abre su incursión en la parcela que con mayor acierto cultivó. Si dotó a su prosa de un lenguaje cuanto menos novedoso para el género, sus intuiciones poéticas plasmadas en las quince epifanías dedicadas a su hijo ausente abren definitivamente el camino hacia la nueva estética modernista. El autor cuenta allí un viaje por los mundos del sueño, impulsado por la persecución arrebatada de sus visiones, y lo hace desde la naturaleza lírica e íntima de un mensaje hondo, grave y universal, expresado en un lenguaje veloz, de aparente despojamiento verbal, de metros breves y saltarines, pero que encubren toda una serie de metáforas recias y profundas que distinguen el pensamiento de Martí. En Versos libres, recopilación de poemas posterior a su muerte pero que él dejó casi preparado para la imprenta, imprime esa misma óptica visionaria, pero ahora con mayor dramatismo y con un temple agónico más acerado, que luego también continuará en otros poemas de la misma época (que aparecieron en diferentes diarios y publicaciones en vida del autor, para ser recogidos luego bajo el título de Flores del destierro). En los «endecasílabos hirsutos» (como él describió) de sus Versos libres confluyen bajo la forma métrica de verso blanco (idéntico metro, el endecasílabo, pero sin rima alguna) todas las tensiones que le salpicaron en su vivir diario: desde la circunstancia inmediata, el destierro y la nostalgia de su patria, hasta su sed de amor y dolor, su recio sentido moral de libertad, justicia y deber; vemos el concepto de la existencia como lucha perenne de autoconstrucción, como pugna constante y angustiosa por llevar a cabo sus fidelidades con la vida. También encontramos en ese poemario la preocupación por la poesía misma, por el vislumbre de posibilidades y sus preferencias: el rechazo del artificio y la defensa de una poética de lo natural (idea que plasmó en otros muchos de sus textos). Su preocupación por la armonía de lo natural dará paso a la cima más alta de su arte, los Versos sencillos, crónica lírica fragmentaria de su vida, donde deshoja versos cristalinos a la la edad de oro jose marti libro que enigmáticos y oscuros que alcanzan las cotas de mayor profundidad de su obra. Página 8

>>Ir a inicio

JOSÉ TítuloMARTÍ, del documento UN CUBANO UNIVERSAL

Los versos entrelazados rezuman sencillez y emoción, y muestran la fusión pueblopoeta-naturaleza desde lo cercanamente biográfico, expresado desde el sincero temblor poético, desde la serenidad y desde la fuerza. La voz poética de Martí se plasmó desde tres manantiales vitales: la voz dolorida pero entrañable del hombre deshaciéndose y haciéndose a sí mismo en la precariedad de su vivir; la voz y más desde la fuerza del pleno pulmón emitida por la Naturaleza o el Universo; y una voz recóndita, que desde la trascendencia quiere asegurarse un lugar firme entre las certezas humanas. Y todo ello para llegar a dar una declaración de amor y libertad firme, sin fisuras, que hacen de su obra, corta en años pero intensa en sentido, un mensaje compacto, bello y armoniosamente sincero.

Teatro: •

Abdala.



Patria y libertad.

Poesía: •

Versos libres.



Ismaelillo.



La Edad de Oro.



Versos sencillos.

• El poema Y te busqué, extraído del libro Versos de amor, publicado por Gonzalo Quesada en Cuba en 1930. • En la página web Ciudad Iberoamericana vienen algunos poemas de sus tres publicaciones poéticas más importantes: Ismaelillo, Versos libres y Versos sencillos. • Isabel Arrieta y Roger Gutiérrez presentan algunos poemas sueltos de la obra en verso de José Martí. • Haschisch.

Cuentos: •

Los zapaticos de Rosa.



Nené traviesa.



El camarón encantado.



Bebe y el señor don Pomposo.



La muñeca negra.



Meñique. >>Ir a inicio Página 9

JOSÉ MARTÍ, UNTítulo CUBANO UNIVERSAL del documento

Otros textos: El Colegio de la Esperanza ofrece en su página web, entre otras obras del escritor cubano, un texto sobre el general José de San Martín publicado en 1899 en la revista para niños La edad de oro. •

Artículo Manuel Acuña.



Nuestra América de José Martí.



Manifiesto de Montecristi.



Diario de Campaña: De Cabo Haitiano a Dos Ríos.

En Inglés Biografía en inglés. •

Algunos poemas de Martí traducidos al inglés por Aurelio de la Vega.



Traducción de «Cultivo una rosa blanca.».



Traducciones de algunos de sus 'pensamientos'.



Ken Liddle, Galenao and Martí.



Yoke and star.



Varios poemas traducidos al inglés.



Encyclopædia Britannica - José Marti - Article on the Cuban revolutionary, poet and essayist from brittancia.com.



José Julián Martí y Pérez - Biographical notes on the Cuban revolutionary hero.



José Martí - Biographical notes and a list of literary works by Marti.



Jose Marti - A biographical essay by Carlos Ripoll. Page also includes some of Marti's poetry in Spanish and in translation.



Jose Marti (1853-1895) - Site on Cuba's national hero features a biography and photos of Marti as well as his poetry and famous quotations by him.



Jose Marti - Cuba's Greatest Hero - Links to Jose Marti sites on the web.



Jose Marti and Martin Luther King Jr: Brothers in Thought - An essay arguing that Marti and King share a common theological tradition.

En Alemán •

Artículo informativo sobre la vida del escritor cubano en alemán, por Armando Hart Dávalos, titulado Wer war José Martí



Versión al alemán de Versos sencillos. >>Ir a inicio

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JOSÉ UN CUBANO UNIVERSAL TítuloMARTÍ, del documento

3. Cronología: José Martí (1853 - 1895) 1853, 28 de Enero: Nace José Julián Martí y Pérez en la Habanaen la calle Paula, modesta construcción colonial de dos plantas; su padre es el celador de policía Mariano Martí y Navarro, valenciano (foto izquierda), y su madre doña Leonor Pérez, canaria (foto derecha). Lo bautizan en la iglesia de Santo Ángel el 12 de febrero del mismo año.

1857. La familia se traslada a España con su primogénito, de cuatro años. Don Mariano renuncia a su puesto. 1859. Regreso a la Habana. El hogar de los Martí aumentando con una nueva hija, se instala sucesivamente en la calle de Merced 40, Ángeles 56, Industria 32. Martí concurre a la escuela municipal del barrio de Santa Clara. 1862, el 23 de Octubre: Carta de Martí a su madre años; le habla del caballo y la salud del padre y se hijo que la quiere con capitán pedáneo en el Hanábana; el hijo lo ayuda

antes de cumplir los diez del gallo fino, da noticias de despide como "su obediente delirio". Don Mariano es caserío de Caimito en con su buena letra.

Navidad de 1863: De vuelta a la Habana, Martí continúa sus estudios en el colegio San Anacleto, donde conoce al que seria su amigo fraternal, Fermín Valdés Domínguez. 1868, el 10 de Octubre: Comienza la revolución separatista con el incendio de Bayamo; su jefe es Carlos Manuel de Céspedes. Martí de 15 años, es alumno del colegio de San Pablo, a cargo del poeta, educador y mecenas Rafael María de Mendive, quien, al cumplir el niño los 13, había solicitado su admisión en el Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza costeándole los estudios Bachiller. Durante ese mismo año, Martí escribe sus primeros versos: A mi madre, Carta de madrugada (a sus hermanas) y a Linda hermanita mía. >>Ir a inicio First bank o fallon il 11

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1869, el 19 de enero: Martí publica su periódico --único número-- "El Diablo Cojuelo".

1869, 22 de enero: Tiroteo del circo-teatro Villanueva. La función había sido anunciada a beneficio de "algunos insolventes" (los cubanos en armas), y la preferencia por el color azul, que era el de la bandera de Yara (foto derecha), las estrellas en los adornos y el pelo suelto de las mujeres, sumado eso a los gritos de viva Céspedes y ya revolución, oídos en la función del día anterior, alertaron a las autoridades y provocaron esa noche la irrupción en la sala de una tropa de Gastadores Voluntarios al grito de viva España. 1869, el 25 de enero. Aparece el periódico "La patria libre", dirigido por Martí y Fermín Valdez Domínguez. En él se publica Abdala, poema dramático de Martí: es una clara alusión, apenas velada la forma, de los acontecimientos que vive la Isla y el ánimo de los patriotas. Don Mariano no puede contener su indignación al leer el periódico (primero y único numero). Prisión y ulterior destierro de Mendive. 1869, el 4 de Octubre: Después de la revista en el Campo Marte, un escuadrón de Gastadores Voluntarios pasa por la calle Industria. Martí, asomado a la ventana de los Valdés Domínguez, junto con Sellén y Monsieur Fortier --el profesor de francés-- ve pasar a un ex condiscípulo de los días de Mendive, enrolado con los Voluntarios; hay, de una y otra parte, sonrisas, gestos, injurias y amenazas. Esa noche registran la casa de los Valdés Domínguez y encuentran una esquela firmada por Fermín y José Martí, dirigida a su ex compañero: "¿Has soñado tu alguna vez con la gloria de los apóstatas? ¿Sabes cómo se castigaba en la antigüedad la apostasía? Esperamos que un discípulo del señor Rafael María de Mendive no ha de dejar sin contestación esta carta."

1870, el 5 de marzo: Presidio Departamental. Martí ha declarado ser fish market solana beach único autor de la carta y es condenado a seis años de prisión. (Fermín Valdés Domínguez, a seis meses.) >>Ir a inicio Página 12

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1870, el 4 de abril: José Martí, de diecisiete años, "el 113 de la Primera Brigada de Blancos". Lleva grillete al pie y new mobile homes for sale las vegas nv a la cintura; trabaja en las canteras de San Lázaro (como a dos kilómetros de la cárcel). De esa época es el retrato que envía a la doña Leonor: “Mírame, madre y por tu amor no llores: / si esclavo de mi edad y mis doctrinas, / tu mártir corazón llené de espinas, / piensa que nacen entre espinas flores”. 1870. Después de cinco meses de prisión, enfermo, es indultado, por mediación de un amigo del capitán general, don José María Sardá, catalán, (foto izquierda) arrendatario de las canteras de la Isla de Pinos, a cuya finca El Abra es trasladado Martí. Allí permanece, desde el 5 de septiembre, bajo la responsabilidad y vigilancia de su protector. 1871, el 15 de enero: Martí es desterrado, a bordo del Guipúzcoa, rumbo a Cádiz. En la carta a su maestro Mendive, antes de embarcar para España, le dice: "He sufrido mucho, pero tengo la convicción de que he sabido bb king lucille vinyl. 1871. Madrid: vive en una buhardilla, de una casa de huéspedes: Calle del Desengaño numero 10. Se matricula en la Universidad Central de Madrid, da clases, sigue enfermo de una lesión interna que le dejara el presidio --lo que le obliga a operarse, en dos oportunidades--; lo atormentan la soledad, el recuerdo de las canteras, de su hogar, de su lejana patria. Escribe cartas, artículos que no siempre se publican, y edita un folleto, con la protección de Carlos Sauvalle: El presidio político en Cuba. 1871, el 27 de Noviembre: Fusilamiento, en la Habana, de ocho estudiantes, victimas de la cobardía de un tribunal militar (Foto). Al cumplir el primer aniversario de ese hecho, Martí escribe una proclama que pega en las paredes de las casas: "Póstrense en hinojos.!, y una oda, A mis hermanos muertos del 27 de noviembre, inflamada de pasión patriótica: Cuando se llora como yo, se jura!. Mata, déspota mata! Para el que muere a tu juro impío, el cielo se abre, el mundo se dilata”. >>Ir a inicio Página 13

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1873. El rey Amadeo abdica la corona de España y se proclama la República, con Castelar. Martí reclama la independencia de Cuba. Castelar declara que, antes que republicano, es español.

1874, Zaragoza: El 30 de Junio Martí rinde el primero de sus exámenes de grado en la Universidad Real de Zaragoza: la licenciatura de Derecho. Y el 24 de octubre del mismo año obtiene, con las mejores calificaciones, la de filosofía y letras. Pobreza, mala salud, primera pasión amorosa. Escribe su drama. Adúltera.

1874, Diciembre: Parte rumbo a Francia; en Paris conoce a Víctor Hugo, visita el cementerio de National weather service edmond ok Lachaise y las tumbas de los grandes del pasado: Abelardo y Eloísa. Embarca en Southampton rumbo a México, con escala en Nueva York.

1875, Febrero: Desembarca en Veracruz. Es el México que preside Lerdo de Tejada. Su familia lo espera. Por razones de vecindad -Los Martí vivían en dos modestas habitaciones en un edificio de la calle de la Moneda-- los ampara el generoso don Manuel Mercado, secretario del Gobierno federal y senador de la Republica (foto derecha). Ha muerto Ana, la hermana predilecta. Martí escribe un poema que comienza: “Es hora de pensar. Pensar espanta, cuanto se tiene el hambre en la garganta”. Presentado por Mercado (foto izquierda), colabora en la "Revista Universal" con unos boletines de actualidad, política y arte, que firma Orestes. >>Ir a inicio Página 14

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1875-1876 Martí en México. Periodista. Poeta. Traductor. Cronista de Política, teatro y arte. Estrena en su obra teatral Amor con amor se paga y se enamora de la actriz Concha Padilla, que la representa. (También de Rosario, "la de Acuña".) Conoce a la que mas tarde habría de ser su esposa, la cubana Carmen Zayas Bazán (foto derecha). 1876. Diciembre: Parte a la Habana, con pasaporte mexicano a nombre de Julián Pérez (José Julián Martí y Pérez era su nombre completo), a buscar cartas que lo acrediten en Guatemala. 1877. Guatemala. José María Izaguirre, un cubano distinguido, es director de la Escuela Normal donde Martí profesa la cátedra de literatura extranjera y la de historia de la filosofía. Le llaman "el doctor Torrente". Concurre a la tertulia del general Miguel García Granados expresidente de la república y líder de la revolución liberal, cuya hija (foto izquierda), La niña de Guatemala, una bellísima joven, de what time does bank of america close today saturday 16 años, María García Granados era su alumna en la Escuela Normal. En diciembre parte a México, a casarse con Carmen Zayas. 1878, Enero: Martí tiene veinticinco años; regresa, casado, a Guatemala y asiste al entierro de María García Granados. El dictador, Justo Rufino Barrios, depone a Izaguirre; Martí renuncia a sus cátedras. 1878, Julio: Parte de Guatemala, rumbo a Cuba, con su mujer Carmen Zayas, pasando por Honduras. 1878, 3 de septiembre: La Habana. Hay tregua política; Martí es pasante de un despacho de abogado; profesor. Nace su hijo José (que sería el Ismaelillo de su tomo de versos) el 12 de noviembre de ese año. 1879, Septiembre: Deportado, "por irremediabilidad política", según Carmen Zayas Bazán, parte rumbo a Santander. Vive dos meses en España, asiste al casamiento de Alfonso XII; arregla los asuntos jurídicos de Miguel F. Viondi y visita a Cristino Martos. En diciembre de ese mismo año vuelve a Francia; conoce a Sarah Bernhardt (foto derecha) y a Flammarion.

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Carmen, desde la Habana, no depone su actitud hostil y se retrae con el hijo (José Martí con su hijo, foto derecha). 1880, 3 de enero: Nueva York, Primera lectura política en el Steck Hall, al lado del general Calixto García. Preparación de la "guerra chiquita"(fracasada). 1880. Llama a su lado a la mujer y al hijo; publica en un inglés deficiente artículos en "The Hour" y en "The Sun": crónicas sobre política y letras europeas. Vive en casa de Carmita Mantilla, 51 East 29 th Street. Después de cinco meses de nuevo ensayo matrimonial, con Carmen y el hijo, ésta regresa a Cuba. Martí sale para Caracas. 1881, Marzo: Venezuela. Martí dicta clases en el colegio de Santa Martí, y literatura en el colegio de Guillermo Tell Villegas. Colabora en "La Opinión Nacional" y funda la "Revista Venezolana". Publica una loa a Cecilio Acosta, que acaba de morir, y el dictador, Guzmán Blanco, lo obliga a abandonar el país. ("Déme Venezuela, en que servirla: ella tiene en mí un hijo.") Sale rumbo a Nueva York, en Julio de 1881. Agosto de 1881 - enero de 1895: Vida de Martí en Nueva York. Trabaja para los editores Lyons and Co. Y Appleton; colabora en "La Opinión Nacional" de Caracas y en "La Nación" de Buenos Aires. Simple newyorker, su "honda era la de David" (Andrés Iduarte). 1882: Publica el Ismaelillo, dedicado a su hijo ausente. Reúne sus Versos libres, y al mismo tiempo sus Endecasílabos hirsutos, que no publica en volumen. liberty mutual commercial login Lleva por un tiempo a Don Mariano a vivir con él, en Nueva York. Para Adelaida Baralt escribe una novela, Amistad funesta que firma con el seudónimo de Adelaida Ra. Durante su incansable tarea de propagandista revolucionario conoce a tres de los veteranos de la guerra de Céspedes que iban a ser figuras claves de la guerra de emancipación cubana: Máximo Gómez, Antonio Maceo y Flor Crombet. Discursos, proclamas, Retrato de Martí hecho en Washington en 1891, según el patriota puertorriqueño Sotero Figueroa por los días en que sesionaba la escritos. Ya le llaman "el maestro". Conferencia Monetaria Internacional Americana, en la que Martí >>Ir a inicio Página 16

representaba a la República de Uruguay.

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1887: Cónsul de Uruguay 1889: Publica, a expensas de un editor generoso, un periódico infantil, "La Edad de Oro", escrito por él desde la primera hasta la última página. Alcanzan a aparecer cuatro números. 1890: Cónsul de Paraguay.

Argentina

y

1884 a 1891: Son los propósitos del fundador del Partido Revolucionario Cubano, que tiene el titulo de delegado, hacer una guerra generosa y breve; combatir el anexionismo a los EE. UU. ; evitar el caudillismo; unir a las emigraciones entre sí, y forjar la conciencia de "nuestra América". 1891, Octubre: El consulado español protesta porque Martí, cónsul de la Argentina, ataca a España. Martí renuncia al consulado 1892. Marzo: Aparece "Patria", órgano de los cubanos exiliados, dirigido por Martí. 1893, Abril: Lo reeligen delegado. Viajes de propaganda política por los Estados Unidos, la Florida, Tampa, Cayo Hueso (Key West), Costa Rica, Jamaica, Panamá.

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1894, Agosto: Es reelecto delegado por segunda vez. Fracasa el plan de la Fernandina. Aunque apesadumbrado por las críticas y la desazón de sus compatriotas, Martí logra rehacerse.

1895, 29 de enero: Orden de levantamiento. Sale de Nueva York rumbo a Santo Domingo y Cuba. 1895, 19 de Mayo: Muerte de José Martí en Dos Ríos.

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4. Otra conexión a su figura Direcciones principales Existen en la red innumerables páginas dedicadas exclusivamente al insigne poeta cubano. De entre las más completas, destacamos las siguientes. En ellas podemos encontrar desde su biografía hasta su obra, pasando por cartas y documentos varios y significativos. poemas del alma página de divulgación página de bibliografia confeccionada por Artwork. Patria y poesía, artículo de Cintio V itier

Otras páginas web: http://www.josemarti.cu/ Otras instituciones: Centro de Estudios Martianos Memorial José Martí Museo Casa Natal de José Martí

Otros lugares de interés: Tumba de José Martí Aeropuerto Internacional JOSÉ MARTÍ de La Habana

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Curiosidades y semblanzas Armando Hart Dávalos, Director de la Oficina del Programa Martiano y Miembro del Consejo de Estado de la República de Cuba, ofrece una bella semblanza del escritor cubano. Martí Otra Visión >> José Martí, la cultura vigente por Ramón Guerra Díaz Licenciado en Historia trabajó como museólogo especialista en el Museo Casa Natal de José Martí. >> El Martí de Pueblo de Roberto Fabelo (pintor) >> Habla José Martí CRITERIOS MARTIANOS ADULTO MAYOR

SOBRE

EL

>> Las formas lúdicas en los escritos de José Martí (I) >> Las formas lúdicas en los escritos de José Martí (II) >> José Martí por Herman Norman (pintor)

Conferencia Internacional "Con todos y para el bien de todos" Palacio de las Convenciones. La Habana, Cuba, 25-27 octubre del 2005 Dr. Eusebio Leal Spengler

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Algunos monumentos a José Martí

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FRASES CÉLEBRES de José Martí La gratitud, como ciertas flores, no se da en la altura y mejor reverdece en la tierra buena de los humildes. Más frases sobre: Gratitud Ayudar al que lo necesita no sólo es parte del deber, sino de la felicidad. Más frases sobre: Ayudar La libertad es el derecho que tienen las personas de actuar libremente, pensar y hablar sin hipocresía. Más frases sobre: Libertad La única fuerza y la única verdad que hay en esta vida es el amor. El patriotismo no es más que amor, la amistad no es más que amor. Más frases sobre: Amor Hay un solo niño bello en el mundo y cada madre lo tiene. Más frases sobre: Madres Vale más un minuto de pie que una vida de rodillas. Más frases sobre: Dignidad Para ir delante de los demás, se necesita ver más que ellos. Más frases sobre: Líderes El derecho del obrero no puede ser nunca el odio al capital; es la armonía, la conciliación, el acercamiento común de uno y del otro. Más frases sobre: Derechos También a un gran hombre lo puede exasperar una miserable mosca. Más frases sobre: Impaciencia El lenguaje ha de ser matemático, geométrico, escultórico. La idea ha de encajar exactamente en la frase, tan exactamente que no pueda quitarse nada de la frase sin quitar eso mismo de la idea. Más frases sobre: Lenguaje La felicidad general de un pueblo descansa en la independencia individual de sus habitantes. >>Ir a inicio Más frases sobre: Felicidad Página 23

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Las verdades elementales caben en el ala de un colibrí. Más frases sobre: Verdad El que tiene un derecho no obtiene el de violar el ajeno para mantener el suyo. Más frases sobre: Derechos Es preferible el bien de muchos a la opulencia de pocos. Más frases sobre: Sin clasificar Los bárbaros que todo lo confían a la fuerza y a la violencia, nada construyen, porque sus simientes son de odio. Más frases sobre: Odio Los hombres son como los astros, que unos dan luz de sí y otros brillan con la que reciben. Más frases sobre: Miscelánea La patria es dicha, dolor y cielo de todos y no feudo ni capellanía de nadie. Más frases sobre: Patria Buscamos la solidaridad no como un fin sino como un medio encaminado a lograr que nuestra América cumpla su misión universal. Más frases sobre: Solidaridad Mi trabajo es cantar todo lo bello, encender el entusiasmo por todo lo noble, admirar y hacer admirar todo lo grande. Más frases sobre: Cantar Para pedestal, no para sepulcro, se hizo la tierra, puesto que está tendida a nuestros pies. Más frases sobre: Tierra Los niños son la esperanza del mundo. Más frases sobre: Niñez

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Contexto histórico-cultural-artístico José Marti e historia > Modernismo - Simbolismo

Influencias de José Martí Influencia a > Adalbert Von Chamisso - José María Vargas Vila - Paul Bourget - Rubén Darío

5. El autor y su obra en la red Artículos Y libros localizables en la red Portal José Martí de Cuba Jesús Zúñiga hace una bella reflexión sobre nuestro escritor en Martí 102 años después. La Asociación de Educadores de Latinoamérica y el Caribe denomina a José Martí guía y fragua de los educadores de la región (enero 2011) Raúl Fornet Betancourt nos propone en un ensayo algunos elementos para una lectura filosófica de José Martí. Mercedes García Tudurí publica una poesía a Martí Jorge N, Campos APROXIMACIÓN AL PENSAMIENTO CRÍTICO, DE JOSÉ MARTÍ, EN SUS OBRAS Sitio de la Unión de Periodistas de Cuba. Félix BolañosLa música en Martí Mercedes Santos MorayMartí y la Edad de Oro MinRex/ José Martí (últimas noticias) Hannah Caller. Jose Marti 1853-1895 and the War of Independence Ned J. Davidson, Sound patterns in a poem of José Martí. Honda Revista de la Sociedad Cultural José Martí José martí y el discurso histórico-literario en la revista venezolana La Biblioteca virtual del Cervantes

Foros de debate y discusión sobre el autor El Centro de Estudios Martianos es un gran foro de debate sobre el autor cubano y ofrece diversos estudios y artículos sobre la figura y obra de José Martí, así como información sobre el II Coloquio Intl. «JOSÉ MARTÍ Y LA CULTURA IBEROAMERICANA» MARTIANOS: Seguidores del pensamiento de José Martí (Red social NING)

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Bibliografía sobre el autor y su obra I- Obras Completas de José Martí Obras Completas. La Habana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, 1963-1973. Obras Completas. Edición Crítica. La Habana: Centro de Estudios Martianos, 2000-2003. Obras Completas. La Habana: Editorial Lex, 1953. Obras Completas. La Habana: Editorial Trópico, 1936-1953. La Gran Enciclopedia Martiana. Ed. de Ramón Cernuda. Miami: Editorial Martiana, 1978.

II-Trabajos individuales, antologías y compilaciones. Antología Mayor. Selección, introducción y notas de Carlos Ripoll. Nueva York: Editorial Dos Ríos, 1995. José Martí. Antología Crítica. Eds. Susana Redondo de Feldman y Anthony Tudisco. New York: Las Américas Publishing, 1968. Poesía Completa. Ed. de Carlos Javier Morales. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1995. Versos. Estudio preliminar, selección y notas de Eugenio Florit. Nueva York: Las Américas Pub., 1967. Pensamientos y versos de Martí. Edición de Luis C. Villaverde. New York: Senda Nueva de Ediciones, 1991. Amistad funesta. Lucía Jerez. Ed. de Carlos Javier Morales. Madrid: Cátedra, 1994. La Edad de Oro. Edición Crítica de Eduardo Lolo. Miami: Ediciones Universal, 2001. Discursos, documentos y cartas. Selección por Alberto J. Varona. Miami: San Lázaro Graphics, 1992. Escritos desconocidos de José Martí. Recopilación, prólogo y notas de Carlos Ripoll. New York: Eliseo Torres & Sons, 1971. Nuevos escritos desconocidos de José Martí. Presentación y notas de Carlos Ripoll. Nueva York: Editorial Dos Ríos, 1998. Seis crónicas inéditas de José Martí. Edición de Carlos Ripoll y Manuel A. Tellechea. Nueva York: Editorial Dos Ríos, 1997. Versos sencillos/Simple Verses. Traducción de Manuel A. Tellechea. Houston (TX): Arte Público Press, 1997. Ensayos y crónicas. Edición de José Olivio Jiménez. Madrid: Anaya & Mario Muchnik, 1995. Los Zapaticos de Rosa. Versión al inglés, introducción y notas de Leopoldo Barroso. New York: Senda Nueva de Ediciones, 1990. Cartas a Manuel Mercado. Prólogo de Francisco Monterde. México: UNAM, 1964. Discursos selectos de Martí. Recopilados por Mario Cobas Reyes. Miami: SI, 1977. Ismaelillo. La Edad de Oro. Versos Sencillos. Prólogo de Raimundo Lazo. México: Porrúa,1980 Página 26

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III-Biografías Baeza Flores, Alberto. El hombre de la rosa blanca. Nueva biografía de José Martí. Barcelona: Artes Gráficas Medinacelli, 1976. Esténger, Rafael. Vida de Martí. Miami: Editorial AIP, 1965. García Martí, Raúl. Martí. Biografía Familiar. La Habana: Cárdenas y Cía., 1938. Costco credit card vs chase sapphire reserve, Félix. Martí, místico del deber. Buenos Aires: Editorial Losada, 1941. Mañach, Jorge. Martí, el Apóstol. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1933. Márquez Sterling, Carlos. Biografía de José Martí. Barcelona: Impresora Manuel Pareja, 1973. --. Martí: ciudadano de América. New York: Las Américas Publishing, 1965. Quesada y Miranda, Gonzalo de. Martí, hombre. Miami: Editorial Cubana, 1998.

IV-Estudios sobre Martí Agramonte, Roberto D. Las doctrinas educativas y políticas de Martí. Río Piedras (PR): Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1991. --. Martí y su concepción de la sociedad: Teoría general de la sociedad. Río Piedras (PR): Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1979. --. Martí y su concepción del mundo. Río Piedras (PR): Editorial Universitaria. Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1971. Aguirre Medrano, Fidel. El magnetismo de José Martí. Prólogo de José Ignacio Trulia pa homes for sale. Miami: Ed. Universal, 1984. Alba-Buffill, Elio, ed. José Martí en el Centenario de su Muerte. Círculo: Revista de Cultura. Número Extraordinario. Vol. XXV, 1996. Alba-Buffill, Elio con Gutiérrez de la Solana y Sánchez-Grey, editores. José Martí ante la crítica actual. (En el Centenario del Ismaelillo.). Verona, NJ: Círculo de Cultura Panamericano, 1983. Alvarado, Adalberto. El Pensamiento martiano. Miami: González Printing, 1988. Alvarez Ruiz, Eladio y José Albuerne Rivera. Martí conspirador. Los Angeles: Brooklyn Printing, 1985. Aragón, Uva de, ed. Repensando a Martí. Miami-Salamanca: Cuban Research Institute & Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, 1998. Arenas, Bibi. De los niños de América a Martí. Madrid: Ediciones Lulú, 1983. --- Muñeca negra y Merengue de fresa: Cuentos y Recuentos. Madrid: Ediciones Lulú, 1984. Arroyo, Anita. Raíz y ala. Barcelona: Turubo, 1979. Página 27

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Baquero, Gastón. La fuente inagotable. Valencia: Pre-textos, 1995. Barroso, Leopoldo. Ensayos sencillos. En torno a la poesía de José Martí. New York: Senda Nueva de Ediciones, 1992. Bernardo, José Raúl. Silent Wing. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998. Bertot, Lillian D. Conversatoria entre José Martí, Friedrich von Hayek y Michael Novak, tres enamorados de la libertad. Miami: Cuban American National Foundation, 1994. Bustamante, Lilia. Martí, mi amigo. Miami: Panorama Printing, 1999. Calatayud, Antonio, compilador. Martí visto por sus contemporáneos. Miami: Mnemosyne Publishing, 1976. Castellanos, Jorge. 24 de febrero de 1895. Un programa vigente. Miami: Ed. Universal, 1995. Castroverde Cabrera, Jorge A. De cara al sol: los últimos momentos del Apóstol José Martí. Miami: Ed. Universal, 1976. Conte Agüero, Luis. José Martí y la oratoria cubana. Prólogo de Gaspar Mortillaro. Buenos Aires: Ediciones de Sarmiento, 1959. Costa, Octavio R. Ser y esencia de Martí. Miami: Universal, 2000. Cuadra, Ángel. José Martí: análisis y conclusiones. Miami: Universal, 2000. Cuesta, Leonel Antonio de la. Martí, traductor. Prólogo de Gastón Baquero. Epílogo de Alfonso Ortega Carmona. Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, 1996. D’Aquino, Hernando. Sinfonía martiana. (Vida y pasión). Miami: Universal, 1971. Esténger, Rafael. Martí frente al comunismo. Miami: Editorial AIP, 1966. Fernández, José M. José Martí y su pensamiento. Primer Volumen. Filosofía. Miami: S.I., 1991 Fernández, Wilfredo. Martí y la filosofía. Miami: Universal, 1974. Fernández de la Vega, Oscar. En la barranca de todos. New York: Hunter College, 1984. --. Agonemas martianos. Madrid: Playor, 1975. Fernández, Gastón J. Temas e imágenes en los Versos Sencillos de José Martí. Miami: Universal, 1977. Fernández, Wifredo. Martí y la Filosofía. Miami: Universal, 1974. García Cisneros, Florencio. La muerte de José Martí. Versiones y discrepancias de Máximo Gómez. New York: Ediciones de Noticias de Arte, 1994. --.

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JOSÉ TítuloMARTÍ, del documento UN CUBANO UNIVERSAL

--. José Martí y la pintura española. Madrid: Betania, 1987. --. José Martí y las artes plásticas. New York: Ed. ALA, 1972. González, Miguel. Vida y muerte de Martí. Miami: San Lázaro Graphics, 1995. Hernández Chiroldes, Juan Alberto. Los Versos Sencillos de José Martí. Análisis crítico. Miami: Ed. Universal, 1983. Iduarte, Andrés. Martí, escritor. México: J. Mortiz, 1982. Jerez Mariño, Hubert. El cantar de Martí. (Con su Biblia martiana). Plantation, FL: Jerez Publishing, 1999. Jiménez, José Olivio. La raíz y el ala. Aproximaciones críticas a la obra literaria de José Martí. Velencia: Pre-Textos, 1993. --. José Martí. Poesía y existencia. México: Editorial Oasis, 1983. Jiménez, Onilda A. La mujer en Martí. En su pensamiento, obra y vida. Miami: Universal, 1999. Leyva, René Armando. Trayectoria de Martí. Miami: Editorial AIP, 1967. Lolo, Eduardo. Después del rayo y del fuego. Acerca de José Martí. Madrid: Betania, 2003. --. Mar de espuma. Martí y la Literatura Infantil. Miami: Ed. Universal, 1995. Lubián y Arias, Rafael. En la revolución de Martí. Miami: Granada Art, 1984. --. Martí en los campos de Cuba libre. Santo Domingo: Editora Montalvo, 1982. Mañach, Jorge. El espíritu de Martí. Estudio preliminar y notas de Anita Arroyo. San Juan (PR): Editorial San Juan, 1973. Massó, José L. Camino de Dos Ríos. Miami: Echevarría Printing, 1966. Mestas, Juan E. El pensamiento social de José Martí: ideología y cuestión obrera. Madrid: Editorial Pliegos, 1993. Muñoz, Homero. Martí: ciudadano y Apóstol. Su Ideario. Miami: Editorial A.I.P., 1968. Oria, Tomás G. Martí y el krausismo. Boulder (CO): Society of Spanish American Studies, 1987. Perera, Rosa Blanca. El Martí no conocido. Introducción de Octavio R. Costa. Miami: Copey Press, 1986. Pérez Durán, Marino. Ocho estrellas y dos héroes. Evocación de Bolívar y Martí con motivo del Bicentenario del Natalicio del Libertador. Caracas: Consucre, 1983. Pino, Raúl F. Martí, una estrella alta y luminosa. Madrid: Calíope, 1998.

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Piñera Llera, Humberto. Idea, sentimiento y sensibilidad de José Martí. Barcelona: Editorial Medinacelli, 1981. Portuondo, Gloria R. José Martí: el Educador. Segunda edición. ¿Miami?: S.I., 1997. Puello, Andrés D. José Martí en el exilio. Prólogo de Rubén D. Rumbaut. Houston (TX): Instituto de Cultura Hispánico, 1991. Quintana, Jorge. José Martí. Cronolia Bio-bibliográfica. Caracas: Impresora Delta, 1964. Rexach, Rosario. Nuevos estudios sobre Martí. Introducción de Eduardo Lolo. Miami: Universal, 2002. …. Estudios sobre Martí. Prólogo de Gastón Baquero. Madrid: Playor, 1985. Ripoll, Carlos. José Martí: notas y estudios. Nueva York: Editorial Dos Ríos, 1999. --. Martí: político, estadista, conspirador y revolucionario. Nueva York: Editorial Dos Ríos, 1997. --. La vida íntima y secreta de José Martí. Nueva York: Editorial Dos Ríos, 1995. --. Páginas sobre José Martí. Nueva York: Editorial Dos Ríos, 1995. --. La noble intransigencia de José Martí. Washington: Freedom House, 1991. --. The Two Americas of José Martí. Miami: FIU, 1991. --. La falsificación de la historia y de Martí en Cuba. Miami: FIU, 1991. --. Martí: Democracy and Anti-Imperialism. Miami: University of Miami, 1985. --. José Martí, the United States, and the Marxist Interpretation of Cuban History. New Brunswick (NJ) & London (UK): Transaction, 1984. --. José Martí, huellas y letras desconocidas. New York: Eliseo Torres & Sons, 1976. --. Índice Universal de la obra de José Martí. New York: Eliseo Torres & Sons, 1971. --- Patria: el periódico de Martí. Registro General (1892-1895). New York: Eliseo Torres and Sons, 1971. --. Archivo José Martí. Repertorio crítico. Medio siglo de estudios martianos. New York: Eliseo Torres & Sons, 1971. Rodríguez-Silva, Delfín. Cronología Martiana. La Ruta Apostólica de José Martí (18531895) Miami: Universal, 1996. Roig, Pedro. La guerra de Martí. Prólogo de Carlos Alberto Montaner. Miami: Ed. Universal, 1984. Rojas, Rafael. José Martí: la invención de Cuba. Madrid: Colibrí, 2000.

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TítuloMARTÍ, del documento JOSÉ UN CUBANO UNIVERSAL

Román, Daniel. Los seis grandes errores de Martí. Miami: Ed. Universal, 1993. Rovirosa, Dolores. José Martí: fuentes para su estudio. Miami: Universal, 1981. --. Bibliografía martiana del exilio. Miami: Universal, 1997. Sambra, Ismael. El único José Martí. Principal opositor a Fidel Castro. Prólogo de Orlando Fondevila. Madrid: Betania, 2000. Sánchez Torrentó, Eugenio. El hombre de La Edad de Oro está vivo. Introducción de Juan Best bb cream ulta. Remos. Hollywood, FL: Hollywood College, 1967. Santí, Enrico Mario. Pensar a José Martí. Notas para un Centenario. Boulder (CO): Society of Spanish and Spanish-American Studies, 1996. Pg one, Emeterio S. y Raúl M. Shelton. Martí y su obra. Banco popular community bank locations Educational Publishing Corp, 1970. Sardiña, Ricardo R. Martí el poeta. Miami: Universal, 1999. Vega, Aurelio de la. Canciones Transparentes, Raptoria Caam, RCD 1011, 1996. Vitier, Medardo. Marti. Estudio Integral. La Habana: Publicaciones de la Comision Nacional Organizadora de los Actos y Ediciones del Centenario y del Monumento de Marti, 1954. Zayas, Jorge. Martí y nosotros. Miami: Editorial AIP, 1966. Se aproxima el brote oscuro que abortó la primavera y se aproxima lo puro de la duda más sincera. Se aproximan las viciosas novedades que pasaron y se aproximan my liberty email login cosas que jamás se aproximaron. Rompe la rara semilla que la prisa y la inocencia pintaron de maravilla coloreando la imprudencia. Aparece el primer fruto de sabor inesperado y en vez de escupir, disfruto mi paladar ensanchado. ¿Qué es vivir si no caerse para levantarse luego y saber reconocerse en lo bastardo del fuego? Yo soy un hombre sincero de donde crece la palma y antes de morirme quiero echar mis versos del alma.

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del UNIVERSAL documento JOSÉ MARTÍ, UN Título CUBANO

V- MÁS BIBLIOGRAFÍA (Toda en la Web Damisela) Andino, Alberto. “Martí y España” Playor, S.A. Madrid. 1973. 184 pgs. (ISBN: 84-3590077-0) Arias, Salvador. “Acerca de La Edad de Oro” Editorial Letras Cubanas. La Habana, Cuba. 1980. 365 pgs. Bernal, Emilia. “Martí, por si mismo” Imprenta Molina y Cia. La Habana, Cuba. 1934. 63 pgs. Carbonell y Rivero, Néstor, Dr. “Martí: Sus Ultimos Días” Academia de la Historia de Cuba. La Habana. 1950. Castillo, Homero. “Estudios Críticos Sobre el Modernismo” Editorial Gredos. Madrid. 1974. 416 pgs. Castro Morales, Lilia. “Diccionario del Pensamiento de José Martí” Editorial Selecta. La Habana. 1953. 382 pgs. Domínguez, María Luisa. “Los Amores de Martí” en La Prensa, San Antonio, Texas, 17 de octubre de 1948. Reproducido en “Archivo José Martí” Tomo IV, 1949, de las Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, La Habana, Cuba, 1950, pgs 477-480. Gómez, Juan Gualberto. “Martí y Yo: La Ultima visita - La Ultima Carta” en Patria, 28 de enero de 1925. Reproducido en “Archivo José Martí” Tomo III, 1942, de las Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, Instituto Cívico Militar, Ciudad Escolar, La Habana, pgs 54-59. García Kohly, Mario. “La Personalidad de José Martí” Talleres Pligráficos (S. A.). Madrid. 1928. 110 pgs. Henríquez Ureña, Max. “Breve historia del Modernismo” Fondo de Cultura Económica. México. 1978. 559 pgs. (ISBN: 968-16-0085-1) Iduarte, Andres. “Martí Escritor” Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación. La Habana, Cuba. 1951. 354 pgs. Jorrín, Miguel. “Ideas Filosóficas de Martí”, La Habana, octubre 9, 1940. Presentado en “Archivo José Martí” Tomo IV, 1947, de las Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, La Habana, Cuba, 1947, pgs 35-49. Lezama Lima, José. “Antología de la Poesía Cubana” Tomo III. Consejo Nacional de Cultura. La Habana. 1965. Lizaso, Félix. “Martí - Espíritu de la Guerra Justa” Colección Ensayos. La Habana. 1944. 79 pgs. Mañach, Jorge. “Martí El Apóstol” Cuarta Edición. Colección Austral. Editora EspasaCalpe Argentina, S. A. 1952. Página 32

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Mañach, Jorge. “Perfil de Martí”, La Habana, agosto 1940. Reproducido en “Archivo José Martí” Tomo II, julio 1941, de las Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, Instituto Cívico Militar, Ciudad Escolar, La Habana, 1941, pgs 22-34. Méndez, M. Isidro. “Martí : Estudio Crítico obtaining financial advantage by deception commonwealth Biográfico” La Habana. 1941. 310 pgs. Mesa Rodríguez, Manuel I. “Las Cartas de Martí a Mercado” en El Mundo, La Habana, julio de 1946. Reproducido en “Archivo José Martí” Tomo IV, 1946, de las Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, La Habana, Cuba, 1946, pgs 395-403. Morales, Ernesto. “Una mujer y tres poetas” en La Prensa, Buenos Aires, 9 de Noviembre de 1941. Reproducido en “Archivo José Martí” Tomo III, 1942, de las Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, Instituto Cívico Militar, Ciudad Escolar, La Habana, pgs 91-94. Pichardo, Hortensia. “José Martí lecturas para jóvenes” Editorial Gente Nueva. La Habana. 1981. Remos y Rubio, Juan J. “Historia de la Literatura Cubana. Tomo III” Cárdenas y Compañía. La Habana. 1945. Rodríguez-Embil, Luis. “José Martí, el santo de América” Imprenta P. Fernández y Cia. La Habana. 1941. 262 pgs. Rubens, Horatio S. “Libertad: Cuba y su Apóstol” traducción al español de Adolfo G. Castellanos. La Rosa Blanca. La Habana. 1956. 399 pgs. Santovenia, Emeterio S. “Un Día Como Hoy” Editorial Trópico. La Habana. 1946. 738 pgs más el índice. Soto-Hall, Máximo. “La Niña de Guatemala - El Idilio Trágico de José Martí” Tipografía Nacional. Guatemala C. A. 1942. 170 pgs. Souza, B. “Ensayo Histórico sobre La Invasión” Imprenta del Ejército. La Habana. 1948. Unamuno, Miguel de. “Sobre los Versos Libres de Martí” en Heraldo de Cuba. Reproducido en “Archivo José Martí” Tomo IV, 1947, de microsoft xbox 360 account login Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, La Habana, Cuba, 1947, pgs 7-9. Unamuno, Miguel de. “Sobre el Estilo de Martí” en Germinal, Cárdenas, Cuba, agosto 1921, pgs 2-4. Reproducido en “Archivo José Martí” Tomo IV, 1947, de las Publicaciones spire bill pay phone number Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, La Habana, Cuba, 1947, pgs 11-14. Unamuno, Miguel de. “Notas de Estética - Cartas de Poeta” en Nuevo Mundo, Madrid, octubre 10, 1919. Reproducido en “Archivo José Martí” Tomo IV, 1947, de las Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, La Habana, Cuba, 1947, pgs 16-18.

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Biblioteca Nacional José Martí Plaza Cívica, La Habana,

Otros enlaces de interés Eduardo Camacho ofrece una exposición sobre la serie completa La Edad de Oro: signo y color, fruto del estudio y análisis de los cuatro números de la revista La Edad de Oro que escribió José Martí para los niños de América, publicada en Nueva York en los meses de julio, agosto, septiembre y octubre de 1889. Physical map of america fragmentos de temas polémicos tratados por Martí traducidos al inglés. Canciones a partir de versos de Martí Pablo Milanes canta a Martí VIDEOS sobre Pensamientos y versos✍ de José Martí. (youtube)

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Los Zapaticos De Rosa - Jose Marti

Download Los Zapaticos De Rosa - Jose Marti no pay and limitless.

Las playas en Los zapaticos de rosa de Jos Mart. Los Zapaticos de Rosa es un poema escrito por Jos Mart. Marti is a symbol of Cuban independence, for he campaigned throughout his life for its liberation and finally died in the war against Spain. anda ve dice la madre anda y sale a navegar y multi family homes for sale in boston ma muchas cosas papoder especular. Los zapaticos de rosa de JOse Marti

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La Organizacin de Pioneros Jos Mart (OPJM) entreg este viernes en La Habana el premio Los zapaticos de rosa, su mxima distincin, a personalidades e instituciones con una importante, especial y sostenida contribucin a la formacin y desarrollo de los nios y adolescentes de nuestro pas.

Se va all, donde muy lejos! Bueno como buen cubano que soy te digo que Jose Marti fue y es un Genio en todo sentido de la palabrahombre caval con ideas progresitasreconocido internacionalmenteen sus tiempos fue catalogado como adelantado a su epoca por la forma de pensar y expresarsete invito a leer uno libro de el que se titula La edad de Oro While written with delicate simplicity for children to understand, Mart's talent for description makes Los zapaticos de rosa so vivid, it is as though the scenes were painted with a brush.

Le llega a los pies la espuma Gritan alegres las dos Y se va, diciendo adis, La del sombrero de pluma. Los Zapaticos De Rosa by Jos Mart Te invitamos a recorrer los poemas de Jos Mart. Los Zapaticos de Rosa Marti, Jose, Mart, Jos, Pupo, Jorge Se vio sacar los pauelos a una rusa y una inglesa, el aya de la francesa se quito los espejuelos.

Se fue la nia a jugar, La espuma blanca baj,

Otorgan en Cuba Premio Los Zapaticos de Rosa de la Unin de No se bien,seora lo que sucedio despues,!le vi a mi hijita en los pies los zapaticos de rosa! Le interesa al pintor las sensaciones que, como observador constante, el escritor de los Zapaticos de Rosa pueda otorgarle al pblico que asiste a la sala de la Biblioteca Nacional. Los Zapaticos De Rosa by Jose Marti, Lulu Delacre, Paperback Sancti Spiritus Teacher Awarded Los Zapaticos de Rosa La Edad de Oro by Jose Marti, Los zapaticos de rosa Los zapaticos de rosa, por Jos Mart Este hombre adems de poltico es un gran escritor en los gneros de la poesa, teatro y ensayo. Zapaticos de rosa por Jose Marti Hay sol bueno y mar de espuma, Y arena fina, y Pilar Quiere salir a estrenar Su sombrerito de pluma. )y que si alguna vez nos encuentra un nio de Amrica por el mundo nos apriete la mano, como a un amigo viejo, y diga donde todo el mundo lo oiga Este.

Este trabajo pretende reflexionar, tomando como punto de partida los cuatro nmeros de la revista infantil La Edad de Oro, redactada ntegramente por Jos Mart, las carencias del pensamiento y la literatura de corte humanstico de los pases de This captivating book, masterfully illustrated by Lulu Delacre, is dedicated with tenderness to the young readers for whom Jos Mart wrote this.

Los zapaticos de rosa ante la crtica Los dos cuadros de Josignacio resaltan la mirada y la forma de la boca de Mart. En el que prevalecen hermosos valores y podemos apreciar La riqueza y la pobreza, la maldad, la compasin, la alegra y la tristeza

Entregan Premio Los Zapaticos de Rosa El estudio de la contigidad, de las especificidades de las inserciones de los versos entre otros artculos de La Edad de Oro prueba que los poemas participan esencialmente del discurso central de la revista. Escribir una carta a uno de los personajes de Los zapaticos de rosa usando el correo electrnico. Its author, Jose Marti dedicated it for children in his original La Edad de Oro book. Mientras, la nia de los zapaticos de rosa se fija en que en el lado de la playa en el que est, el mar est muy triste y. Novelas de Jos Mart Novelas de 1889 Obras literarias de Cuba Poesa en espaol Poemas de 1889. Yo s los nombres extraos De las yerbas y las flores, Y de mortales engaos, Y de sublimes dolores. Emisora Habana Radio Jos Mart y los Zapaticos de rosa

Jos Mar escribi este bello poema Los zapaticos de rosa. No s bien, seora hermosa, Lo que sucedi despus Le vi a mi hijita en los pies Los zapaticos de rosa! Se vio sacar los pauelos A una rusa y a una inglesa El aya de la francesa Se quit los espejuelos.

La edad de oro Mart, Jos, 1853 Su profundo humanismo vigente y enaltecido en nuestros das lo ha convertido en un clsico de la literatura infantil de todos los tiempos desde que fue publicado por vez primera en el tercer nmero de la revista mensual La Edad de. Que figuras literarias se encuentran en el poema de Jos Alas nacer vi en los hombros De las mujeres hermosas Y salir de los escombros Volando las mariposas. Ella va de todo juego, Con aro, y balde y paleta El balde es color violeta El aro es color de fuego.

Contenido Nen traviesa- Beb y el seor Don Pomposo- Los zapaticos de rosa- La mueca negra Access-restricted-item true Addeddate -08-28 202418 Con el decursar del tiempo se ha mantenido la significacin y vigencia de la gran enseanza que se deriva de Los Zapaticos de Rosa, es decir la dicha que puede experimentar una persona, y de modo muy especial un nio o una nia, al hacer algn bien a un infante desposedo y humilde. While written with delicate simplicity for children to understand, Marti's talent for description makes Los zapaticos de Rosa so vivid, it is as though he's painted the scenes with a brush.

Otros poemas que pueden interesarte son Los Zapaticos De Rosa, Mi Caballero, Mi Despensero, No Me Quites Las Canas, Odio El Mar, Para Cecilia Gutirrez Njera Y Maillefert, Aqu puedes acceder a los mismos o ver toda la poesia de. Estructuras ideolgicas y estticas en Los zapaticos de Rosa Los Zapaticos De Rosa A poem from Jose Marti,a Cuban poet. For further information, including links to M4B audio book, online text, reader information, RSS feeds, CD cover or other formats (if available), please go to the LibriVox catalog page for this recording.

LA POESIA MARTIANA LOS ZAPATICOS DE ROSAS Los zapaticos de rosa de Jos Mart, publicado en La Edad

Jos Julin Mart y Prez(1853-1895) Patriota y escritor cubano, que naci en La Habana, Cuba, y falleci en Boca de Dos Ros. Jos Mart Lulu Delacre- When a little girl from a wealthy family gives her pink shoes to a poor girl, their two contrasting worlds meet for a moment, as each considers a way of life she will never know. Coleccin de cuentos para nios y nias por Jos Mart. Los zapaticos de rosa, by Jos Mart Los zapaticos de rosa, es un poema del escritor cubano Jos Mart.Publicado por vez primera en 1889, en el tercer nmero de la revista mensual La Edad de Oro. Familiarizarse con la vida, carcter y dos obras de Jos Mart.

Los Zapaticos de Rosa by Jose Marti, 9781933032122, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. This captivating, masterfully-illustrated book, is dedicated with tenderness to the young readers for whom Jose Marti wrote this beautiful poem. que se aleja de la costa. investiga sobre el autor del poema los zapaticos de rosa y A poem from Jose Marti,a Cuban poet. Los zapaticos de rosa. Le llega a los pies la espuma Gritan alegres las dos Y se va, diciendo adis, La del sombrero de pluma.

Details for Los zapaticos de Rosa Normal view MARC view ISBD view.

Yo he visto en la noche oscura Llover sobre mi cabeza Los rayos de lumbre pura De la divina belleza. Un hombre que es hroe en Cuba, porque organizo la guerra que le dio su independencia. Los Zapaticos de Rosa (Spanish Edition) (Spanish) Audio CD CD, March 1, by Jose Marti (Author), Jorge Pupo (Narrator) 4.5 out of 5 stars 45 ratings See all formats and editions Los zapaticos de rosa by Jos Mart

Los zapaticos de rosa Audiolibros Literatura A continuacin Los Zapaticos de Rosa. Los Zapaticos de Rosa Theatrical Performance Roles de gnero en Los zapaticos de rosa de Jos Mart Autores Susana Carralero RodrguezEglys Martn Astorga Localizacin Espculo Revista de Estudios LiterariosISSN-e 1139-3637, N. Los zapaticos de Rosa by Jos Mart Click to read more about Los zapaticos de Rosa by Jos Mart. Analizar el contenido de los dos poemas con guas de tareas. No otra cosa puede decirse de Los zapaticos de rosa, iluminado por esas dos verdaderas joyas que lo escoltan El. El Tema de nuestro modesto trabajo, es el estudio literario de la obra los Zapaticos de Rosa de Jos Mart, que nace a mediados del siglo XIX donde el romanticismo, el realismo y las ideas clsicas de la poca llegaban desde Europa a Amrica Latina marcando walmart eye exam near me vida de los jvenes intelectuales. Los zapaticos de rosa o los zapaticos me aprietan lo que

Los zapaticos de Rosa by Jose Marti I recommend this new book with his poem Los Zapaticos de Rosa. Los Zapaticos de Rosa (Spanish Edition) Marti, Jose, Pupo La reaccin de los cubanos ante el poema de Mart Los zapaticos de rosa. LibriVox recording of La Edad de Oro by Jose Marti. La Edad de Oro Jose Marti Free Download, Borrow, and En La barranca de todos II. Josss Mart-Tomado de La Edad de Oro y dice una mariposa que la vi en el bote zarpar Ahora si podra comprar Los zapaticos de rosas En este poema Mart hace hincapi en los sentimientos humanos y en los valores universales que deben regir la conducta humana.

'Los Zapaticos de Rosa' de Jos Mart Our Stores Are Open Book Annex Membership Educators Gift Cards Stores & Events Help All Books ebooks NOOK Textbooks Newsstand Teens Kids Toys Games & Collectibles Gift, Home & Office Movies & TV Music Book Annex ENVO GRATIS en 1 da desde 19. Entregan Premio Los zapaticos de rosa Los Zapaticos de rosa (The Little Pink Shoes) is a poem by the Cuban writer Jos Mart.

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For other people named José Martí, see José Martí (disambiguation).

This name uses Spanish naming customs; the first or paternal family name is Martí and the second or maternal family name is Pérez.

José Martí
BornJosé Julián Martí Pérez
January 28, 1853
La Habana, Captaincy General of Cuba, Spanish Empire
Died May 19, 1895(1895-05-19) (aged 42)
Dos Ríos, Captaincy General of Cuba, Spanish Empire
Nationality Spaniard
Occupation Poet, writer, philosoper, nationalist leader
Political movementModernismo
Spouse(s) Carmen Zayas Bazan
Children José Francisco "Pepito" Martí
Relatives Mariano Martí Navarro and Leonor Pérez Cabrera (Parents), 7 sisters (Leonor, Mariana, María de Carmen, María de Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores)

José Julián Martí Pérez (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse maɾˈti]; January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban poet, philosopher, essayist, journalist, translator, professor, and publisher, who is considered a Cuban national hero because of his role in the liberation of his country, and he was an important figure in Latin American literature. He was very politically active, and is considered an important revolutionary philosopher and political theorist.[1][2] Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol of Cuba's bid for independence from Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence."[3] From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba, and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans; his death was used as a cry for Cuban independence from Spain by both the Cuban revolutionaries and those Cubans previously reluctant to start a revolt.

Born in Havana, Martí began his political activism at an early age. He traveled extensively in Spain, Latin America, and the United States, raising awareness and support for the cause of Cuban independence. His unification of the Cuban émigré community, particularly in Florida, was crucial to the success of the Cuban War of Independence against Spain. He was a key figure in the planning and execution of this war, as well as the designer solana the Cuban Revolutionary Party and its ideology. He died in military action during the Battle of Dos Ríos on May 19, 1895.

Martí is considered one of the great turn-of-the-century Latin American intellectuals. His written works include a series of poems, essays, letters, lectures, novel, and a children's magazine. He wrote for numerous Latin American and American newspapers; he also founded a number of newspapers. His newspaper Patria was an important instrument in his campaign for Cuban independence. After his death, one of his poems from the book, Versos Sencillos (Simple Verses) was adapted to the song "Guantanamera", which has become the definitive patriotic song of Cuba.

The concepts of freedom, liberty, and democracy are prominent themes in all of his works, which were influential on the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío and the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral.[4]

Following the 1959 Cuban Revolution, Marti's ideology became a major driving force in Cuban politics.[5] He is also regarded as Cuba's "martyr" and "patron saint."[6]

Life[]

Early life, Cuba: 1853–70[]

José Julián Martí Pérez was born on January 28, 1853, in Havana, at 41 Paula Street, to Spanish parents, a Valencian father, Mariano Martí Navarro, and Leonor Pérez Cabrera, a native of the Canary Islands. Martí was the elder brother to seven sisters: Leonor, Mariana, Maria de Carmen, Maria de Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores. He was baptized on February 12 in Santo Ángel Custodio church. When he was four, his family moved from Cuba to Valencia, Spain, but two years later they returned to the island where they enrolled José at a local public school, in the Santa Clara neighborhood where his father worked as a prison guard.[7]

In 1865, he enrolled in the Escuela de Instrucción Primaria Superior Municipal de Varones that was headed by Rafael María de Mendive. Mendive was influential in the development of Martí's political philosophies. Also instrumental in his development of a social and political conscience was his best friend Fermín Valdés Domínguez, the son of a wealthy slave-owning family.[8] In April the same year, after hearing the news of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Martí and other young students expressed their pain—through group mourning—for the death of a man who had decreed the abolition of slavery in the United States. In 1866, Martí entered the Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza where Mendive financed his studies.[7]

Martí signed up at the Escuela Profesional de Pintura y Escultura de La Habana (Professional School for Painting and Sculpture of Havana) in September 1867, known as San Alejandro, to take drawing classes. He hoped to flourish in this area but did not find commercial success. In 1867, he also entered the school of San Pablo, established and managed by Mendive, where he enrolled for the second and third years of his bachelor's degree and assisted Mendive with the school's administrative tasks. In April 1868, his poem dedicated to Mendive's wife, A Micaela. En la Muerte de Miguel Ángel appeared in Guanabacoa's newspaper El Álbum.[9]

When the Ten Years' War broke out in Cuba in 1868, clubs of supporters for the Cuban nationalist cause formed all over Cuba, and José and his friend Fermín joined them. Martí had a precocious desire for the independence and freedom of Cuba. He started writing poems about this vision, while, at the same time, trying to do something to achieve this dream. In 1869, he published his first political writings in the only edition of the newspaper El Diablo Cojuelo, published by Fermín Valdés Domínguez. That same year he published "Abdala", a patriotic drama in verse form in the one-volume La Patria Libre newspaper, which he published himself. "Abdala" is about a fictional country called Nubia which struggles for liberation.[10] His sonnet "10 de Octubre", later to become one of his most famous poems, was also written during that year, and was published later in his school newspaper.[9]

In March of that year, colonial authorities shut down the school, interrupting Martí's studies. He came to resent Spanish rule of his homeland at an early age; likewise, he developed a hatred of slavery, which was still practiced in Cuba.[11]

On October 21, 1869, aged 16, he was arrested and incarcerated in the national jail, following an accusation of treason and bribery from the Spanish government upon the discovery of a "reproving" letter, which Martí and Fermín had written to a friend when the friend joined the Spanish army.[12] More than four months later, Martí confessed to the charges and was condemned to six years in prison. His mother tried to free her son (who at 16 was still a minor) by writing letters to the government, and his father went to a lawyer friend for legal support, but these efforts failed. Eventually, Martí fell ill; his legs were severely lacerated by the chains that bound him. As a result, he was transferred to another part of Cuba known as Isla de Pinos instead of further imprisonment. Following that, the Spanish authorities decided to exile him to Spain.[9] In Spain, Martí, who was 18 at the time, was allowed to continue his studies with the hopes that studying in Spain would renew his loyalty to Spain.[13]

Spain: 1871–74[]

In January 1871, Martí embarked on the steam ship Guipuzcoa, which took him from Havana to Cádiz. He settled in Madrid in a guesthouse in Desengaño St. #10. Arriving at the capital he contacted fellow Cuban Carlos Sauvalle, who had been deported to Spain a year before Martí and whose house served as a center of reunions for Cubans in exile. On March 24, Cádiz's newspaper La Soberania Nacional, published Martí's article "Castillo" in which he recalled the sufferings of a friend he met in prison. This article would be reprinted in Sevilla's La Cuestión Cubana and New York's La República. At this time, Martí registered himself as a member of independent studies in the law faculty of the Central University of Madrid.[14] While studying here, Martí openly participated in discourse on the Cuban issue, debating through the Spanish press and circulating documents protesting Spanish activities in Cuba.

Martí's maltreatment at the hands of the Spaniards and consequent deportation to Spain in 1871 inspired a tract, Political Imprisonment in Cuba, published in July. This pamphlet's purpose was to move the Spanish public to do something about its government's brutalities in Cuba and promoted the issue of Cuban independence.[15] In September, from the pages of El Jurado Federal, Martí and Sauvalle accused the newspaper La Prensa of having calumniated the Cuban residents in Madrid. During his does ally bank offer debit cards in Madrid, Martí frequented the Ateneo and the National Library, the Café de los Artistas, and the British, Swiss and Iberian breweries. In November he became sick and had an operation, paid for by Sauvalle.[14]

On November 27, 1871, eight medical students, who had been accused (without evidence) of the desecration of a Spanish grave, were executed in Havana.[14] In June 1872, Fermín Valdés was arrested because of the November 27 incident. His sentence of six years of jail was pardoned, and he was exiled to Spain where he reunited with Martí. On November 27, 1872, the printed matter Dia 27 de Noviembre de 1871 (27 November 1871) written by Martí and signed by Fermín Valdés Domínguez and Pedro J. de la Torre circulated Madrid. A group of Cubans held a funeral in the Caballero de Gracia church, the first anniversary of the medical students' execution.[16]

In 1873, Martí's "A mis Hermanos Muertos el 27 de Noviembre" was published by Fermín Valdés. In February, for the first time, the Cuban flag appeared in Madrid, hanging from Martí's balcony in Concepción Jerónima, where he lived for a few years. In the same month, the Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic by the Cortes on February 11, 1873 reaffirmed Cuba as inseparable to Spain, Martí responded with an essay, The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution, and sent it to the Prime Minister, pointing out that this new freely elected body of deputies that had proclaimed a republic based on democracy had been hypocritical not to grant Cuba its independence.[17] He sent examples of his work to Nestor Ponce de Leon, a member of the Junta Central Revolucionaria de Nueva York (Central revolutionary committee of New York), to whom he would express his will to collaborate on the fight for the independence of Cuba.[16]

In May, he moved to Zaragoza, accompanied by Fermín Valdés to continue his studies in law at the Universidad Literaria. The newspaper La Cuestión Cubana of Sevilla, published numerous articles from Martí.[16]

In June 1874, Martí graduated with a degree in Civil Law and Canon Law. In August he signed up as an external student at the Facultad de Filosofia y Letras de Zaragoza, where he finished his degree by October. In November he returned to Madrid and then left to Paris. There he met Auguste Vacquerie, a poet, and Victor Hugo. In December 1874 he embarked from Le Havre for Mexico.[18] Prevented from returning to Cuba, Martí went instead to Mexico and Guatemala. During these travels, he taught and wrote, advocating continuously for Cuba's independence.[19]

México and Guatemala: 1875–78[]

See also: María García Granados y Saborío

In 1875, Martí lived on Calle Moneda in Mexico City near the Zócalo, a prestigious address of the time. One floor above him lived Manuel Antonio Mercado, Secretary of the Distrito Federal, who became one of Martí's best friends. On March 2, 1875, he published his first article for Vicente Villada's Revista Universal, a broadsheet discussing politics, literature, and general business commerce. On March 12, his Spanish translation of Hugo's Mes Fils (1874) began serialization in Revista Universal. Martí then joined the editorial staff, editing the Boletín section of the publication.

In these writings, he expressed his opinions about current events in Mexico. On May 27, in the newspaper Revista Universal, he responded to the anti-Cuban-independence arguments in La Colonia Española, a newspaper for Spanish citizens living in Mexico. In December, Sociedad Gorostiza (Gorostiza Society), a group of writers and artists, accepted Martí as a member, where he met his future wife, Carmen Zayas Bazán, during his frequent visits to her Cuban father's house to meet with the Gorostiza group.[20]

On January 1, 1876, in Oaxaca, elements opposed to Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada's government, led by Gen. Porfirio Díaz, proclaimed the Plan de Tuxtepec, which instigated a bloody civil war. Martí and Mexican colleagues established the Sociedad Alarcón, composed of dramatists, actors, and critics. At this point, Martí began collaborating with the newspaper El Socialista as leader of the Gran Círculo Obrero (Great Labor Circle) organization of liberals and reformists who supported Lerdo de Tejada. In March, the newspaper proposed a series of candidates as delegates, including Martí, to the first Congreso Obrero, or congress of the workers. On June 4, La Sociedad Esperanza de Empleados (Employees' Hope Society) designated Martí as delegate to the Congreso Obrero. On December 7, Martí published his article Alea Jacta Est in the newspaper El Federalista, bitterly criticizing the Porfiristas' armed assault upon the constitutional government in place. On December 16, he published the article "Extranjero" (foreigner; abroad), in which he repeated his denunciation of the Porfiristas and bade farewell to Mexico.[20]

In 1877, using his second name and second surname[21] Julián Pérez as pseudonym, Martí embarked for Havana, hoping to arrange to move his family away to Mexico City from Havana. He returned to Mexico, however, entering at the port of Progreso from which, via Isla de Mujeres and Belize, he travelled south to progressive Guatemala City. He took residence in the prosperous suburb of Ciudad Vieja, home of Guatemala's artists and Intelligentsia of the day, on Cuarta Avenida (Fourth Avenue), 3 km south of Guatemala City. While there, he was commissioned by the government to write the play Patria y Libertad (Drama Indio) (Country and Liberty (an Indian Great western trailer sales salt lake city. He met personally the president, Justo Rufino Barrios, about this project. On April 22, the newspaper El La edad de oro jose marti libro published his article "Los códigos Nuevos" (The New Laws) pertaining to the then newly enacted Civil Code. On May 29, he was appointed head of the Department of French, English, Italian and German Literature, History and Philosophy, on the faculty of philosophy and arts of the Universidad Nacional. On July 25, he lectured for the opening evening of the literary society 'Sociedad Literaria El Porvenir', at the Teatro Colón (the since-renamed Teatro Nacional[22]), at which function he was appointed vice-president of the Society, and acquiring the moniker "el doctor torrente," or Doctor Torrent, in view of his rhetorical style. Martí taught composition classes free at the academia de niñas de centroamérica girls' academy, among whose students he enthralled young María García Granados y Saborío, daughter of Guatemalan president Miguel García Granados. The schoolgirl's crush was unrequited, however, as he went again to México, where he met Carmen Zayas Bazán and whom he later married.[23]

In 1878, Martí returned to Guatemala and published his book Guatemala, edited in Mexico. On May 10, socialite María García Granados died of lung disease; her unrequited love for Martí branded her, poignantly, as 'la niña de Guatemala, la que se murió de amor' (the Guatemalan girl who died of love). Following her death, Martí returned to Cuba. There, he resigned signing the Pact of Zanjón which ended the Cuban Ten Years' War, but had no effect on Cuba's status as a colony. He met Afro-Cuban revolutionary Juan Gualberto Gómez, who would be his lifelong partner in the independence struggle and a stalwart defender of his legacy during this same journey. He married Carmen Zayas Bazán on Havana's Calle Tulipán Street at this time. In October, his application to practice law in Cuba was refused, and thereafter he immersed himself in radical efforts, such as for the Comité Revolucionario Cubano de Nueva York (Cuban Revolutionary Committee of New York). On November 22, 1878 his son José Francisco, known fondly as "Pepito", was born.[24]

United States and Venezuela: 1880–90[]

In 1881, after a brief stay in New York, Martí travelled to Venezuela and founded in Caracas the Revista Venezolana, or Venezuelan Review. The journal incurred the wrath of Venezuela's dictator, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, and Martí was forced to return to New York.[25] There, Martí joined General Calixto García's Cuban revolutionary committee, composed of Cuban exiles advocating independence. Here Martí openly supported Cuba's struggle for liberation, and worked as a journalist for La Nación of Buenos Aires and for several Central American journals,[19] especially La Opinion Liberal in Mexico City.[26] The article "El ajusticiamiento de La edad de oro jose marti libro an account of President Garfield's murderer's trial, was published in La Opinion Liberal in 1881, and later selected for inclusion in The Library of America's anthology of American True Crime writing. In addition, Martí wrote poems and translated novels to Spanish. He worked for Appleton and Company and, "on his own, translated and published Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona. His repertory of original work included plays, a novel, poetry, a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro, and a newspaper, Patria, which became the official organ of the Cuban Revolutionary party".[27] He also served as a consul for Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay. Throughout this work, he preached the "freedom of Cuba with an enthusiasm that swelled the ranks of those eager to strive with him for it".[19]

Tension existed within the Cuban revolutionary committee between Martí and his military compatriots. Martí feared a military dictatorship would be established in Cuba upon independence, and suspected Dominican-born General Máximo Gómez of having these intentions.[28] Martí knew that the independence of Cuba needed time and careful planning. Ultimately, Martí refused to cooperate with Máximo Gómez and Antonio Maceo Grajales, two Cuban military leaders from the Ten Years' War, when they wanted to invade immediately in 1884. Martí knew that it was too early to attempt to win back Cuba, and later events proved him right.[19]

United States, Central America and the West Indies: 1891–94[]

On January 1, 1891, Martí's essay "Nuestra America" was published in New York's Revista Ilustrada, and on the 30th of that month in Mexico's El Partido Liberal. He actively participated in the Conferencia Monetaria Internacional (The International Monetary Conference) in New York during that time as well. On June 30 his wife and son arrived in New York. After a short time, in which Carmen Zayas Bazán realized that Martí's dedication to Cuban independence surpassed that of supporting his family, she returned to Havana with her son on August 27. Martí would never see them again. The fact that his wife never shared the convictions central to his life was an enormous personal tragedy for Martí.[29] He turned for solace to Carmen Miyares de Mantilla, a Venezuelan who ran a boarding house in New York, and he is presumed to be the father of her daughter María Mantilla, who was in turn the mother of the actor Cesar Romero, who proudly claimed to be Martí's grandson. In September Martí became sick again. He intervened in the commemorative acts of The Independents, causing the Spanish consul in New York to complain to the Argentine and Uruguayan governments. Consequently, Martí resigned from the Argentinean, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan consulates. In October he published his book Versos Sencillos.

On November 26 he was invited by the Club Ignacio Agramonte, an organization founded by Cuban immigrants in Ybor City, Tampa, Florida, to a celebration to collect funding for the cause of Cuban independence. There he gave a lecture known as "Con Todos, y para el Bien de Todos", which was reprinted in Spanish language newspapers and periodicals across the United States. The following night, another lecture, " Los Pinos Nuevos", was given by Martí in another Tampa gathering in honor of the medical students killed in Cuba in 1871. In November artist Herman Norman painted a portrait of José Martí.[30]

On January 5, 1892, Martí participated in a reunion of the emigration representatives, in Cayo Hueso (Key West), the Cuban community where the Bases del Partido Revolucionario (Basis of the Cuban Revolutionary Party) was passed. He began the process of organizing the newly formed party. To raise support and collect funding for the independence movement, he visited tobacco factories, where he gave speeches to the workers and united them in the cause. In March 1892 the first edition of the Patria newspaper, related to the Cuban Revolutionary Party, was published, funded and directed by Martí. During Martí's Key West years, his secretary was Dolores Castellanos (1870-1948), a Cuban-American woman edmond oklahoma directions in Key West, who also served as president of the Protectoras de la Patria: Club Político de Cubanas, a Cuban women's political club in support of Martí's cause, and for whom Martí wrote a poem titled "A Dolores Castellanos." On April 8, he was chosen delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party by the Cayo Hueso Club in Tampa and New York. From July to September 1892 he traveled through Florida, Washington, Philadelphia, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica on an organization mission among the exiled Cubans. On this mission, Martí made numerous speeches and visited various tobacco factories. On December 16 he was poisoned in Tampa.[31]

In 1893, Martí traveled through the United States, Central America and the West Indies, visiting different Cuban clubs. His visits were received with a growing enthusiasm and raised badly needed funds for the revolutionary cause. On May 24 he met Rubén Darío, the Nicaraguan poet in a theatre act in Hardman Hall, New York City. On June 3 he had an interview with Máximo Gómez in Montecristi, Dominican Republic, where they planned the uprising. In July he met with General Antonio Maceo Grajales in San Jose, Costa Rica.[31]

In 1894 he continued traveling for propagation and organizing the revolutionary movement. On January 27 he published "A Cuba!" in the newspaper Patria where he denounced collusion between the Spanish and American interests. In July he visited the president of the Mexican Republic, Porfirio Díaz, and travelled to Veracruz. In August he prepared and arranged the armed expedition that would begin the Cuban revolution.[32]

Return to Cuba: 1895[]

On January 12, 1895, the North American authorities stopped the steamship Lagonda and two other suspicious ships, Amadis, and Baracoa at the Fernandina port in Florida, confiscating weapons and ruining Plan de Fernandina (Fernandina Plan). On January 29, Martí drew up the order of the uprising, signing it with general Jose Maria Rodriguez and Enrique Collazo. Juan Gualberto Gómez was assigned to orchestrate war preparations for La Habana Province, and was able to work right under the noses of the relatively unconcerned Spanish authorities.[33] Martí decided to move to Montecristi, Dominican Republic to join Máximo Gómez and to plan out the uprising.[34]

The uprising finally took place on February 24, 1895. A month later, Martí and Máximo Gómez declared the Manifesto de Montecristi, an "exposition of the purposes and principles of the Cuban revolution".[35] Martí had persuaded Gómez to lead an expedition into Cuba.

Before leaving for Cuba, Martí wrote his "literary will" on April 1, 1895, leaving his personal papers and manuscripts to Gonzalo de Quesada, with instructions for editing. Knowing that the majority of his writing in newspapers in Honduras, Uruguay, and Chile would disappear over time, Martí instructed Quesada to arrange his papers in volumes. The volumes were to be arranged in the following way: volumes one and two, North Americas; volume three, Hispanic Americas; volume four, North American Scenes; volume five, Books about the Americas (this included both North and South America); volume six, Literature, education and painting. Another volume included his poetry.[35]

The expedition, composed of Martí, Gómez, Ángel Guerra, Francisco Borreo, Cesar Salas and Marcos del Rosario, left Montecristi for Cuba on April 1, 1895.[34] Despite delays and desertion by some members, they got to Cuba. They landed at Playitas, near Cape Maisí and Imías, Cuba, on April 11. Once there, they made contact with the Cuban rebels, who were headed by the Maceo brothers, and started fighting against Spanish troops. The revolt did not go as planned, "mainly because the call to revolution received no immediate, spontaneous support from the masses."[36] By May 13, the expedition reached Dos Rios. On May 19, Gomez faced Ximenez de Sandoval's troops and ordered Martí to stay rearguard, but Martí separated from the bulk of the Cuban forces, and entered the Spanish line.[34]

Death[]

José Martí was killed in battle against Spanish troops at the Battle of Dos Ríos, near the confluence of the rivers Contramaestre and Fraud department for bank of america, on May 19, 1895. Gómez had recognized that the Spaniards had a strong position between palm trees, so he ordered his men to disengage. Martí was alone and seeing a young courier ride by he said: "Joven, a la carga!" meaning: "Young man, charge!" This was around midday, and he was dressed in a black jacket while riding a white horse, which made him an easy target for the Spanish. After Martí was shot, the young trooper, Angel de la Guardia, lost his horse and returned to report the loss. The Spanish took possession of the body, buried it close by, then exhumed the body upon realization of its identity. He is buried in Santa Ifigenia Cemetery in Santiago de Cuba. Many have argued that Maceo and others had always spurned Martí for never participating in combat, which may have compelled Martí to that ill-fated suicidal two-man charge. Some of his Versos Sencillos had a premonitory quality: "No me entierren en lo oscuro/ A morir como un traidor/ Yo soy bueno y como bueno/ Moriré de cara al sol." ("Do not bury me in darkness / to die like a traitor / I am good, and as a good man / I will die facing the sun.")

The death of Martí was a blow to the "aspirations of the Cuban rebels, inside and outside of the island, but the fighting continued with alternating successes and failures until the entry of the United States into the war in 1898".[37]

Political ideology[]

Marti wrote extensively about Spanish colonial control and the threat of US expansionism into Cuba. To him, it was unnatural that Cuba was controlled and oppressed by the Spanish government, when it had its own unique identity and culture. In his pamphlet from February 11, 1873, called "The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution", he argued that "Cubans do not live as Spaniards live. They are nourished by a different system of trade, have links with different countries, and express their happiness through quite contrary customs. There are no common aspirations or identical goals linking the two peoples, or beloved memories to unite them . Peoples are only united by ties of fraternity and love.".[38]

Martí opposed slavery and criticized Spain for failing to abolish it. In a speech to Cuban immigrants in Steck Hall, New York, on January 24, 1879, he stated that the war against Spain needed to be fought, recalled the heroism and suffering of the Ten Years' War, which, he declared, had qualified Cuba as a real nation with a right to independence. Spain had not ratified the conditions of the peace treaty, had falsified elections, continued excessive taxation, and had failed to abolish slavery. Cuba needed to be free.[39]

Martí proposed in a letter to Máximo Gómez in 1882 the formation of a revolutionary party, which he considered essential in the prevention of Cuba falling back on the Home Rule Party (Partido Autonomista) after the Pact of Zanjón.[40] The Home Rule Party was a peace-seeking party that would stop short of the outright independence that Martí thought Cuba needed. But he was aware that there were social divisions in Cuba, especially racial divisions, that needed to be addressed as well.[41] He thought war was necessary to achieve Cuba's freedom, despite his basic ideology of conciliation, respect, dignity, and balance. The establishment of the patria (fatherland) with a good government would unite Cubans of all social classes and colours in harmony.[42] Together with other Cubans resident in New York, Martí started laying the grounds for the Revolutionary Party, stressing the need for a democratic organization as the basic structure before any military leaders were to join. The military would have to subordinate themselves to the interests of the fatherland. Gómez later rejoined Martí's plans, promising to comply.

Martí's consolidation of support among the Cuban expatriates, especially in Florida, was key in the planning and execution of the invasion of Cuba. His speeches to Cuban tobacco workers in Tampa and Key West motivated and united them; this is considered the most important political achievement of his life.[43] At this point he refined his ideological platform, basing it on a Cuba held together by pride in being Cuban, a society that ensured "the welfare and prosperity of all Cubans"[44] independently of class, occupation or race. Faith in the cause could not die, and the military would not try for domination. All pro-independence Cubans would participate, with no sector predominating. From this he established the Cuban Revolutionary Party in early 1892.

Martí and the CRP were devoted to secretly organizing the anti-Spanish war. Martí's newspaper, Patria, was a key instrument of this campaign, where Martí delineated his final plans for Cuba. Through this medium he argued against the exploitative colonialism of Spain in Cuba, play store gift card free the Home Rule (Autonomista) Party for having aims that fell considerably short of full independence, and warned against U.S. annexationism which he felt could only be prevented by Cuba's successful independence.[45] Banks in northern kentucky specified his plans for the future Cuban Republic, a multi-class and multi-racial democratic republic based on universal suffrage, with an egalitarian economic base to develop fully Cuba's productive resources and an equitable distribution of land among citizens, with enlightened and virtuous politicians.[46]

From Martí's 'Campaign Diaries', written during the final expedition in Cuba, it seems evident that Martí would have reached the highest position in the future Republic of Arms.[47] This was not to be; his death occurred before the Assembly of Cuba was set up. Until his very last minute, Martí dedicated his life to achieve full independence for Cuba. His uncompromising belief in democracy and freedom for his fatherland is what characterized his political ideology.

Martí and the United States[]

Martí demonstrated an anti-imperialist attitude from an early age, and was conscious of the perceived danger the United States posed for Latin America. While critiquing the United States for its stereotypes of Latin Americans and preoccupation with capitalism, Martí also related the American struggle for independence from Britain with the Cuban nationalist movement.[48] At the same time, he recognized the advantages of the European or North American civilizations, which were open to the reforms that Latin American countries needed in order to detach themselves from the colonial heritage of Spain. Martí's distrust of North American politics had developed during the 1880s, due to the intervention threats that loomed on Mexico and Guatemala, and indirectly on Cuba's future. Over time Martí became increasingly alarmed about the United States' intentions for Cuba. Chase checking account bonus without direct deposit United States desperately needed new markets for its industrial products because of the economic crisis it was experiencing, and the media was talking about the purchase of Cuba from Spain.[49] Cuba was a profitable, fertile country with an important strategic position in the Gulf of Mexico.[50] Martí felt that the interests of Cuba's future lay with its sister nations in Latin America, and were opposite to those of the United States.[51]

Another trait that Martí admired was the work ethic that characterized American society. On various occasions Martí conveyed his deep admiration for the immigrant-based society, "whose principal aspiration he interpreted as being to construct a truly modern country, based upon hard work and progressive ideas." Martí stated that he was "never surprised in any country of the world [he had] visited. Here [he] was surprised . [he] remarked that no one stood quietly on the corners, no door was shut an instant, no man was quiet. [He] stopped [him]self, [he] looked respectfully on this people, and [he] said goodbye forever to that lazy life and poetical inutility of our European countries".[52]

Martí found American society to be so great, he thought Latin America should consider imitating America. Martí argued that if the US "could reach such a high standard of living in so short a time, and despite, too, its lack of unifying traditions, could not the same be expected of National bank of central texas online America?"[52] However, Martí thought that US expansionism represented the Spanish American republics' "greatest danger". Martí was amazed at how education was directed towards helping the development of the nation and once again encouraged Latin American countries to follow the example set by North American society.[53] At the same time, he criticized the elitist educational systems of Cuba and the rest of Latin America. Often, Martí recommended countries in Latin America to "send representatives to learn more relevant techniques in the United States". Once this was done, Martí hoped that this representatives would bring a "much-needed modernization to the Latin American agricultural policies".[54]

However, not everything was to be admired by Martí. When it came to politics Martí wrote that politics in the US had "adopted a carnival atmosphere . especially during election time".[55] He saw acts of corruption among candidates, such as bribing "the constituents with vast quantities of beer, while impressive parades wound their way through New York's crowded streets, past masses of billboards, all exhorting the public to vote for the different political candidates".[55] Martí criticized and condemned the elites of the United States as they "pulled the main political strings behind the scenes". According to Martí, the elites "deserved severe censure" as they were the biggest threat to the "ideals with which the United States was first conceived".[55]

Martí started to believe that the US had abused its potential. Racism was abundant. Different races were being discriminated against; political life "was both cynically regarded by the public at large and widely abused by 'professional politicians'; industrial magnates and powerful labor groups faced each other menacingly". All of this convinced Martí that a large-scale social conflict was imminent in the United States.[56]

On the positive side, Martí was astonished by the "inviolable right of freedom of speech which all U.S. citizens possessed". Marti applauded the United States' Constitution which allowed freedom of speech to all its citizens, no matter what political beliefs they had. In May 1883, while attending political meetings la edad de oro jose marti libro heard "the call for revolution – and more specifically the destruction of the capitalist system". Marti could not believe that revolution was advocated and was amazed that this could happen because this "could have led to its own destruction". Marti also gave his support to the women's suffrage movements, and was "pleased that women here [took] advantage of this privilege in order to make their voices heard". According to Marti, free speech was essential if any nation was la edad de oro jose marti libro be civilized and he expressed his "profund admiration for these many basic liberties and opportunities open to the vast majority of American citizens".[57]

The works of Marti contain many comparisons between the ways of life of North and Latin America. The former was seen as "hardy, 'soulless', and, at times, cruel society, but one which, nevertheless, had been based upon a firm foundation of liberty and on a tradition of liberty".[57] Although North American society had its flaws, they tended to be "of minor importance when compared to the broad sweep of social inequality, and to the widespread abuse of power prevalent in Latin America".[57]

Once it became apparent that the United States were actually going to purchase Cuba and intended to Americanize it, Marti "spoke out loudly and bravely against such action, stating the opinion of many Cubans on the United States of America."[58]

Invention of a Latin American identity[]

José Martí as a liberator believed that the Latin American countries needed to know the reality of their own history. Martí also saw the necessity of a country having its own literature. These reflections started in Mexico from 1875 and are connected to the Mexican Reform, where prominent people like Ignacio Manuel Altamirano and Guillermo Prieto had 1st person point of view in literature themselves in front of a cultural renovation in Mexico, taking on the same approach as Esteban Echeverría thirty years before in Argentina. In the second "Boletin" that Martí published in the Revista Universal (May 11, 1875) one can already see Martí's approach, which was fundamentally Latin American. His wish to build a national or Latin American identity was nothing new or unusual in those days; however, no Latin-American intellectual of that time had approached as clearly as Martí the task of building a national identity. He insisted on the necessity of building institutions and laws that matched the natural elements of each country, and recalled the failure of the applications of French and American civil codes in the new Latin American republics. Martí believed that "el hombre del sur", the man of the South, should choose an appropriate development strategy matching his character, the peculiarity of his culture and history, and the nature that determined his being.[59]

Influence in Revolutionary Cuba[]

Despite the history of post-1959 Cuba's affiliation as a Communist state, it has been acknowledged that it is in fact Marti's ideology which serves as the main driving force of the ruling Cuban Communist Party.[5][60] Regarded as Cuba's "martyr" and "patron saint,"[6] several landmarks in Cuba are dedicated to Marti.[5][6] Following his death in 2016, former Cuban leader Fidel Castro, who played a major role in promoting Marti's image in Revolutionary Cuba,[61] was buried next to Marti in Santiago.[62][63]

Writings[]

Martí as a writer covered a range of genres. In addition to producing newspaper articles and keeping up an extensive correspondence (his letters are included in the collection of his complete works), he wrote a serialized novel, composed poetry, wrote essays and published four issues of a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro[64](The Golden Age, 1889). His essays and articles occupy more than fifty volumes of his complete works. His prose was extensively read and influenced the modernist generation, especially the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío, whom Martí called "my son" when they met in New York in 1893.[65]

Martí did not publish any books: only two notebooks (cuadernos) of verses, in editions outside of the market, and a number of political tracts. The rest (an enormous amount) was left dispersed in numerous newspapers and magazines, in letters, in diaries and personal notes, in other unedited texts, in frequently improvised speeches, and some lost forever. Five years after his death, the first volume of his Obras was published. A novel appeared in this collection in 1911: Amistad funesta, which Martí had made known was published under a pseudonym in 1885. In 1913, also in this edition, his third poetic collection that he had kept unedited: Versos Libres. His Diario de Campaña (Campaign Diary) was published in 1941. Later still, in 1980, Nicaraguan poet Ernesto Mejía Sánchez produced a set of about thirty of Martí's articles written for the Mexican newspaper El Partido Liberal that weren't included in any of his so-called Obras Completas editions. From 1882 to 1891, Martí collaborated chase bank call center salary La Nación , a Buenos Aires newspaper. His texts from La Nación have been collected in Anuario del centro de Estudios Martianos.

Over the course of his journalistic career, he wrote for numerous newspapers, starting with El Check n go on 7 mile and gratiot Cojuelo (The Limping Devil) and La Patria Libre (The Free Fatherland), both of which he helped to found in 1869 in Cuba and which established the extent of his political commitment and vision for Cuba. In Spain he wrote for La Colonia Española,in Mexico for La Revista Universal, and in Venezuela for Revista Venezolana, which he founded. In New York he contributed to Venezuelan periodical La Opinión Nacional, Buenos Aires newspaper La Nación, Mexico's La Opinion Liberal, and America's The Hour.[66]

The first critical edition of Martí's complete works began to appear in 1983 in José Martí: Obras completas. Edición crítica. The critical edition of his complete poems was published in 1985 in José Martí: Poesía completa. Edición critica.

Volume two of his Obras Completas includes his famous essay 'Nuestra America' which "comprises a variety of subjects relating to Spanish America about which Marti studied and wrote. Here it is noted that after Cuba his interest was directed mostly to Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela. The various sections of this part are about general matters and international conferences; economic, social and political questions; literature and art; agrarian and industrial problems; immigration; education; relations with the United States and Spanish America; travel notes".[67]

According to Marti, the intention behind the publication of "La edad de oro" was "so that American children may know how people used to live, and how they live nowadays, in America and in other countries; how many things are made, such as glass and iron, steam engines and suspension bridges and electric light; so that when a child sees a coloured stone he will know why the stone is coloured. . We shall tell them about everything which is done in factories, where things happen which are stranger and more interesting than the magic in fairy stories. These things are real magic, more marvelous than any. . We write for children because it is they who know how to love, because it is children who are the hope for the world".[68]

Marti's "Versos Sencillos" was written "in the town of Haines Falls, New York, where his doctor has is pnc closing branches [him] to regain his strength 'where streams flowed and clouds gathered in upon themeselves'".[69] The poetry encountered in this work is "in many [ways] autobiographical and allows readers to see Marti the man and the patriot and to judge what was important to him at a crucial time in Cuban history".[69]

Martí's writings reflected his own views both socially and politically. "Cultivo Una Rosa Blanca" is one of his poems that emphasize his views in hopes of betterment for society:

I cultivate a white rose
In July as in January
For the sincere friend
Who gives me his hand frankly
And for the cruel person who tears
out the heart with which I live,
I cultivate neither nettles nor thorns:
I cultivate a white rose[70]

This poem is a clear description of Martí's societal hopes for his homeland. Within the poem, he talks about how regardless of the person, whether kind or cruel he cultivates a white rose, meaning that he remains peaceful. This coincides with his ideology about establishing unity amongst the people, more so those of Cuba, through a common identity, with no regards to ethnic and racial differences.[71] This doctrine could be accomplished if one treated his enemy with peace as he would treat a friend. The kindness of one person should be shared with all people, regardless of personal conflict. By following the moral that lies within "Cultivo Rosa Blanca", Martí's vision of Cuban solidarity could be possible, creating a more peaceful society that would emanate through future generations.

After his breakthrough in Cuba literature, José Martí went on to contribute his works to newspapers, magazines, and books that reflected his political and social views. Because of his early death, Martí was unable to publish a vast collection of poetry; even so, his literary contributions have made him a renowned figure in literature, influencing many writers, and people in general, to aspire to follow in the footsteps of Martí.

Style[]

Martí's style of writing is difficult to categorize. He used many aphorisms—short, memorable lines that convey truth and/or wisdom—and long complex sentences. He is considered a major contributor to the Spanish American literary movement known as Modernismo and has been linked to Latin American consciousness of the modern age and modernity.[72] His chronicles combined elements of literary portraiture, dramatic narration, and a dioramic scope. His poetry contained "fresh and astonishing images along with deceptively simple sentiments".[73] As an orator (for he made many speeches) he was known for his cascading structure, powerful aphorisms, and detailed descriptions. More important than his style is how he uses that style to put into service his ideas, making "advanced" convincing notions. Throughout his writing he made reference to historical figures and events, and used constant allusions to literature, current news and cultural matters. For this reason, he may be difficult to read and translate.[74]

His didactic spirit encouraged him to establish a magazine for children, La Edad de Oro (1889) which contained a short essay titled "Tres Heroes" (three heroes), representative of his talent to adapt his expression to his audience; in this case, to make the young reader conscious of and amazed by the extraordinary bravery of the three men, Bolivar, Hidalgo, and San Martín. This is his style to teach delightfully.[75]

Translation[]

José Martí is universally honored as a great poet, patriot and martyr of Cuban Independence, but he was also a translator of some note. Although he translated literary material for the sheer joy of it, much of the translating he did was imposed on him by economic necessity during his many years of exile in the United States. Martí learned English at an early age, and had begun to translate at thirteen. He continued translating for the rest of his life, including his time as a student in Spain, although the period of his greatest productivity was during his stay in New York from 1880 until he returned to Cuba in 1895.[76]

In New York he was what we would call today a "freelancer" as well as homes for sale in knoxville tn "in house" translator. He translated several books for the publishing house of D. Appleton, and did a series of translations for newspapers. As a revolutionary activist in Cuba's long struggle for independence he translated into English a number of articles and pamphlets supporting that movement.[77] In addition to fluent English, Martí also spoke French, Italian, Latin and Classical Greek fluently, the latter learned so he could read the Greek classical works in the original.[78]

There was clearly a dichotomy in Martí's feeling about the kind of work he was translating. Like many professionals, he undertook for money translation tasks which had little intellectual or emotional appeal for him. Although Martí never presented a systematic theory of translation nor did he write extensively about his approach to translation, he did jot down occasional thoughts on the subject, showcasing his awareness of the translator's dilemma of the faithful versus the beautiful and stating that "translation should be natural, so that it appears that the book were written in the language to which it has been translated".[79]

Modernism[]

The modernists, in general, use a subjective language. Martí's stylistic creed is part of the necessity to de-codify the logic rigor and the linguistic construction and to eliminate the intellectual, abstract and systematic expression. There is the deliberate intention and awareness to expand the expressive system of the language. The style changes the form of thinking. Without falling into unilateralism, Martí values the expression because language is an impression and a feeling through the form. Modernism mostly searches for the visions and realities, the expression takes in the impressions, the state of mind, without reflection and without concept. This is the law of subjectivity. We can see this in works of Martí, one of the first modernists, who conceives the literary task like an invisible unity, an expressive totality, considering the style like "a form of the content" (forma del contenido).[80]

The difference that Martí established between prose and poetry are conceptual. Poetry, as he believes, is a language of the permanent subjective: the intuition and the vision. The prose is an instrument and a method of spreading the ideas, and has the goal of elevating, encouraging and animating these ideas rather than having the expression of tearing up the heart, complaining and moaning. The prose is a service to his people.[81]

Martí produces a system of specific signs "an ideological code" (código ideológico). These symbols claim their moral value and construct signs of ethic conduct. Martí's modernism was a spiritual attitude that was reflected on the language. All his writing defines his moral world. One could also say that his ideological and spiritual sphere is fortified in his writing.[81]

The difference between Martí and other modernist initiators such as Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, Julian del Casal, and José Asunción Silva (and the similarity between him and Manuel González Prada) lies in the profound and transcendent value that he gave to literature, converting prose into an article or the work of a journalist. This hard work was important in giving literature authentic and independent value and distancing it from mere formal amusement. Manuel Gutiérez Nájera, Rubén Darío, Miguel de Unamuno and José Enrique Rodó saved the Martinian articles, which will have an endless value in the writings of the American continent.[82]

Apart from Martinian articles. essay writing and literature starts to authorize itself as an alternative and privileged way to talk about politics. Literature pnc small business account view to apply itself the only hermeneutics able to resolve the enigmas of a Latin American identity.[82]

Legacy[]

Martí's dedication to the cause of Cuban independence and his passionate belief in democracy and justice has made him a hero for all Cubans, a symbol of unity, the "Apostle",[83] a great leader. His writings have created a platform for all that he went through during the duration of this period in time.[84] His ultimate goal of building a democratic, just, and stable republic in Cuba and his obsession with the practical execution of this goal led him to become the most charismatic leader of the 1895 colonial revolution. His work with the Cuban émigré community, enlisting the support of Cuban workers and socialist leaders to form the Cuban Revolutionary Party, put into motion the Cuban war of independence.[85] His foresight into the future, shown in his warnings against American political interests for Cuba, was confirmed by the swift occupation of Cuba by the United States following the Spanish–American War. Embed instagram feed belief in the inseparability of Cuban and Latin American sovereignty and the expression thereof in his writings have contributed to the shape of the modern Latin American Identity. M fingerhut phone number his beliefs for Cuban and Latin American sovereignty, Cuba revolted on former allies.[84] This is why Cuba became an independent nation. His works are a cornerstone of Latin American and political literature and his prolific contributions to the fields of journalism, poetry, and prose are highly acclaimed.[86]

Martí's writings on the concepts of Cuban nationalism fuelled the 1895 revolution and have continued to inform conflicting visions of the Cuban nation. The Cuban nation-state under Fidel Castro consistently claimed Martí as a crucial inspiration for its Communist revolutionary government. During Castro's tenure, the politics and death of Marti were used to justify certain actions of the Cuban stimulus check update 2020 The Cuban government claimed that Marti had supported a single party system, creating a precedent for a communist government.[87] The vast amount of writing that Marti produced in his lifetime makes it difficult to determine his exact political ideology, but his major goal was the liberation of Cuba from Spain and the establishment of a democratic republican government.[88] Despite Marti never having supported communism or single party systems,[87] Cuban leaders repeatedly claimed that Marti's Partido Revolucionario Cubano was a "forerunner of the Communist Party".[87] Martí's nuanced, often ambivalent positions on the most important issues of his day[89] have led Marxist interpreters to see a class conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie as the main theme of his works, while others, namely the Cuban diasporic communities in Miami and elsewhere have identified a liberal-capitalist emphasis.[90] These Cuban exiles still honor Martí as a figure of hope for the Cuban nation in exile and condemn Castro's government for manipulating his works and creating a "Castroite Martí" to justify its "intolerance and abridgments of human rights".[91] His writings thus remain a key ideological weapon in the battle over the fate of the Cuban nation.

One further example of his legacy is that his name has been chosen for several institutions or NGOs from various countries, such as Romania, where a public school from Bucharest and the Romanian-Cuban Friendship Association from Targoviste are both named "Jose Marti".

Havana's international airport is named after Martí.

A gigantic statue of Martí was unveiled in Havana on his 123rd birth anniversary, and Cuban president Raul Castro was present at the ceremony.[92]

The National Association of Hispanic Publications, a non-profit organization to promote Hispanic publications, each year designates the José Martí Awards for excellence in Hispanic media. The awards are given for Editorial Articles, Editorial Sections, Design, Photographs, Marketing, and Best Overall Categories.[93]

List of selected works[]

Martí's fundamental works published during his life

  • 1869 January: Abdala
  • 1869 January: "10 de octubre"
  • 1871: El presidio político en Cuba
  • 1873: La República Española ante la revolución cubana
  • 1875: Amor con amor se paga
  • 1882: Ismaelillo
  • 1882 February: Ryan vs. Sullivan
  • 1882 February: Un incendio
  • 1882 July: El ajusticiamiento de Guiteau
  • 1883 January: "Batallas de la Paz"
  • 1883 March: " Que son graneros humanos"
  • 1883 March: Karl Marx ha muerto
  • 1883 March:El Puente de Brooklyn
  • 1883 September: "En Coney Island se vacía Nueva York"
  • 1883 December:" Los políticos de oficio"
  • 1883 December: "Bufalo Bil"
  • 1884 April:"Los caminadores"
  • 1884 November: Norteamericanos
  • 1884 Iowa state bank realty juego de pelota de pies
  • 1885: Amistad funesta
  • 1885 January:Teatro en Nueva York
  • 1885 '"Una gran rosa de bronce encendida"
  • 1885 March:Los fundadores de la constitución
  • 1885 June: "Somos pueblo original"
  • 1885 August: "Los políticos tiene sus púgiles"
  • 1886 May: Las revueltas anarquistas de Chicago
  • 1886 September: " La ensenanza"
  • 1886 October: "La Estatua de la Libertad"
  • 1887 April: El poeta Walt Whitman
  • 1887 April: El Madison Square
  • 1887 November: Ejecución de los dirigentes anarquistas de Chicago
  • 1887 November: La gran Nevada
  • 1888 May: El ferrocarril elevado
  • 1888 August: Verano en Nueva York
  • 1888 November: " Ojos abiertos, y gargantas secas"
  • 1888 November: "Amanece y ya es fragor"
  • 1889: 'La edad de oro'
  • 1889 May: El centenario de George Washington
  • 1889 July: Bañistas
  • 1889 August: "Nube Roja"
  • 1889 September: "La caza de negros"
  • 1890 November: " El jardín de las orquídeas"
  • 1891 October:Versos Sencillos
  • 1891 January: "Nuestra América"
  • 1894 January: " ¡A Cuba!"
  • 1895: Manifiesto de Montecristi- coauthor with Máximo Gómez

Martí's major posthumous works

See also[]

  • International José Martí Prize
  • Radio y Televisión Martí
  • José Rizal, Philippine national hero also executed by the Spanish in 1896
  • Bust of José Martí, Houston, Texas

Notes[]

  1. ↑Hudson, Michael. "Speech to the Communist Party of Cuba". http://michael-hudson.com/2000/01/speech-to-the-communist-party-of-cuba/. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  2. ↑Mace, Elisabeth. "The economic thinking of Jose Marti: Legacy foundation for the integration of America". Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. https://archive.is/20150908183320/http://www.akimoo.com/2013/the-economic-thinking-of-jose-marti-legacy-foundation-for-the-integration-of-america/. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  3. ↑"Jose Marti, apostle of Cuban Independence". http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/marti/marti.htm. 
  4. ↑Garganigo, John F. Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997. P 272
  5. 5.05.15.2https://www.peoplesworld.org/article/jose-marti-soul-of-the-cuban-revolution/
  6. 6.06.16.2https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/jose-martis-bust-on-pico-turquino
  7. 7.07.1Alborch Bataller 1995, thirty one gifts consultant login 1998, p. 26
  8. 9.09.19.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 16
  9. ↑López 2006, p. 232
  10. ↑"End of Slavery in Cuba". http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/race/EndSlave.htm. 
  11. ↑Jones 1953, p. 398
  12. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 18
  13. 14.014.114.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 23
  14. ↑Martí 1963a, p. 48
  15. 16.016.116.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 24
  16. ↑Pérez-Galdós Ortiz 1999, p. 45
  17. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 30
  18. 19.019.119.219.3Jones 1953, p. 399
  19. 20.020.1Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 46
  20. ↑It is common, and in fact legal, practice in Spanish-speaking societies to use and include the maternal surname as the "second" last name, such that both surnames are the legal and customary surname of an individual. E.g., Pérez López means that in non-Spanish societies esp. anglophone societies, Pérez is the correct surname to which to refer; otherwise, 'both' names together are the legal surname.
  21. ↑Guatemala was one of the first regions of the New World to be exposed to European music
  22. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 52
  23. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 56
  24. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 107
  25. ↑Gray 1966, p. 389
  26. ↑Gray 1966, p. 390
  27. ↑García Cisneros 1986, p. 56
  28. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 4
  29. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 159
  30. 31.031.1Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 167
  31. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 184
  32. ↑Tone 2006, p. 43
  33. 34.034.134.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 191
  34. 35.035.1Gray 1966, p. 391
  35. ↑Tone 2006, p. 48
  36. ↑Gray 1966, p. 392
  37. ↑Martí 1963b, pp. 93–94
  38. ↑Scott 1984, p. 87
  39. ↑Ramos 2001, pp. 34–35
  40. ↑Martí 1963c, p. 172
  41. ↑Martí 1963d, p. 192
  42. ↑Ronning 1990, p. 103
  43. ↑Martí 1963e, p. 270
  44. ↑Bueno 1997, p. 158
  45. ↑Abel 1986, p. 26
  46. ↑Turton 1986, p. 57
  47. ↑Giles, Paul (Spring 2004). "The Parallel Worlds of Jose Marti". pp. 185–190. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/169486/pdf. Retrieved 16 November 2017. 
  48. ↑Holden & Zolov 2000, p. 249
  49. ↑Turton 1986, p. 47
  50. ↑Holden & Solov 2000, p. 179
  51. 52.052.1Kirk 1977, p. 278
  52. ↑Kirk 1977, pp. 278–79 Martí thought that US expansionism represented the Spanish American republics' "greatest danger"
  53. ↑Kirk 1977, p. 279
  54. 55.055.155.2Kirk 1977, p. 280
  55. ↑Kirk 1977, p. 281
  56. 57.057.157.2Kirk 1977, p. 282
  57. ↑Kirk 1977, p. 284
  58. ↑Fernández 1995, p. 46[Clarification needed]
  59. ↑http://en.escambray.cu/2017/fidel-castro-loyal-follower-of-jose-marti/
  60. ↑https://www.jstor.org/stable/24485980?seq=1
  61. ↑https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-38201169
  62. ↑https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/fidel-castro-en/article117762148.html
  63. ↑Lally, Carolyn. "Foreign Language Program Articulation: Current Practice and Future Prospects." 2001. p. 54.
  64. ↑Garganigo et al., p. 272[Clarification needed]
  65. ↑Martí 1992, p. 8[Clarification needed]
  66. ↑Roscoe 1947, p. 280
  67. ↑Nassif 1994, p. 2
  68. 69.069.1Oberhelman 2001, p. 475
  69. ↑Martí, José, Manuel A.Tellechea Versos Sencillos. U of Houston: Arte Público Press, 1997
  70. ↑ Morukian, Maria. "Cubanidad: Survival of Cuban Culture Identity in the 21st Century".
  71. ↑Fernández Retamar 1970, p. 38
  72. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 6
  73. ↑Hernández Pardo 2000, p. 146
  74. ↑Garganigo, p. 273[Clarification needed]
  75. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 13
  76. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 15
  77. ↑Fernández Retamar 1970, p. 16
  78. ↑"la traducción debe ser natural, para que parezca como si el libro hubiese sido escrito en la lengua al que lo traduces." De la Cuesta 1996, p. 7
  79. ↑Serna 2002, p. 13
  80. 81.081.1Serna 2002, p. 14
  81. 82.082.1Serna 2002, p. 16
  82. ↑Lopez 2006, p. 11
  83. 84.084.1Jordan, David (1993). Revolutionary Cuba and the End the lesser key of solomon audiobook the Cold War. University Press Of America. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-8191-8998-1. 
  84. ↑Ronning 1990, p. 3
  85. ↑Cairo 2003, p. 25
  86. 87.087.187.287.3Ripoll, Carlos (1994). "The Falsification of Jose Marti in Cuba". pp. 3–38. JSTOR 24485768. 
  87. ↑Lecuona, Rafael (March 1991). "Jose Marti and Fidel Castro". pp. 45–61. JSTOR 20751650. 
  88. ↑Lopez 2006, p. 12
  89. ↑Ripoll 1984, p. 45
  90. ↑Ripoll 1984, p. 40
  91. ↑"Cuba unveils US statue of national hero Jose Marti". https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/01/cuba-unveils-statue-national-hero-jose-marti-180129071328989.html. 
  92. ↑"José Martí Awards". National Association of Hispanic Publications. 2016-11-17. https://nahp.org/about-nahp/jose-marti-awards/. 

References[]

  • Abel, Christopher. José Martí: Revolutionary Democrat. London: Athlone. 1986.
  • Alborch Bataller, Carmen, ed (1995). "José Martí: obra y vida". Ministerio de Cultura, Ediciones Siruela. ISBN 978-84-7844-300-0. .
  • Bueno, Salvador (1997). "José Martí y su periódico Patria". Puvill. ISBN 978-84-85202-75-1. .
  • Cairo, Ana. Jose Marti y la novela de la cultura cubana. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. 2003.
  • De La Cuesta, Leonel Antonio. Martí, Traductor. Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca. 1996.
  • Fernández, Teodosio (1995). "José Martí: historia y literatura ante el fin del siglo XIX". In Alemany Bay, Carmen; Muñoz, Ramiro; Rovira, José Carlos. Universidad de Alicante. pp. ??. ISBN 978-84-7908-308-3. .[page needed]
  • Fernández Retamar, Roberto (1970). "Martí". Biblioteca de Marcha. OCLC 253831187. .
  • Fidalgo, Jose Antonio. "El Doctor Fermín Valdés-Domínguez, Hombre de Ciencias y Su Posible Influencia Recíproca Con José Martí" Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Pública 1998 (84) pp. 26–34
  • Fountain, Anne (2003). "José Martí and U.S. Writers". University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-2617-6. .
  • García Cisneros, Florencio (1986). "Máximo Gómez: caudillo o dictador?". Librería & Distribuidora Universal. ISBN 978-0-9617456-0-8. .
  • Garganigo, John F.; Costa, Rene; Heller, Ben, eds (1997). "Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas". Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-825100-0. .[Clarification needed]
  • Gray, Richard B. (April 1966). "The Quesadas of Cuba: Biographers and Editors of José Martí y Pérez". Academy of American Franciscan History. pp. 389–403. Digital object identifier:10.2307/979019. JSTOR 979019. .
  • Hernández Pardo, Héctor (2000). "Luz para el siglo XXI: actualidad del pensamiento de José Martí". Ediciones Libertarias. ISBN 978-84-7954-561-1. .
  • Holden, Robert H.; Zolov, Eric (2000). "Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History". Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512993-9. .
  • Jones, Willis Knapp (December 1953). "The Martí Centenary". Blackwell Publishing. pp. 398–402. Digital object identifier:10.2307/320047. JSTOR 320047. .
  • Kirk, John M. (November 1977). "Jose Marti and the United States: A Further Interpretation". Cambridge University Press. pp. 275–90. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0022216X00020617. JSTOR 156129. http://DalSpace.library.dal.ca/bitstream/10222/21684/1/kirk_1977.pdf. .
  • Kirk, John M. José Martí, Mentor of the Cuban Nation. Tampa: University Presses of Florida, c1983.
  • López, Alfred J. (2006). "José Martí and the Future of Cuban Nationalisms". University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-2999-3. .
  • López, Alfred J. (2014). "José Martí: A Revolutionary Life". University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-73906-2. .
  • Martí, José (1963a). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 46–50. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963b). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 93–97. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963c). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 172–73. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963d). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963e). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 266–70. OCLC 263517908. .[page needed]
  • Martí, José (1992). "La edad de oro: edición crítica anotada y prologada". In Fernández Retamar, Roberto. Fondo de cultura económica. ISBN 978-968-16-3503-9. .[Clarification needed]
  • Martí, José, Manuel A.Tellechea Versos Sencillos. U of Houston: Arte Público Press, 1997
  • Morukian, Maria. "Cubanidad: Survival of Cuban Culture Identity in the 21st Century".
  • Nassif, Ricardo. "Jose Martí (1853–95) ". Originally published in Prospects:the quarterly review of comparative education(Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. XXIV, no. 1/2, 1994, pp. 107–19
  • Oberhelman, Harley D. (September 2014). "Reviewed work(s): Versos Sencillos by José Martí. A Translation by Anne Fountain". American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese. pp. 474–75. Digital object identifier:10.2307/3657792. JSTOR 3657792. .
  • Pérez-Galdós Ortiz, Víctor. José Martí: Visión de un Hombre Universal. Barcelona: Puvill Libros Ltd. 1999.
  • Quiroz, Alfonso. "The Cuban Republic and José Martí: reception and use of a national symbol". Lexington Books, 2006
  • Ripoll, Carlos. Jose Marti and the United States, and the Marxist interpretation of Cuban History. New Jersey: Transaction Inc. 1984.
  • Ronning, C. Neale. Jose Marti and the emigre colony in Key West. New York: Praeger. 1990.
  • Roscoe, Hill R. (October 1947). "Book Reviews". Academy of American Franciscan History. pp. 278–80. JSTOR 977985. .
  • Scott, Rebecca J. "Explaining Abolition: Contradiction, Adaptation, and Challenge in Cuban Slave Society, 1860–1886". Comparative Studies in Fcbc church online and History, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 83–111
Источник: https://military-history.fandom.com/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Mart%C3%AD
Author: Leibniz

For other people named José Martí, see José Martí (disambiguation).

This name uses Spanish naming customs; the first or paternal family name is Martí and the second or maternal family name is Pérez.

José Martí
BornJosé Julián Martí Pérez
January 28, 1853
La Habana, Captaincy General of Cuba, Spanish Empire
Died May 19, 1895(1895-05-19) (aged 42)
Dos Ríos, Captaincy General of Cuba, Spanish Empire
Nationality Spaniard
Occupation Poet, writer, philosoper, nationalist leader
Political movementModernismo
Spouse(s) Carmen Zayas Bazan
Children José Francisco "Pepito" Martí
Relatives Mariano Martí Navarro and Leonor Pérez Cabrera (Parents), 7 sisters (Leonor, Mariana, María de Carmen, María de Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores)

José Julián Martí Pérez (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse maɾˈti]; January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban poet, philosopher, essayist, journalist, translator, professor, and publisher, who is considered a Cuban national hero because of his role in the liberation of his country, and he was an important figure in Latin American literature. He was very politically active, and is considered an important revolutionary philosopher and political theorist.[1][2] Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol of Cuba's bid for independence from Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence."[3] From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba, and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans; his death was used as a cry for Cuban independence from Spain by both the Cuban revolutionaries and those Cubans previously reluctant to start a revolt.

Born in Havana, Martí began his political activism at an early age. He traveled extensively in Spain, Latin America, and the United States, raising awareness and support for the cause of Cuban independence. His unification of the Cuban émigré community, particularly in Florida, was crucial to the success of the Cuban War of Independence against Spain. He was a key figure in the planning and execution of this war, as well as the designer of the Cuban Revolutionary Party and its ideology. He died in military action during the Battle of Dos Ríos on May 19, 1895.

Martí is considered one of the great turn-of-the-century Latin American intellectuals. His written works include a series of poems, essays, letters, lectures, novel, and a children's magazine. He wrote for numerous Latin American and American newspapers; he also founded a number of newspapers. His newspaper Patria was an important instrument in his campaign for Cuban independence. After his death, one of his poems from the book, Versos Sencillos (Simple Verses) was adapted to the song "Guantanamera", which has become the definitive patriotic song of Cuba.

The concepts of freedom, liberty, and democracy are prominent call first united bank in all of his works, which were influential on the Nicaraguan international student bank account santander Rubén Darío and the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral.[4]

Following the 1959 Cuban Revolution, Marti's ideology became a major driving force in Cuban politics.[5] He is also regarded as Cuba's "martyr" and "patron saint."[6]

Life[]

Early life, Cuba: 1853–70[]

José Julián Martí Pérez was born on January 28, 1853, in Havana, at 41 Paula Street, to Spanish parents, a Valencian members 1st online banking, Mariano Martí Navarro, and Leonor Pérez Cabrera, a homes for sale in sacramento under 300 000 of the Canary Islands. Martí was the elder brother to seven sisters: Leonor, Mariana, Maria de Carmen, Maria de Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores. He was baptized on February 12 in Santo Ángel Custodio church. When he was four, his family moved from Cuba to Valencia, Spain, but two years later they returned to the island where they enrolled José at a local public school, in the Santa Clara neighborhood where his father worked as a prison guard.[7]

In 1865, he enrolled in the Escuela de Instrucción Primaria Superior Municipal de Varones that was headed by Rafael María de Mendive. Mendive was influential in the development of Martí's political philosophies. Also instrumental in his development of a social and political conscience was his best friend Fermín Valdés Domínguez, the son of a wealthy slave-owning family.[8] In April the same year, after hearing the news of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Martí and other young students expressed their pain—through group mourning—for the death of a man who had decreed the abolition of slavery in the United States. In 1866, Martí entered the Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza where Mendive financed his studies.[7]

Martí signed up at the Escuela Profesional de Pintura y Escultura de La Habana (Professional School for Painting and Sculpture of Havana) in September 1867, known as San Alejandro, to take drawing classes. He hoped to flourish in this area but did not find commercial success. In 1867, he also entered the school of San Pablo, established and managed by Mendive, where he enrolled for the second and third years of his bachelor's degree and assisted Mendive with the school's administrative tasks. In April 1868, his poem dedicated to Mendive's wife, A Micaela. En la Muerte de Miguel Ángel appeared in Guanabacoa's newspaper El Álbum.[9]

When the Ten Years' Open business account bank of america online broke out in Cuba in 1868, clubs of supporters for the Cuban nationalist cause formed all over Cuba, and José and his friend Fermín joined them. Martí had a precocious desire for the independence and freedom of Cuba. He started writing poems about this vision, while, at the same time, trying to do something to achieve this dream. In 1869, he published his first political writings in the only edition of the newspaper El Diablo Cojuelo, published by Fermín Valdés Domínguez. That same year he published "Abdala", a patriotic drama in verse form in the one-volume La Patria Libre newspaper, which he published himself. "Abdala" is about a fictional country called Nubia which struggles for liberation.[10] His sonnet "10 de Octubre", later to become one of his most famous poems, was also written during that year, and was published later in his school newspaper.[9]

In March of that year, colonial authorities shut down the school, interrupting Martí's studies. He came to resent Spanish rule of his homeland at an early age; likewise, he developed a hatred of slavery, which was still practiced in Cuba.[11]

On October 21, 1869, aged 16, he was arrested and incarcerated in the national jail, following an accusation of treason and bribery from the Spanish government upon the discovery of a "reproving" letter, which Martí and Fermín had written to a friend when the friend joined the Spanish army.[12] More than four months later, Martí confessed to the charges and was condemned to six years in prison. His mother tried to free her son (who at 16 was still a minor) by writing letters to the government, and his father went to a lawyer friend for legal support, but these efforts failed. Eventually, Martí fell ill; his legs were severely lacerated by the chains that bound him. As a result, he was transferred to another part of Cuba known as Isla de Pinos instead of further imprisonment. Following that, the Spanish authorities decided to exile him to Spain.[9] In Spain, Martí, who was 18 at the time, was allowed to continue his studies with the hopes that studying in Spain would renew his loyalty to Spain.[13]

Spain: 1871–74[]

In January 1871, Martí embarked on the steam ship Guipuzcoa, which took him from Havana to Cádiz. He settled in Madrid in a guesthouse in Desengaño St. #10. Arriving at the capital he contacted fellow Cuban Carlos Sauvalle, who had been deported to Spain a year before Martí and whose house served as a center of reunions for Cubans in exile. On March 24, Cádiz's newspaper La Soberania Nacional, published Martí's article "Castillo" in which he recalled the sufferings of a friend he met in prison. This article would be reprinted in Sevilla's La Cuestión Cubana and New York's La República. At this time, Martí registered himself as a member of independent studies in the law faculty of the Central University of Madrid.[14] While studying here, Martí openly participated in discourse on the Cuban issue, debating through the Spanish press and circulating documents protesting Spanish activities in Cuba.

Martí's maltreatment at the hands of the Spaniards and consequent deportation to Spain in 1871 inspired a tract, Political Imprisonment in Cuba, published in July. This pamphlet's purpose was to move the Spanish public to do something about its government's brutalities in Cuba and promoted the issue of Cuban independence.[15] In September, from the pages of El Jurado Federal, Martí and Sauvalle accused the newspaper La Prensa of having calumniated the Cuban residents in Madrid. During his stay in Madrid, Martí frequented the Ateneo and the National Library, the Café de los Artistas, and the British, Swiss and Iberian breweries. In November he became sick and had an operation, paid for by Sauvalle.[14]

On November 27, 1871, eight medical students, who had been accused (without evidence) of the desecration of a Spanish grave, were executed in Havana.[14] In June 1872, Fermín Valdés was arrested because of the November 27 incident. His sentence of six years of jail was pardoned, and he was exiled to Spain where he reunited with Martí. On November 27, 1872, the printed matter first security bank of missoula mt 27 de Noviembre de 1871 (27 November 1871) written by Martí and signed by Fermín Valdés Domínguez and Pedro J. de la Torre circulated Madrid. A group of Cubans held a funeral in the Caballero de Gracia church, the first anniversary of the medical students' execution.[16]

In 1873, Martí's "A mis Hermanos Muertos el 27 de Noviembre" was published by Fermín Valdés. In February, for the first time, the Cuban flag appeared in Madrid, hanging from Martí's balcony in Concepción Jerónima, where he lived for a few years. In the same month, the Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic by the Cortes on February 11, 1873 reaffirmed Cuba as inseparable to Spain, Martí responded with an essay, The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution, and sent it to the Prime Minister, pointing out that this new freely elected bank of america merrill lynch leveraged finance conference 2017 of deputies that had proclaimed a republic based on democracy had been hypocritical not to grant Cuba its independence.[17] He sent examples of his work to Nestor Ponce de Leon, a member of the Junta Central Revolucionaria de Nueva York (Central revolutionary committee of New York), to whom he would express his will to collaborate on the fight for the independence of Cuba.[16]

In May, he moved to Zaragoza, accompanied by Fermín Valdés to continue his studies in law at the Universidad Literaria. The newspaper La Cuestión Cubana of Sevilla, published numerous articles from Martí.[16]

In June 1874, Martí graduated with a degree in Civil Law and Canon Law. In August he signed up as an external student at the Facultad de Filosofia y Letras de Zaragoza, where he finished his degree by October. In November he returned to Madrid and then left to Paris. There he met Auguste Vacquerie, a poet, and Victor Hugo. In December 1874 he embarked from Le Havre for Mexico.[18] Prevented from returning to Cuba, Martí went instead to Mexico and Guatemala. During these travels, he taught and wrote, advocating continuously for Cuba's independence.[19]

México and Guatemala: 1875–78[]

See also: María García Granados y Saborío

In 1875, Martí lived on Calle Moneda in Mexico City near the Zócalo, a prestigious address of the time. One floor above him lived Manuel Antonio Mercado, Secretary of the Distrito Federal, who became one of Martí's best friends. On March 2, 1875, he published his first article for Vicente Villada's Revista Universal, a broadsheet discussing politics, literature, and general business commerce. On March 12, his Spanish translation of Hugo's Mes Fils (1874) began serialization in Revista Universal. Martí then joined the editorial staff, editing the Boletín section of the publication.

In these writings, he expressed his opinions about current events in Mexico. On May 27, in the newspaper Revista Universal, he responded to the anti-Cuban-independence arguments in La Colonia Española, a newspaper for Spanish citizens living in Mexico. In December, Sociedad Gorostiza (Gorostiza Society), a group of writers and artists, accepted Martí as a member, where he met his future wife, Carmen Zayas Bazán, during his frequent visits to her Cuban father's house to meet with the Gorostiza group.[20]

On January 1, 1876, in Oaxaca, elements opposed to Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada's government, led by Gen. Porfirio Díaz, proclaimed the Plan de Tuxtepec, which instigated a bloody civil war. Martí and Mexican colleagues established the Sociedad Alarcón, composed of dramatists, actors, and critics. At this point, Martí began collaborating with the newspaper El Socialista as leader of the Gran Círculo Obrero (Great Labor Circle) organization of liberals and reformists who supported Lerdo de Tejada. In March, the newspaper proposed a cash out prepaid visa debit card of candidates as delegates, including Martí, to the first Congreso Obrero, or congress of the workers. On June 4, La Sociedad Esperanza de Empleados (Employees' Hope Society) designated Martí as delegate to the Congreso Obrero. On December 7, Martí published his article Alea Jacta Est in the newspaper El Federalista, bitterly criticizing the Porfiristas' armed assault upon the constitutional government in place. On December 16, he published the article "Extranjero" (foreigner; abroad), in which he repeated his denunciation of the Porfiristas and bade farewell to Mexico.[20]

In 1877, using his second name and second surname[21] Julián Pérez as pseudonym, Martí embarked for Havana, hoping to arrange to move his family away to Mexico City from Havana. He returned to Mexico, however, entering at the port of Progreso from which, via Isla de Mujeres and Belize, he travelled south to progressive Guatemala City. He took residence in the prosperous suburb of Ciudad Vieja, home of Guatemala's artists and Intelligentsia of the day, on Cuarta Avenida (Fourth Avenue), 3 km south of Guatemala City. While there, he was commissioned by the government to write the play Patria y Libertad (Drama Indio) (Country and Liberty (an Indian Drama)). He met personally the president, Justo Rufino Barrios, about this project. On April 22, the newspaper El Progreso published his article "Los códigos Nuevos" (The New Laws) pertaining to the then newly enacted Civil Code. On May 29, he was appointed head of the Department of French, English, Italian and German Literature, History and Philosophy, on the faculty of philosophy and arts of the Universidad Nacional. On July 25, he lectured for the opening evening of the literary society 'Sociedad Literaria El Porvenir', at the Teatro Colón (the since-renamed Teatro Nacional[22]), at which function he was appointed vice-president of the Society, and acquiring the moniker "el doctor torrente," or Doctor Torrent, in view of his rhetorical style. Martí taught composition classes free at the academia de niñas de centroamérica girls' academy, among whose students he enthralled young María García Granados y Saborío, daughter of Guatemalan president Miguel García Granados. The schoolgirl's crush was unrequited, however, as he went again to México, where he met Carmen Zayas Bazán and whom he later married.[23]

In 1878, Martí returned to Guatemala and published his book Guatemala, edited in Mexico. On May 10, socialite María García Granados died of lung disease; her unrequited love for Martí branded her, poignantly, as 'la niña de Guatemala, la que se murió de amor' (the Guatemalan girl who died of love). Following her death, Martí returned to Cuba. There, he resigned signing the Pact of Zanjón which ended the Cuban Ten Years' War, but had no effect on Cuba's status as a colony. He met Afro-Cuban revolutionary Juan Gualberto Gómez, who would be his lifelong partner in the independence struggle and a stalwart defender of his legacy during this same journey. He married Carmen Zayas Bazán on Havana's Calle Tulipán Street at this time. In October, his application to practice law in Cuba was refused, and thereafter he immersed himself in radical efforts, such as for the Comité Revolucionario Cubano de Nueva York (Cuban Revolutionary Committee of New York). On November 22, 1878 his son José Francisco, known fondly as "Pepito", was born.[24]

United States and Venezuela: 1880–90[]

In 1881, after a brief stay in New York, Martí travelled to Venezuela and founded in Caracas the Revista Venezolana, or Venezuelan Review. The journal incurred the wrath of Venezuela's dictator, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, and Martí was forced to return to New York.[25] There, Martí joined General Calixto García's Cuban revolutionary committee, composed of Cuban exiles advocating independence. Here Martí openly supported Cuba's struggle for liberation, and worked as a journalist for La Nación of Buenos Aires and for several Central American journals,[19] especially La Opinion Liberal in Mexico City.[26] The article "El ajusticiamiento de Guiteau," an account of President Garfield's murderer's trial, was published in La Opinion Liberal in 1881, and later selected for inclusion in The Library of America's anthology of American True Crime writing. In addition, Martí wrote poems and translated novels to Spanish. He worked for Appleton and Company and, "on his own, translated and published Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona. His repertory of original work included plays, a novel, poetry, a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro, and a newspaper, Patria, which became the official organ of the Cuban Revolutionary party".[27] He also served as a consul for Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay. Throughout this work, he preached the "freedom of Cuba with an enthusiasm that swelled the ranks of those eager to strive with him for it".[19]

Tension existed within the Cuban revolutionary committee between Martí and his military compatriots. Martí feared a military dictatorship would be established in Cuba upon independence, and suspected Dominican-born General Máximo Gómez of having these intentions.[28] Martí knew that the independence of Cuba needed time and careful planning. Ultimately, Martí refused to cooperate with Máximo Gómez and Antonio Maceo Grajales, two Cuban military leaders from the Ten Years' War, when they wanted to invade immediately in 1884. Martí knew that it was too early to attempt to win back Cuba, and later events proved him right.[19]

United States, Central America and the West Indies: 1891–94[]

On January 1, 1891, Martí's essay "Nuestra America" was published in New York's Revista Ilustrada, and on the 30th of that month in Mexico's El Partido Liberal. He actively participated in the Conferencia Monetaria Internacional (The International Monetary Conference) in New York during that time as well. On June 30 his wife and son arrived in New York. After a short time, in which Carmen Zayas Bazán realized that Martí's dedication to Cuban independence surpassed that of supporting his family, she returned to Havana with her son on August 27. Martí would never see them again. The fact that his wife never shared the convictions central to his life was an enormous personal tragedy for Martí.[29] He turned for solace to Carmen Miyares de Mantilla, a Venezuelan who ran a boarding house in New York, and he is presumed to be the father of her daughter María Mantilla, who was in turn the mother of the actor Cesar Romero, who proudly claimed to be Martí's grandson. In September Martí became sick again. He intervened in the commemorative acts of The Independents, causing the Spanish consul in New York to complain to the Argentine and Uruguayan governments. Consequently, Martí resigned from the Argentinean, Homes for sale in shadow ridge edmond ok, and Uruguayan consulates. In October he published his book Versos Sencillos.

On November do wells fargo cashiers checks expire he was invited by the Club Ignacio Agramonte, an organization founded by Cuban immigrants in Ybor City, Tampa, Florida, to a celebration to collect funding for the cause of Cuban independence. There he gave a lecture known as "Con Todos, y para el Bien de Todos", which was reprinted in Spanish language newspapers and periodicals across the United States. The following night, another lecture, " Los Pinos Nuevos", was given by Martí in another Tampa gathering in honor of the medical students killed in Cuba in 1871. In November artist Herman Norman painted a portrait of José Martí.[30]

On January 5, 1892, Martí participated in a reunion of the emigration representatives, in Cayo Hueso (Key West), the Cuban community where the Bases del Partido Revolucionario (Basis of the Cuban Revolutionary Party) was passed. He began the process of organizing the newly formed party. To raise support and collect funding for the independence movement, he visited tobacco factories, where he gave speeches to the workers and united them in the cause. In March 1892 the first edition of the Patria newspaper, related to the Cuban Revolutionary Party, was published, funded and directed by Martí. During Martí's Key West years, his secretary was Dolores Castellanos (1870-1948), a Cuban-American woman born in Key West, who also served as president of the Protectoras de la Patria: Club Político de Cubanas, a Cuban women's political club in support of Martí's cause, and for whom Martí wrote a poem titled "A Dolores Castellanos." On April 8, he was chosen delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party by the Cayo Hueso Club in Tampa and New York. From July to September 1892 he traveled through Florida, Washington, Philadelphia, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica on an organization mission among the exiled Cubans. On this mission, Martí made numerous speeches and visited various tobacco factories. On December 16 he was poisoned in Tampa.[31]

In 1893, Martí traveled through the United States, Central America and the West Indies, visiting different Cuban clubs. His visits were received with high neck tummy control one piece swimsuit growing enthusiasm and raised badly needed funds for the revolutionary cause. On May 24 he met Rubén Darío, the Nicaraguan poet in a theatre act in Hardman Hall, New York City. On June 3 he had an interview with Máximo Gómez in Montecristi, Dominican Republic, where they planned the uprising. In July he met with General Antonio Maceo Grajales in San Jose, Costa Rica.[31]

In 1894 he continued traveling for propagation and organizing the revolutionary movement. On January 27 he published "A Cuba!" in the newspaper Patria where he denounced collusion between the Spanish and American interests. In July he visited the president of the Mexican Republic, Porfirio Díaz, and travelled to Veracruz. In August he prepared and arranged the armed expedition that would begin the Cuban revolution.[32]

Return to Cuba: 1895[]

On January 12, 1895, the North American authorities stopped the steamship Lagonda and two other suspicious ships, Amadis, and Baracoa at the Fernandina port in Florida, confiscating weapons and ruining Plan de Fernandina (Fernandina Plan). On January 29, Martí drew up the order of the uprising, signing it with general Jose Maria Rodriguez and Enrique Collazo. Juan Gualberto Gómez was assigned to orchestrate war preparations for La Habana Province, and was able to work right under the noses of the relatively unconcerned Spanish authorities.[33] Martí decided to move to Montecristi, Dominican Republic to join Máximo Gómez and to plan out the uprising.[34]

The uprising finally took place on February 24, 1895. A month later, Martí and Máximo Gómez declared the Manifesto de Montecristi, an "exposition of the purposes and principles of the Cuban revolution".[35] Martí had persuaded Gómez to lead an expedition into Cuba.

Before leaving for Cuba, Martí wrote his "literary will" on April 1, 1895, leaving his personal papers and manuscripts to Gonzalo de Quesada, with instructions for editing. Knowing that the majority of his writing in newspapers in Honduras, Uruguay, and Chile would disappear over time, Martí instructed Quesada to arrange his papers in volumes. The volumes were to be arranged in the following way: volumes one and two, North Americas; volume three, Hispanic Americas; volume four, North American Scenes; volume five, Books about the Americas (this included both North and South America); volume six, Literature, education and painting. Another volume included his poetry.[35]

The expedition, composed of Martí, Gómez, Ángel Guerra, Francisco Borreo, Cesar Salas and Marcos del Rosario, left Montecristi for Cuba on April 1, 1895.[34] Despite delays and desertion by some members, they got to Cuba. They landed at Playitas, near Cape Maisí and Imías, Cuba, on April 11. Once there, they made contact with the Cuban rebels, who were headed by the Maceo brothers, and started fighting against Spanish troops. The revolt did not go as planned, "mainly because the call to revolution received no immediate, spontaneous support from the masses."[36] By May 13, the expedition reached Dos Rios. On May 19, Gomez faced Ximenez de Sandoval's troops and ordered Martí to stay rearguard, but Martí separated from the bulk of the Cuban forces, and entered the Spanish line.[34]

Death[]

José Martí was killed in battle against Spanish troops at the Battle of Dos Ríos, near the confluence of the rivers Contramaestre and Cauto, on May 19, 1895. Gómez had recognized that the Spaniards had a strong position between palm trees, so he ordered his men to disengage. Martí was alone and seeing a young courier ride by he said: "Joven, a la carga!" meaning: "Young man, charge!" This was around midday, and he was dressed in a black jacket while riding a white horse, which made him an easy target for the Spanish. After Martí was shot, the young trooper, Angel de la Guardia, lost his horse and returned to report the loss. The Spanish took possession of the body, buried it close by, then exhumed the body upon realization of its identity. He is buried in Santa Ifigenia Cemetery in Santiago de Cuba. Many have argued that Maceo and others had always spurned Martí for never participating in combat, which may have compelled Martí to that ill-fated suicidal two-man charge. Some of his Versos Sencillos had a premonitory quality: "No me entierren en lo oscuro/ A morir como un traidor/ Yo soy bueno y como bueno/ Moriré de cara al sol." ("Do not bury me in darkness / to die like a traitor / I am good, and as a good man / I will die facing the sun.")

The death of Martí was a blow to the "aspirations of the Cuban rebels, inside and outside of the island, but the fighting continued with alternating successes and failures until the entry of the United States into the war in 1898".[37]

Political ideology[]

Marti wrote extensively about Spanish colonial control and the threat of US expansionism into Cuba. To him, it was unnatural that Cuba was controlled and oppressed by the Spanish government, when it had its own unique identity and culture. In his pamphlet from February 11, 1873, called "The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution", he argued that "Cubans do not live as Spaniards live. They are nourished by a different system of trade, have links with different countries, and express their happiness through quite contrary customs. There are no common aspirations or identical goals linking the two peoples, or beloved memories to unite them . Peoples are only united by ties of fraternity and love.".[38]

Martí opposed slavery and criticized Spain for failing to abolish it. In a speech to Cuban immigrants in Steck Hall, New York, on January 24, 1879, he stated that the war against Spain needed to be fought, recalled the heroism and suffering of the Ten Years' War, which, he declared, had qualified Cuba as a real nation with a right to independence. Spain had not ratified the conditions of the peace treaty, had falsified elections, continued excessive taxation, and had failed to abolish slavery. Cuba needed to be free.[39]

Martí proposed in a letter to Máximo Gómez in 1882 the formation of a revolutionary party, which he considered essential in the prevention of Cuba falling back on the Home Rule Party (Partido Autonomista) after the Pact of Zanjón.[40] The East and west egg great gatsby Rule Party was a peace-seeking party that would stop short of the outright independence that Martí thought Cuba needed. But he was aware that there were social divisions in Cuba, especially racial divisions, that needed to be addressed as well.[41] He thought war was necessary to achieve Cuba's freedom, despite his basic ideology of conciliation, respect, dignity, and balance. The establishment of the patria (fatherland) with a good government would unite Cubans of all social classes and colours in harmony.[42] Together with other Cubans resident in New York, Martí started laying the grounds for the Revolutionary Party, stressing the need for a democratic organization as the basic structure before any military leaders american holidays in october 2020 to join. The military would have to subordinate themselves to the interests of the fatherland. Gómez later rejoined Martí's plans, promising to comply.

Martí's consolidation of support among the Cuban expatriates, especially in Florida, was key in the planning and execution of the invasion of Cuba. His speeches to Cuban tobacco workers in Tampa and Key West motivated and united them; this is considered the most important air academy federal credit union phone achievement of his life.[43] At this point he refined his ideological platform, basing it on a Cuba held together by pride in being Cuban, a society that ensured "the welfare and prosperity of all Cubans"[44] independently of class, occupation or race. Faith in the cause could not die, and the military would not try for domination. All pro-independence Cubans would participate, with no sector predominating. From this he established the Cuban Revolutionary Party in early 1892.

Martí and the CRP were devoted to secretly organizing the anti-Spanish war. Martí's newspaper, Patria, was a key instrument of this campaign, where Martí delineated his final plans for Cuba. Through this medium he argued against the exploitative colonialism of Spain in Cuba, criticized the Home Rule (Autonomista) Party for having aims that fell considerably short of full independence, and warned against U.S. annexationism which he felt could only be prevented by Cuba's successful independence.[45] He specified his plans for the future Cuban Republic, a multi-class and multi-racial democratic republic based on universal suffrage, with an egalitarian economic base to develop fully Cuba's productive resources and an equitable distribution of land among citizens, with enlightened and virtuous politicians.[46]

From Martí's 'Campaign Diaries', written during the final expedition in Cuba, it seems evident that Martí would have reached security bank of kansas city online banking highest position is chase bank open on july 3rd the future Republic of Arms.[47] This was not to be; his death occurred before the Assembly of Cuba was set up. Until his very last minute, Martí dedicated his life to achieve full independence for Cuba. His uncompromising belief in democracy and freedom for his fatherland is what characterized his political ideology.

Martí and the United States[]

Martí demonstrated an anti-imperialist attitude from an early age, and was conscious of the perceived danger the United States posed for Latin America. While critiquing the United States for its stereotypes of Latin Americans and preoccupation with capitalism, Martí also related the American struggle for independence from Britain with the Cuban nationalist movement.[48] At the same time, he recognized the advantages of the European or North American civilizations, which were open to the reforms that Latin American countries needed in order to detach themselves from the colonial heritage of Spain. Martí's distrust of North American politics had developed during the 1880s, due to the intervention threats that loomed on Mexico and Guatemala, and indirectly on Cuba's future. Over time Martí became increasingly alarmed about the United States' intentions for Cuba. The United States desperately needed new markets for its industrial products because of the economic crisis it was experiencing, and the media was talking about the purchase of Cuba from Spain.[49] Cuba was a profitable, fertile country with an important strategic position in the Gulf of Mexico.[50] Martí felt that the interests of Cuba's future lay with its sister nations in Latin America, and were opposite to those of the United States.[51]

Another trait that Martí admired was the work ethic that characterized American society. On various occasions Martí conveyed his deep admiration for the immigrant-based society, "whose principal aspiration he interpreted as being to construct a truly modern country, based upon hard work and progressive ideas." Martí stated that he was "never surprised in any country of the world [he had] visited. Here [he] was surprised . [he] remarked that no one stood quietly on the corners, no door was shut an instant, no man was quiet. [He] stopped [him]self, [he] looked respectfully verizon cell pay bill this people, and [he] said goodbye forever to that lazy life and poetical inutility of our European countries".[52]

Martí found American society to be so great, he thought Latin America should consider imitating America. Martí argued that if the US "could reach such a high standard of living in so short a time, and despite, too, its lack of unifying traditions, could not the same be expected of Latin America?"[52] However, Martí thought that US expansionism represented the Spanish American republics' "greatest danger". Martí was amazed at how education was directed towards helping the development of the nation and once again encouraged Latin American countries to follow the example set by North American society.[53] At the same time, he criticized the elitist educational systems of Cuba and the rest of Latin America. Often, Martí recommended countries in Latin America to "send representatives to learn more relevant techniques in the United States". Once this was done, Martí hoped that this representatives would bring a "much-needed modernization to the Latin Make t shirt mockup online agricultural policies".[54]

However, not everything was to be admired by Martí. When it came to politics Martí wrote that politics in the US had "adopted a carnival atmosphere . especially during election time".[55] He saw acts of corruption among candidates, such as bribing "the constituents with vast quantities of beer, while impressive parades wound their way through New York's crowded streets, past masses of billboards, all exhorting the public to la edad de oro jose marti libro for the different political candidates".[55] Martí criticized and condemned the elites of the United States as they "pulled the main political strings behind the scenes". According to Martí, the elites "deserved severe censure" as they were the biggest threat to the "ideals with which the United States was first conceived".[55]

Martí started to believe that the US had abused its potential. Racism was abundant. Different races were north central high school softball discriminated against; political life "was both cynically regarded by the public at large and widely abused by 'professional politicians'; industrial magnates and powerful labor groups faced each other menacingly". All of this convinced Martí that a large-scale social conflict was imminent in the United States.[56]

On the positive side, Martí was astonished by the "inviolable right of freedom of speech which all U.S. citizens possessed". Marti applauded the United States' Constitution which allowed freedom of speech to all its citizens, no matter what political beliefs they had. In May 1883, while attending political meetings he heard "the call for revolution – and more specifically the destruction of the capitalist system". Marti could not believe that revolution was advocated and was amazed that this could happen because this "could have led to its own destruction". Marti also gave his support to the women's suffrage movements, and was "pleased that women here [took] advantage of this privilege in order to make their voices heard". According to Marti, free speech was essential if any nation was to be civilized and he expressed his "profund admiration for these many basic liberties and opportunities open to the vast majority of American citizens".[57]

The works of Marti contain many comparisons between the ways of life of North and Latin America. The former was seen as "hardy, 'soulless', and, at times, cruel society, but one which, nevertheless, had been based upon a firm foundation of liberty and on a tradition of liberty".[57] Although North American society had its flaws, they tended to be "of minor importance when compared to the broad sweep of social inequality, and to the widespread abuse of power prevalent in Latin America".[57]

Once it became apparent that the United States were actually going to purchase Cuba and intended to Americanize it, Marti "spoke out loudly and bravely against such action, stating the opinion of many Cubans on the United States of America."[58]

Invention of a Latin American identity[]

José Martí as a liberator believed that the Latin American countries needed to know the reality of their own history. Martí also saw the necessity of a country having its own literature. These reflections started in Mexico from 1875 and are connected to the Mexican Reform, where prominent people like Ignacio Manuel Altamirano and Guillermo Prieto had situated themselves in front of a cultural renovation in Mexico, taking on the same approach as Esteban Echeverría thirty years before in Argentina. In the second "Boletin" that Martí published in the Revista Universal (May 11, 1875) one can already see Martí's approach, which was fundamentally Latin American. His wish to build a national or Latin American identity was nothing new or unusual in those days; however, no Latin-American intellectual of that time had approached as clearly as Martí the task of building a national identity. He insisted on the necessity of building institutions and laws that matched the natural elements of each country, and recalled the failure of the applications of French and American civil codes in the new Latin American republics. Martí believed that "el hombre del sur", the man of the South, should choose an appropriate development strategy matching his character, the peculiarity of his culture and history, and the nature that determined his being.[59]

Influence in Revolutionary Cuba[]

Despite the history of post-1959 Cuba's affiliation as a Communist state, it has been acknowledged that it is in fact Marti's ideology which serves as the main driving force of the ruling Cuban Communist Party.[5][60] Regarded as Cuba's "martyr" and "patron saint,"[6] several landmarks in Cuba are dedicated to Marti.[5][6] Following his death in 2016, former Cuban leader Fidel Castro, who played a major role in promoting Marti's image in Revolutionary Cuba,[61] was buried next to Marti in Santiago.[62][63]

Writings[]

Martí as a writer covered a range of genres. In addition to producing newspaper articles and keeping up an extensive correspondence (his letters are included in the collection of his complete works), he wrote a serialized novel, composed poetry, wrote essays and published four issues of a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro[64](The Golden Age, 1889). His essays and articles occupy more than fifty volumes of his complete works. His prose was extensively read and influenced the modernist generation, especially the Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío, whom Martí called "my son" when they met in New York in 1893.[65]

Martí did not publish any books: only two notebooks (cuadernos) of verses, in editions outside of the market, and a number of political tracts. The rest (an enormous amount) was left dispersed in numerous newspapers and magazines, in letters, in diaries and personal notes, in other unedited texts, in frequently improvised speeches, and some lost forever. Five years after his death, the first volume of his Obras was published. A novel appeared in this collection in 1911: Amistad funesta, which Martí had made known was published under a pseudonym in 1885. In 1913, also in this edition, his third poetic collection that he had kept unedited: Versos Libres. His Diario de Campaña (Campaign Diary) was published in 1941. Later still, in 1980, Nicaraguan poet Ernesto Mejía Sánchez produced a set of about thirty of Martí's articles written for the Mexican newspaper El Partido Liberal that weren't included in any of his so-called Obras Completas editions. From 1882 to 1891, Martí collaborated in La Nación , a Buenos Aires newspaper. His texts from La Nación have been collected in Anuario del centro de Estudios Martianos.

Over the course of his journalistic career, he wrote for numerous newspapers, starting with El Diablo Cojuelo (The Limping Devil) and La Patria Libre (The Free Fatherland), both of which he helped to found in 1869 in Cuba and which established the extent of his political commitment and vision for Cuba. In Spain he wrote for La Colonia Española,in Mexico for La Revista Universal, and in Venezuela for Revista Venezolana, which he founded. In New York he contributed to Venezuelan periodical La Opinión Nacional, Buenos Aires newspaper La Nación, Mexico's La Opinion Liberal, and America's The Hour.[66]

The first critical edition of Martí's complete works began to appear in 1983 in José Martí: Obras completas. Edición crítica. The critical edition of his complete poems was published in 1985 in José Martí: Poesía completa. Edición critica.

Volume two of his Obras Completas includes his famous essay 'Nuestra America' which "comprises a variety of subjects relating to Spanish America about which Marti studied and wrote. Here it is noted that after Cuba his interest was directed mostly to Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela. The various sections of this part are about general matters and international conferences; economic, social and political questions; literature and art; agrarian and industrial problems; immigration; education; relations with the United States and Spanish America; travel notes".[67]

According to Marti, the intention behind the publication of "La edad de oro" was "so that American children may know how people used to live, and how they live nowadays, in America and in other countries; how many things are made, such as glass and iron, steam engines and suspension bridges and electric light; so that when a child sees a coloured stone he will know why the stone is coloured. . We shall tell them about everything which is done in factories, where things happen which are stranger and more interesting than the magic in fairy stories. These things are real magic, more marvelous than any. . We write for children because it is they who know how to love, because it is children who are the hope for the world".[68]

Marti's "Versos Sencillos" was written "in the town of Haines Falls, New York, where his doctor has sent [him] to regain his strength 'where streams flowed and clouds gathered in upon themeselves'".[69] The poetry encountered in this work is "in many [ways] autobiographical and allows readers to see Marti the man and the patriot and to judge what was important to him at a crucial time in Cuban history".[69]

Martí's writings reflected his own views both socially and politically. "Cultivo Una Rosa Blanca" is one of his poems that emphasize his views in hopes of betterment for society:

I cultivate a white rose
In July as in January
For the sincere friend
Who gives me his hand frankly
And for the cruel person who tears
out the heart with which I live,
I cultivate neither nettles nor thorns:
I cultivate a white rose[70]

This poem is a clear description of Martí's societal hopes for his homeland. Within the poem, he talks about how regardless of the person, whether kind or cruel he cultivates a white rose, meaning that he remains peaceful. This coincides with his ideology about establishing unity amongst the people, more so those of Cuba, through a common identity, with no regards to ethnic and racial differences.[71] This doctrine could be accomplished if one treated his enemy with peace as he would treat a friend. The kindness of one person should be shared with all people, regardless of personal conflict. By following the moral that lies within "Cultivo Rosa Blanca", Martí's vision of Cuban solidarity could be possible, creating a more peaceful society that would emanate through future generations.

After his breakthrough in Cuba literature, José Martí went on to contribute his works to newspapers, magazines, and books that reflected his political and social views. Because of his early death, Martí was unable to publish a vast collection of poetry; even so, his literary contributions have made him a renowned figure in literature, influencing many writers, and people in general, to aspire to follow in the footsteps of Martí.

Style[]

Martí's style of writing keybank mobile banking app difficult to categorize. He used many aphorisms—short, memorable lines that convey truth and/or wisdom—and long complex sentences. He is considered a major contributor to the Spanish American literary movement known as Modernismo and has been linked to Latin American consciousness of the modern age and modernity.[72] His chronicles combined elements of literary portraiture, dramatic narration, and a dioramic scope. His poetry contained "fresh and astonishing images along with deceptively simple sentiments".[73] As an orator (for he made many speeches) he was known for his cascading structure, powerful aphorisms, and detailed descriptions. More important than his style is how he uses that style to put into service his ideas, making "advanced" convincing notions. Throughout his writing he made reference to historical figures and events, and used constant allusions to literature, current news and cultural matters. For this reason, he may be difficult to read and translate.[74]

His didactic spirit encouraged him to establish a magazine for children, La Edad de Oro (1889) which contained a short essay titled "Tres Heroes" (three heroes), representative of his talent to adapt his expression to his audience; in this case, to make the young reader conscious of and amazed by the extraordinary bravery of the three men, Bolivar, Hidalgo, and San Martín. This is his style to teach delightfully.[75]

Translation[]

José Martí is universally honored as a great poet, patriot and martyr of Cuban Independence, but he was also a translator of some note. Although he translated literary material for the sheer joy of it, much of the translating he did was imposed on him by economic necessity during his many years of exile in the United States. Martí learned English at an early age, and had begun to translate at thirteen. He continued translating for the rest of his life, including his time as a student in Spain, although the period of his greatest productivity was during his stay in New York from 1880 until he returned to Cuba in 1895.[76]

In New York he was what we would call today a "freelancer" as well as an "in house" translator. He translated several books for the publishing house of D. Appleton, and did a series of translations for newspapers. As a revolutionary activist in Cuba's long struggle for independence he translated into English a number of articles and pamphlets supporting that movement.[77] In addition to fluent English, Martí also spoke French, Italian, Latin and Classical Greek fluently, the latter learned so he could read the Greek classical works in the original.[78]

There was clearly a dichotomy in Martí's feeling about the kind of work he was translating. Like many professionals, he undertook for money translation tasks which had little intellectual or emotional appeal for him. Although Martí never presented a systematic theory of translation nor did he write extensively about his approach to translation, he did jot down occasional thoughts on the subject, showcasing his awareness of the translator's dilemma of the faithful versus the beautiful and stating that "translation should be natural, so that it appears that the book were written in the language to which it has been translated".[79]

Modernism[]

The modernists, in general, use a subjective language. Martí's stylistic creed is part of the necessity to de-codify the logic rigor and the linguistic construction and to eliminate the intellectual, abstract and systematic expression. There is the deliberate intention and awareness to expand the expressive system of the language. The style changes the form of thinking. Without falling into unilateralism, Martí values the expression because language is an impression and a feeling through the form. Modernism mostly searches for the visions and realities, the expression takes in the impressions, the state of mind, without reflection and without concept. This is the law of subjectivity. We can see this in works of Martí, one of the first modernists, who conceives the literary task like an invisible unity, an expressive totality, considering the style like "a form of the content" (forma del contenido).[80]

The difference that Martí established between prose and poetry are conceptual. Poetry, as he believes, is a language of the permanent subjective: the intuition and the vision. The prose is an instrument and a method of spreading the ideas, and has the goal of elevating, encouraging and animating these ideas rather than having the expression of tearing up the heart, complaining and moaning. The prose is a service to his people.[81]

Martí produces a system of specific signs "an ideological code" (código la edad de oro jose marti libro. These symbols claim their moral value and construct signs of ethic conduct. Martí's modernism was a spiritual attitude that was reflected on the language. All his writing defines his moral world. One could also say that his ideological and spiritual sphere is fortified in his writing.[81]

The difference between Martí and other modernist initiators such as Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, Julian del Casal, and José Asunción Silva (and the similarity between him and Manuel González Prada) lies in the profound and transcendent value that he gave to literature, converting prose into an article or the work of a journalist. This hard work was important in giving literature authentic and independent value and distancing it from mere formal amusement. Manuel Gutiérez Nájera, Rubén Darío, Miguel de Unamuno and José Enrique Rodó saved the Martinian articles, which will have an endless value in the writings of the American continent.[82]

Apart from Martinian articles. essay writing and literature starts to authorize itself as an alternative and privileged way to talk about politics. Literature starts to apply itself the only hermeneutics able to resolve the enigmas of a Latin American identity.[82]

Legacy[]

Martí's dedication to the cause of Cuban independence and his passionate belief in democracy and justice has made him a hero for all Cubans, a symbol of unity, the "Apostle",[83] a great leader. His writings have created a platform for all that he went through during the duration of this period in time.[84] His ultimate goal of building a democratic, just, and stable republic in Cuba and his obsession with the practical execution of this goal led him to become the most charismatic leader of the 1895 colonial revolution. His work with the Cuban émigré community, enlisting the support of Cuban workers and socialist leaders to form the Cuban Revolutionary Party, put into motion the Cuban war of independence.[85] His foresight into the future, shown in his warnings against American political interests for Cuba, was confirmed by the swift occupation of Cuba by the United States following the Spanish–American War. His belief in the inseparability of Cuban and Latin American sovereignty and the expression thereof in his writings have contributed to the shape of the modern Latin American Identity. Through his beliefs for Cuban and Latin American sovereignty, Cuba revolted on former allies.[84] This is why Cuba became an independent nation. His works are a cornerstone of Latin American and political literature and his prolific contributions to the fields of journalism, poetry, and prose are highly acclaimed.[86]

Martí's writings on the concepts of Cuban nationalism fuelled the 1895 revolution and have continued to inform conflicting visions of the Cuban nation. The Cuban nation-state under Fidel Castro consistently claimed Martí as a crucial inspiration for its Communist revolutionary government. During Castro's tenure, the politics and death of Marti were used to justify certain actions of the Cuban state.[87] The Cuban government claimed that Marti had supported a single party system, creating a precedent for a communist government.[87] The vast amount of writing that Marti produced in his lifetime makes it difficult to determine his exact political ideology, but his major goal was the liberation of Cuba from Spain and the establishment of a democratic republican government.[88] Despite Marti never having supported communism or single party systems,[87] Cuban leaders repeatedly claimed that Marti's Partido Revolucionario Cubano was a "forerunner of the Communist Party".[87] Martí's nuanced, often ambivalent positions on the most important issues of his day[89] have led Marxist interpreters to see a class conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie as the main theme of his works, while others, namely the Cuban diasporic communities in Miami and elsewhere have identified a liberal-capitalist emphasis.[90] These Cuban exiles still honor Martí as a figure of hope for the Cuban nation in exile and condemn Castro's government for manipulating his works and creating a "Castroite Martí" to justify its "intolerance and abridgments of human rights".[91] His writings thus remain a key ideological weapon in the battle over the fate of the Cuban nation.

One further example of his legacy is that his name has been chosen for several institutions or NGOs from various countries, such as Romania, where a public school from Bucharest and the Romanian-Cuban Friendship Association from Targoviste are both named "Jose Marti".

Havana's international airport is named after Martí.

A gigantic statue of Martí was unveiled in Havana on his 123rd birth anniversary, and Cuban president Raul Castro was present at the ceremony.[92]

The National Association of Hispanic Publications, a non-profit organization to promote Hispanic publications, each stage stores credit card designates the José Martí Awards for excellence in Hispanic media. The awards are given for Editorial Articles, Editorial Sections, Design, Photographs, Marketing, and Best Overall Categories.[93]

List of selected works[]

Martí's fundamental works published during his life

  • 1869 January: Abdala
  • 1869 January: "10 de octubre"
  • 1871: El presidio político en Cuba
  • 1873: La República Española ante la revolución cubana
  • 1875: Amor con amor se paga
  • 1882: Ismaelillo
  • 1882 February: cambridge savings bank porter square hours vs. Sullivan
  • 1882 February: Un incendio
  • 1882 July: El ajusticiamiento de Guiteau
  • 1883 January: "Batallas de la Paz"
  • 1883 March: " Que son graneros humanos"
  • 1883 March: Karl Marx ha muerto
  • 1883 March:El Puente de Brooklyn
  • 1883 September: "En Coney Island se vacía Nueva York"
  • 1883 December:" Los políticos de oficio"
  • 1883 December: "Bufalo Bil"
  • 1884 April:"Los caminadores"
  • 1884 November: Norteamericanos
  • 1884 November:El juego de pelota de pies
  • 1885: Amistad funesta
  • 1885 January:Teatro en Nueva York
  • 1885 '"Una gran rosa de bronce encendida"
  • 1885 March:Los fundadores de la constitución
  • 1885 June: "Somos pueblo original"
  • 1885 August: "Los políticos tiene sus púgiles"
  • 1886 May: Las revueltas anarquistas de Chicago
  • 1886 September: " La ensenanza"
  • 1886 October: "La Estatua de la Libertad"
  • 1887 April: El poeta Walt Whitman
  • 1887 April: El Madison Square
  • 1887 November: Ejecución de los dirigentes anarquistas de Chicago
  • 1887 November: La gran Nevada
  • 1888 May: El ferrocarril elevado
  • 1888 August: Verano en Nueva York
  • 1888 November: " Ojos abiertos, y gargantas secas"
  • 1888 November: "Amanece y ya es fragor"
  • 1889: 'La edad de oro'
  • 1889 May: El centenario de George Washington
  • 1889 July: Bañistas
  • 1889 August: "Nube Roja"
  • 1889 September: "La caza de negros"
  • 1890 November: " El jardín de las orquídeas"
  • 1891 October:Versos Sencillos
  • 1891 January: "Nuestra América"
  • 1894 January: " ¡A Cuba!"
  • 1895: Manifiesto de Montecristi- coauthor with Máximo Gómez

Martí's major posthumous works

See also[]

  • International José Martí Prize
  • Radio y Televisión Martí
  • José Rizal, Philippine national hero also executed by the Spanish in 1896
  • Bust of José Martí, Houston, Texas

Notes[]

  1. ↑Hudson, Michael. "Speech to the Communist Party of Cuba". http://michael-hudson.com/2000/01/speech-to-the-communist-party-of-cuba/. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  2. ↑Mace, Elisabeth. "The economic thinking of Jose Marti: Legacy foundation for the integration of America". Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. https://archive.is/20150908183320/http://www.akimoo.com/2013/the-economic-thinking-of-jose-marti-legacy-foundation-for-the-integration-of-america/. Retrieved 5 August 2015. 
  3. ↑"Jose Marti, apostle of Cuban Independence". http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/marti/marti.htm. 
  4. ↑Garganigo, John F. Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997. P 272
  5. 5.05.15.2https://www.peoplesworld.org/article/jose-marti-soul-of-the-cuban-revolution/
  6. 6.06.16.2https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/jose-martis-bust-on-pico-turquino
  7. 7.07.1Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 15
  8. ↑Fidalgo 1998, p. 26
  9. 9.09.19.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 16
  10. ↑López 2006, p. 232
  11. ↑"End of Slavery in Cuba". http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/race/EndSlave.htm. 
  12. ↑Jones 1953, p. 398
  13. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 18
  14. 14.014.114.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 23
  15. ↑Martí 1963a, p. 48
  16. 16.016.116.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 24
  17. ↑Pérez-Galdós Ortiz 1999, p. 45
  18. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 30
  19. 19.019.119.219.3Jones 1953, p. 399
  20. 20.020.1Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 46
  21. ↑It is common, and in fact legal, practice in Spanish-speaking societies to use and include the maternal surname as the "second" last name, such that both surnames are the legal and customary surname of an individual. E.g., Pérez López means that in non-Spanish societies esp. anglophone societies, Pérez is the correct surname to which to refer; otherwise, 'both' names together are the legal surname.
  22. ↑Guatemala was one of the first regions of the New World to be exposed to European music
  23. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 52
  24. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 56
  25. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 107
  26. ↑Gray 1966, p. 389
  27. ↑Gray 1966, p. 390
  28. ↑García Cisneros 1986, p. 56
  29. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 4
  30. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 159
  31. 31.031.1Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 167
  32. ↑Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 184
  33. ↑Tone 2006, p. 43
  34. 34.034.134.2Alborch Bataller 1995, p. 191
  35. 35.035.1Gray 1966, p. 391
  36. ↑Tone 2006, p. 48
  37. ↑Gray 1966, p. 392
  38. ↑Martí 1963b, pp. 93–94
  39. ↑Scott 1984, p. 87
  40. ↑Ramos 2001, pp. 34–35
  41. ↑Martí 1963c, p. 172
  42. ↑Martí 1963d, p. 192
  43. ↑Ronning 1990, p. 103
  44. ↑Martí 1963e, p. 270
  45. ↑Bueno 1997, p. 158
  46. ↑Abel 1986, p. 26
  47. ↑Turton 1986, p. 57
  48. ↑Giles, Paul (Spring 2004). "The Parallel Worlds of Jose Marti". pp. 185–190. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/169486/pdf. Retrieved 16 November 2017. 
  49. ↑Holden & Zolov 2000, p. 249
  50. ↑Turton 1986, p. 47
  51. ↑Holden & Solov 2000, p. 179
  52. 52.052.1Kirk 1977, p. 278
  53. ↑Kirk 1977, pp. 278–79 Martí thought that US expansionism represented the Spanish American republics' "greatest danger"
  54. ↑Kirk 1977, p. 279
  55. 55.055.155.2Kirk 1977, p. 280
  56. ↑Kirk 1977, p. 281
  57. 57.057.157.2Kirk 1977, p. 282
  58. ↑Kirk 1977, p. 284
  59. ↑Fernández 1995, p. 46[Clarification needed]
  60. ↑http://en.escambray.cu/2017/fidel-castro-loyal-follower-of-jose-marti/
  61. ↑https://www.jstor.org/stable/24485980?seq=1
  62. ↑https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-38201169
  63. ↑https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/fidel-castro-en/article117762148.html
  64. ↑Lally, Carolyn. "Foreign Language Program Articulation: Current Practice and Future Prospects." 2001. p. 54.
  65. ↑Garganigo et al., p. 272[Clarification needed]
  66. ↑Martí 1992, p. 8[Clarification needed]
  67. ↑Roscoe 1947, p. 280
  68. ↑Nassif 1994, p. 2
  69. 69.069.1Oberhelman 2001, p. 475
  70. ↑Martí, José, Manuel A.Tellechea Versos Sencillos. U of Houston: Arte Público Press, 1997
  71. ↑ Morukian, Maria. "Cubanidad: Survival of Cuban Culture Identity in the 21st Century".
  72. ↑Fernández Retamar 1970, p. 38
  73. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 6
  74. ↑Hernández Pardo 2000, p. 146
  75. ↑Garganigo, p. 273[Clarification needed]
  76. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 13
  77. ↑Fountain 2003, p. 15
  78. ↑Fernández Retamar 1970, p. 16
  79. ↑"la traducción debe ser natural, para que parezca como si el libro hubiese sido escrito en la lengua al que lo traduces." De la Cuesta 1996, p. 7
  80. ↑Serna 2002, p. 13
  81. 81.081.1Serna 2002, p. 14
  82. 82.082.1Serna 2002, p. 16
  83. ↑Lopez 2006, p. 11
  84. 84.084.1Jordan, David (1993). Revolutionary Cuba and the End of the Cold War. University Press Of America. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-8191-8998-1. 
  85. ↑Ronning 1990, p. 3
  86. ↑Cairo 2003, p. 25
  87. 87.087.187.287.3Ripoll, Carlos (1994). "The Falsification of Jose Marti in Cuba". pp. 3–38. JSTOR 24485768. 
  88. ↑Lecuona, Rafael (March 1991). "Jose Marti and Fidel Castro". pp. 45–61. JSTOR 20751650. 
  89. ↑Lopez 2006, p. 12
  90. ↑Ripoll 1984, p. 45
  91. ↑Ripoll 1984, p. 40
  92. ↑"Cuba unveils US statue of national hero Jose Marti". https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/01/cuba-unveils-statue-national-hero-jose-marti-180129071328989.html. 
  93. ↑"José Martí Awards". National Association of Hispanic Publications. 2016-11-17. https://nahp.org/about-nahp/jose-marti-awards/. 

References[]

  • Abel, Christopher. José Martí: Revolutionary Democrat. London: Athlone. 1986.
  • Alborch Bataller, Carmen, ed (1995). "José Martí: obra y vida". Ministerio de Cultura, Ediciones Siruela. ISBN 978-84-7844-300-0. .
  • Bueno, Salvador (1997). "José Martí y su periódico Patria". Puvill. ISBN 978-84-85202-75-1. .
  • Cairo, Ana. Jose Marti y la novela de la cultura cubana. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. 2003.
  • De La Cuesta, Leonel Antonio. Martí, Traductor. Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca. 1996.
  • Fernández, Teodosio (1995). "José Martí: historia y literatura ante el fin del siglo XIX". In Alemany Bay, Carmen; Muñoz, Ramiro; Rovira, José Carlos. Universidad de Alicante. pp. ??. ISBN 978-84-7908-308-3. .[page needed]
  • Fernández Retamar, Roberto (1970). "Martí". Biblioteca de Marcha. OCLC 253831187. .
  • Fidalgo, Jose Antonio. "El Doctor Fermín Valdés-Domínguez, Hombre de Ciencias y Su Posible Influencia Recíproca Con José Martí" Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Pública 1998 (84) pp. 26–34
  • Fountain, Anne (2003). "José Martí and U.S. Writers". University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-2617-6. .
  • García Cisneros, Florencio (1986). "Máximo Gómez: caudillo o dictador?". Librería & Distribuidora Universal. ISBN 978-0-9617456-0-8. .
  • Garganigo, John F.; Costa, Rene; Heller, Ben, eds (1997). "Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas". Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-825100-0. .[Clarification needed]
  • Gray, Richard B. (April 1966). "The Quesadas of Cuba: Biographers and Editors of José Martí y Pérez". Academy of American Franciscan History. pp. 389–403. Digital object identifier:10.2307/979019. JSTOR 979019. .
  • Hernández Pardo, Héctor (2000). "Luz para el siglo XXI: actualidad del pensamiento de José Martí". Ediciones Libertarias. ISBN 978-84-7954-561-1. .
  • Holden, Robert H.; Zolov, Eric (2000). "Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History". Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512993-9. .
  • Jones, Willis Knapp (December 1953). "The Martí Centenary". Blackwell Publishing. pp. 398–402. Digital object identifier:10.2307/320047. JSTOR 320047. .
  • Kirk, John M. (November 1977). "Jose Marti and the United States: A Further Interpretation". Cambridge University Press. pp. 275–90. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0022216X00020617. JSTOR 156129. http://DalSpace.library.dal.ca/bitstream/10222/21684/1/kirk_1977.pdf. .
  • Kirk, John M. José Martí, Mentor of the Cuban Nation. Tampa: University Presses of Florida, c1983.
  • López, Alfred J. (2006). "José Martí and the Future of Cuban Nationalisms". University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-2999-3. .
  • López, Alfred J. (2014). "José Martí: A Revolutionary Life". University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-73906-2. .
  • Martí, José (1963a). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 46–50. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963b). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 93–97. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963c). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 172–73. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963d). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. OCLC 263517905. .
  • Martí, José (1963e). "Obras Completas". Editorial Nacional de Cuba. pp. 266–70. OCLC 263517908. .[page needed]
  • Martí, José (1992). "La edad de oro: edición crítica anotada y prologada". In Fernández Retamar, Roberto. Fondo de cultura económica. ISBN 978-968-16-3503-9. .[Clarification needed]
  • Martí, José, Manuel A.Tellechea Versos Sencillos. U of Houston: Arte Público Press, 1997
  • Morukian, Maria. "Cubanidad: Survival of Cuban Culture Identity in the 21st Century".
  • Nassif, Ricardo. "Jose Martí (1853–95) ". Originally published in Prospects:the quarterly review of comparative education(Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. XXIV, no. 1/2, 1994, pp. 107–19
  • Oberhelman, Harley D. (September 2014). "Reviewed work(s): Versos Sencillos by José Martí. A Translation by Anne Fountain". American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese. pp. 474–75. Digital object identifier:10.2307/3657792. JSTOR 3657792. .
  • Pérez-Galdós Ortiz, Víctor. José Martí: Visión de un Hombre Universal. Barcelona: Puvill Libros Ltd. 1999.
  • Quiroz, Alfonso. "The Cuban Republic and José Martí: reception and use of a national symbol". Lexington Books, 2006
  • Ripoll, Carlos. Jose Marti and the United States, and the Marxist interpretation of Cuban History. New Jersey: Transaction Inc. 1984.
  • Ronning, C. Neale. Jose Marti and the emigre colony in Key West. New York: Praeger. 1990.
  • Roscoe, Hill R. (October 1947). "Book Reviews". Academy of American Franciscan History. pp. 278–80. JSTOR 977985. .
  • Scott, Rebecca J. "Explaining Abolition: Contradiction, Adaptation, and Challenge in Cuban Slave Society, 1860–1886". Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 83–111
Источник: https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Mart%C3%AD

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Contrary to what the previous reviewer opined, there is nothing maladroit about the translation. Disconnect Desencuentro (EnglishSpanish edition of stories by Nancy Alonso) Trans.

It discusses Mart's place in literature, especially Spanish American letters, his transcultural importance, his work in translation, his role in the history of CubanUS relations, and his vision for US relations with Latin America. Guadalajara, Mxico, 25 nov.- El Centro de Estudios Martianos (CEM), dedicado a promover la obra del Storage units in south shore Nacional de Cuba, Jos Mart, ocupa un espacio del stand de ese pas en la Feria Internacional del Libro (FIL) de Guadalajara. Anne Fountain, San Jose State University Disciplines. Emma Otheguy presenta y lee fragmentos de su nuevo libro bilinge para nios Mart y sus versos por la libertad cox phoenix pay bill phone Mart erudito. Versos s encillos (1891), Mart escribi Un nio lo vio tembl De pas in por lo s que gimen Y al p ie del mu erto, jur Lav ar con su vi da el crimen. This presentation was apart of the NEH Summer Institute, The Center for Jos Mart Studies Affiliate at the University of Tampa. Scopri Versos Sencillos A Dual-Language Edition (Spanish Edition) by Jose Marti (-08-31) di Jose Marti Pete Seeger Anne Fountain spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29 spediti da Amazon. ' La Edad De Oro' Jose Marti- After his death, one of his poems from the book, Versos Sencillos (Simple Verses) was adapted to the song, Guantanamera, which has become the definitive patriotic song of Cuba. Dr. Fountain has done a superb job of capturing Marti's work in translation. Simple Verses (Spanish Versos sencillos) is a poetry collection by Cuban writer and independence hero Jos Mart. Anne Owen Fountain is the author of Versos Sencillos (4.20 avg rating, 422 ratings, 31 reviews, published 1891)

It does not contain an English translation of Marti's poetry, as suggested by the reviews and the information provided by Amazon regarding the translator. Versos sencillos by Jos Mart, Manuel A. Tellechea, Anne Fountain,McFarland & Co. edition, in English - A dual-language ed., rev. It is known in the U.S. through Pete Seeger's rendition of the classic Cuban folk song Guantanamera, which consists of excerpts from Marti's Versos SencillosSimple Verses (including the 2nd and 3rd stanzas of this particular poem). This is a Spanish language edition, only. Anne and Vollendorf, Lisa, Versos Sencillos.

por cortesa, se reunieron en Washington, bajo el guila temible, los pueblos. This book focuses on Jos Mart's reflections and critique of social, cultural, and political events in the United States between the years of 18, bringing together some of the most recognized scholars from the United States, Cuba, South America, and Europe studying Mart in a unique contribution and collaborative international effort. Yo s los nombres extraos De las yerbas y las flores, Y de mortales engaos, Y de sublimes dolores. Zaida del Rio's Ciervo herido (Wounded Deer) was inspired by a passage from Marti's iconic poetry collection Versos Sencillos (Simple Verses).

The Simple Verses is one of Jose Marti's most famous and universal poems. Versos sencillos, bilingual edition, english and spanish. Originally written in Spanish, it has been translated into over ten languages.

Versos Sencillos by Jose Marti - Jose Marti, Anne Fountain 2019 NEH SUMMER INSTITUTE JOS MART AND THE IMMIGRANT.

Versos sencillos.

About Jos Mart. Versos sencillos I. Jose Marti Books. Jos Mart The World's Most Popular Poetry, and a Vision. $1($2). Versos sencillos (2005 edition). Versos Sencillos by Jose Marti A Translation Marti, Jose. Programa Feria Internacional del Libro Centro de Estudios. For those who enjoy reading English. Books about Jose Marti, Apostle of Cuban Independence. (PDF) Mi raza, o Jos Mart, el racista bueno Primera Parte.

Versos Sencillos by Marti, Jose, Fountain, Anne. Https 53 biller direct express com ebpp hhwmwpremium the Americas Jos Mart and the Shaping of National. Marti Jose free downloadbooks libraryn. Vidal, Beatriz WorldCat Identities. Simple Verses. WOUNDED DEER Signed Cuba Silkscreen by ZAIDA Salutes Cuban. Versos Sencillos A Dual. Celebran Semana Martiana en Governors Island. Versos Sencillos by Jos Mart, Anne Fountain et al$1 Conferencia Internacional sobre Jos Mart en Tampa. Versos Sencillos by Jos Mart. 0786423862. Versos Sencillos by Jos Mart (2005, Perfect) for sale. 9780786423866 Versos Sencillos A Dual. Anne Owen Fountain (Author of Versos Sencillos by Jose Marti). JOSE MARTI OBRAS ESCOGIDASESTENGERCUBAPOETRYLEATHERRARE.

Versos Sencillos by Jos Mart, A Translation by Anne Fountain. Jos Mart The World's Most Popular Poetry, and a Vision for. Jose Marti Poems, Quotes, Biography & Facts. Versos sencillos Marti y Perez, Jose 9788498160017 Books. 10 mejores imgenes de Con los pobres de la tierra. Editions of Versos Sencillos Simple Verses by Jos Mart. Anne Anita Fountain Cubanabooks CSU, Chico.

Anne (Anita) Fountain Curriculum Vitae Activities since 2009. Jos Mart El camino de ida y regreso desde Estados Unidos. Versos sencillos, bilingual edition, english and spanish. Versos Sencillos Jose Marti, Anne Fountain.

Versos sencillos,bilingual edition,english and. Jos Mart Weekend October 14 & 15 Empire State Center for. Obras de Jos Mart en Feria del Libro de Guadalajara. Fountain, Anne Oby San Jose State University. Centenary Translations Versos Libres by Jose Marti, 1913. Versos sencillos (Book, 2005). jose marti y perez dfinition de jose marti y perez et. Amazon Versos Sencillos A Dual.

Closed for Repairs. Customer reviews North easton savings bank eastman street Sencillos by Jose Marti. 19 JOSE MARTI ideas.

Versos sencillos Jos Mart translated by Anne Fountain.

Teaching Translations of Translations.

2019 NEH Summer Institute Jos Mart and American Thinkers.

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