columbia come

A nonprofit organization that is dedicated to preserving and promoting South Carolina's agricultural roots while supporting statewide education. Cumbia is Colombia's national dance, one of its most representative rhythms and the source and inspiration behind much of Where did cumbia come from? You'll explore the ancient Athabasca Glacier on a giant Ice Explorer, discovering glaciology and stepping right on to the glacier itself. Then, history comes.

Columbia come -

Columbia (personification)

Female national personification of the United States

"Miss Columbia" redirects here. For other uses, see Miss Columbia (disambiguation) and Columbia (disambiguation).

Columbia (; kə-LUM-bee-ə) is the female national personification of the United States. It was also a historical name applied to the Americas and to the New World. The association has given rise to the names of many American places, objects, institutions and companies, including the District of Columbia; Columbia, South Carolina; Columbia University; "Hail, Columbia" and Columbia Rediviva; the Columbia River; and the Canadian province of British Columbia. Images of the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World, erected in 1886) largely displaced personified Columbia as the female symbol of the United States by around 1920, although Lady Liberty was seen as an aspect of Columbia.[1] However, Columbia's most prominent display today is being part of the logo of the Hollywood film studio Columbia Pictures.

Columbia is a New Latintoponym, in use since the 1730s with reference to the Thirteen Colonies which formed the United States. It originated from the name of the Genoese explorer Christopher Columbus and from the Latin ending -ia, common in the Latin names of countries (paralleling Britannia, Gallia, Zealandia, and others).

History[edit]

Early[edit]

Main article: Personification of the Americas

The earliest type of personification of the Americas, seen in European art from the 16th century onwards, reflected the tropical regions in South and Central America from which the earliest travellers reported back. These were most often used in sets of female personifications of the Four Continents. America was depicted as a woman who, like Africa, was only partly dressed, typically in bright feathers, which invariably formed her headress. She often held a parrot, was seated on a caiman or alligator, with a cornucopia. Sometimes a severed head was a further attribute, or in prints scenes of cannibalism were seen in the background.[2]

18th century[edit]

Though versions of this depiction, tending as time went on to soften the rather savage image into an "Indian princess" type, and in churches emphasizing conversion to Christianity, served European artists well enough, by the 18th century they were becoming rejected by settlers in North America, who wanted figures representing themselves rather than the Native Americans they were often in conflict with.[3]

Massachusetts Chief Justice Samuel Sewall used the name Columbina (not Columbia) for the New World in 1697.[4] The name Columbia for America first appeared in 1738[5][6] in the weekly publication of the debates of Parliament in Edward Cave's The Gentleman's Magazine. Publication of Parliamentary debates was technically illegal, so the debates were issued under the thin disguise of Reports of the Debates of the Senate of Lilliput and fictitious names were used for most individuals and placenames found in the record. Most of these were transparent anagrams or similar distortions of the real names and some few were taken directly from Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels while a few others were classical or neoclassical in style. Such were Ierne for Ireland, Iberia for Spain, Noveborac for New York (from Eboracum, the Roman name for York) and Columbia for America—at the time used in the sense of "European colonies in the New World".[7]

Columbia and an early rendition of Uncle Samin an 1869 Thomas Nast cartoon having Thanksgiving dinner with a diverse group of immigrants[8][9]

By the time of the Revolution, the name Columbia had lost the comic overtone of its Lilliputian origins and had become established as an alternative, or poetic name for America. While the name America is necessarily scanned with four syllables, according to 18th-century rules of English versification Columbia was normally scanned with three, which is often more metrically convenient. For instance, the name appears in a collection of complimentary poems written by Harvard graduates in 1761 on the occasion of the marriage and coronation of King George III.[10]

Behold, Britannia! in thy favour'd Isle;
At distance, thou, Columbia! view thy Prince,
For ancestors renowned, for virtues more;[11]

The name Columbia rapidly came to be applied to a variety of items reflecting American identity. A ship built in Massachusetts in 1773 received the name Columbia Rediviva and it later became famous as an exploring ship and lent its name to new Columbias.

After Independence[edit]

No serious consideration was given to using the name Columbia as an official name for the independent United States,[citation needed] but with independence, the name became popular and was given to many counties, townships, and towns as well as other institutions.

  • In 1784, the former King's College in New York City had its name changed to Columbia College, which became the nucleus of the present-day Ivy League Columbia University.
  • In 1786, South Carolina gave the name Columbia to its new capital city. Columbia is also the name of at least 19 other towns in the United States.
  • In 1791, three commissioners appointed by President George Washington named the area destined for the seat of the United States government the Territory of Columbia. In 1801, it was organized as the District of Columbia.
  • In 1792, the Columbia Rediviva sailing ship gave its name to the Columbia River in the American Northwest (much later, the Rediviva gave its name to the Space Shuttle Columbia).
  • In 1798, Joseph Hopkinson wrote lyrics for Philip Phile's 1789 inaugural "President's March" under the new title of "Hail, Columbia". Once used as de facto national anthem of the United States, it is now used as the entrance march of the Vice President of the United States.
  • In 1821, citizens of Boone County, Missouri, chose the name for their new city, Columbia, Missouri,
  • In 1865 Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon, the spacecraft to the Moon was fired from a giant Columbiad cannon.

In part, the more frequent usage of the name "Columbia" reflected a rising American neoclassicism, exemplified in the tendency to use Roman terms and symbols. The selection of the eagle as the national bird, the heraldric use of the eagle, the use of the term Senate to describe the upper house of Congress and the naming of Capitol Hill and the Capitol building were all conscious evocations of Roman precedents.

The adjective Columbian has been used to mean "of or from the United States of America" such as in the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, Illinois. It has occasionally been proposed as an alternative word for American.

Columbian should not be confused with the adjective pre-Columbian, which refers to a time period before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. Columbia should also not be confused with the modern-day Republic of Colombia.

Personification[edit]

Columbia wearing a warship bearing the words "World Power" as her "Easter bonnet" (cover of Puck, April 6, 1901)

As a quasi-mythical figure, Columbia first appears in the poetry of the African-American Phillis Wheatley in 1776, during the Revolutionary War:[12]

One century scarce perform'd its destined round,
When Gallic powers Columbia's fury found;
And so may you, whoever dares disgrace
The land of freedom's heaven-defended race!
Fix'd are the eyes of nations on the scales,
For in their hopes Columbia's arm prevails.[13]

Especially in the 19th century, Columbia was visualized as a goddess-like female national personification of the United States and of liberty itself, comparable to the British Britannia, the Italian Italia Turrita and the French Marianne, often seen in political cartoons of the 19th and early 20th century. The personification was sometimes called Lady Columbia or Miss Columbia. Such an iconography usually personified America in the form of an Indian queen or Native American princess.[14]

The image of the personified Columbia was never fixed, but she was most often presented as a woman between youth and middle age, wearing classically-draped garments decorated with stars and stripes. A popular version gave her a red-and-white-striped dress and a blue blouse, shawl, or sash, spangled with white stars. Her headdress varied and sometimes it included feathers reminiscent of a Native American headdress while other times it was a laurel wreath, but most often, it was a cap of liberty.

Early in World War I (1914–1918), the image of Columbia standing over a kneeling "Doughboy" was issued in lieu of the Purple Heart medal. She gave "to her son the accolade of the new chivalry of humanity" for injuries sustained in "the" World War.

In World War I, the name Liberty Bond for savings bonds was heavily publicized, often with images from the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World). The personification of Columbia fell out of use and was largely replaced by the Statue of Liberty as a feminine symbol of the United States.[15]

The goddess of Liberty was also struck onto the face of half-dollar US coins known as Walking Liberty.

After Columbia Pictures adopted Columbia as its logo in 1924, she has since appeared as bearing a torch similar to that of the Statue of Liberty, unlike 19th-century depictions of Columbia. The Columbia Pictures logo is the most famous and prominent display of Columbia to many current living Americans.

The logo that Columbia used starting in 1936 and ending in 1976. This version was used on the Color Rhapsodycartoons.

Statues of the personified Columbia may be found among others in the following places:

Modern appearances[edit]

Since 1800, the name "Columbia" has been used for a wide variety of items.

  • The naming of the New World and of the newly-independent country of Colombia after Christopher Columbus in the early 19th century is discussed at Colombia § Etymology.
  • Columbia, Missouri
  • In the 1840s, British Columbia, which is now a province of Canada, was named by Queen Victoria. The details of the naming of the Columbia River and the Columbia provinces around it are discussed at British Columbia § Etymology.
  • The element niobium was first called columbium, a name which some people still use today. The name columbium, coined by the chemist Charles Hatchett upon his discovery of the metal in 1801,[18] reflected that the type specimen of the ore came from America.[19]
  • Avenues and streets in various cities and towns throughout the United States named Columbia Avenue or Columbia Street, such as the Columbia Avenue Historic District in Davenport, Iowa, and various Columbia Avenues in Pennsylvania cities.
  • Columbia County, Wisconsin
  • Columbia County, Pennsylvania.
  • Columbia, Kentucky in Adair County.
  • Columbia, Pennsylvania in Lancaster County.
  • Columbia, Maryland in Howard County.
  • Columbia, Connecticut in Tolland County.
  • The South Carolina state capital of Columbia, located in Richland County.
  • Columbia, Missouri in Boone County.
  • Columbia, Tennessee in Maury County.
  • Columbia Square, Savannah
  • Columbia University, an Ivy League university in New York City that first adopted the name Columbia College in 1784 to replace King's College
  • The song "Hail, Columbia," an American patriotic song. It was considered with several other songs one of the unofficial national anthems of the United States until 1931, when "The Star-Spangled Banner" was officially named the national anthem.
  • The song "Columbia, Gem of the Ocean" (1843) commemorates the United States under the name Columbia.
  • Columbia Records, founded in 1888, took its name from its headquarters in the District of Columbia.
  • Columbia Pictures, named in 1924, uses a version of the personified Columbia as its logo after a great deal of experimentation.[20]
  • CBS's former legal name was the Columbia Broadcasting System, first used in 1928. The name derived from an investor, the Columbia Phonograph Manufacturing Company, which owned Columbia Records.
  • The Command Module of the Apollo 11 spacecraft, the first crewed mission to land on the Moon, was named Columbia (1969).
  • The Space Shuttle Columbia, built in 1975 to 1979, was named for the exploring ship Columbia.
  • A personified Columbia appears in Uncle Sam, a graphic novel about American history (1997).
  • The setting of the 2013 video game BioShock Infinite is the fictional city of Columbia, which makes frequent use of Columbia's image. Columbia herself is believed to be an archangel by the citizens.
  • Columbia, played by Laura Bell Bundy, appears in season two of the Starz series American Gods, based on the 2001 novel of the same name by Neil Gaiman.
  • The Columbia Typographical Union/CWA No. 101 is the oldest existing local union in the United States.

Gallery[edit]

  • Political cartoon from 1860 depicting Stephen A. Douglas receiving a spanking from Columbia as Uncle Sam looks on approvingly

  • A defiant Columbia in an 1871 Thomas Nast cartoon shown protecting a defenseless Chinese man from an angry Irish lynch mob that has just burned down an orphanage

  • Columbia in an 1865 Thomas Nast cartoon asking the government to allow black soldiers to vote

  • Columbia (representing the American people) reaches out to oppressed Cuba with blindfolded Uncle Sam in background (Judge, February 6, 1897; cartoon by Grant E. Hamilton)

  • Columbia at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific

  • Lady Columbia recognized World War I Doughboy soldier as having suffered injury due to his willingness to serve humanity

  • Columbia Calls – Enlist Now for U.S. Army, World War I recruitment poster by Vincent Aderente

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Donald Dewey (2007). The Art of Ill Will: The Story of American Political Cartoons. New York University Press. p. 13. ISBN . Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  2. ^Le Corbellier, 210–218; Higham, 45–52
  3. ^Higham, 55–57
  4. ^Thomas J. Schlereth, "Columbia, Columbus, and Columbianism" in The Journal of American History, v. 79, no. 3 (1992), 939
  5. ^The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. 8, June 1738, p. 285
  6. ^Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Dec. 1885, pp. 159–65
  7. ^Debates in Parliament, Samuel Johnson.
  8. ^Kennedy, Robert C. (November 2001). "Uncle Sam's Thanksgiving Dinner, Artist: Thomas Nast". On This Day: HarpWeek. The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on November 23, 2001. Retrieved November 23, 2001.
  9. ^Walfred, Michele (July 2014). "Uncle Sam's Thanksgiving Dinner: Two Coasts, Two Perspectives". Thomas Nast Cartoons. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  10. ^Hoyt, Albert. "The Name 'Columbia'", The New England Historical & Genealogical Register, July 1886, pp. 310–13.
  11. ^Pietas et Gratulatio Collegii Cantabrigiensis apud Novanglos, no. xxix. Boston, Green and Russell, 1761.
  12. ^Steele, Thomas J. (1981). "The Figure of Columbia: Phillis Wheatley plus George Washington". The New England Quarterly. 54 (2): 264–266. doi:10.2307/364975. ISSN 0028-4866. JSTOR 364975.
  13. ^Selections from Phillis Wheatley Poems and LettersArchived 2006-09-08 at archive.today
  14. ^"Origins: The Female Form as Allegory". Archived from the original on 2019-10-23. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
  15. ^David E. Nye (1996). American Technological Sublime. MIT Press. p. 266. ISBN .
  16. ^"Hail Columbia". Hail Columbia. Archived from the original on November 18, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
  17. ^Literata (2011). "Columbia". The Order of the White Moon Goddess Gallery. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
  18. ^Hatchett, Charles (1802), "Outline of the Properties and Habitudes of the Metallic Substance, lately discovered by Charles Hatchett, Esq. and by him denominated Columbium", Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts, I (January): 32–34.
  19. ^Nicholson, William, ed. (1809), The British Encyclopedia: Or, Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Comprising an Accurate and Popular View of the Present Improved State of Human Knowledge, 2, Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, p. 284.
  20. ^Bernard F. Dick. The Merchant Prince of Poverty Row: Harry Cohn of Columbia Pictures. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 40–42.

Sources[edit]

  • Higham, John (1990). "Indian Princess and Roman Goddess: The First Female Symbols of America", Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society. 100: 50–51, JSTOR or PDF
  • Le Corbeiller, Clare, "Miss America and Her Sisters: Personifications of the Four Parts of the World", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 19, pp. 210–223, PDF
  • George R. Stewart (1967). Names on the Land. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Columbia.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_(personification)
Bertrand W. Sinclair

  • Thickets were swept as with a great jagged scythe by the leaden hail which swept through them.

    The Courier of the Ozarks Justin Jones Rich Goldstein

    Colombia

    The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) advise against all but essential travel to:

    • the departments of Arauca and Guaviare (except their capital cities)
    • the department of Chocó (except its capital Quibdó, the whale-watching towns of Nuquí and Bahía Solano, and the tourist site of Capurganá)
    • the Ariari region of southern Meta (except the tourist site of Caño Cristales - if travelling to Caño Cristales, travel by air to and from the town of La Macarena with a reputable tour company)
    • the South Pacific, Sanquianga and Telembi regions of Nariño
    • the Western region of Cauca
    • Buenaventura in the department of Valle del Cauca
    • the Urabá and Bajo Cauca regions of Antioquia
    • the region of Southern-Bolívar
    • the region of Southern-Córdoba
    • the Catatumbo region of Norte de Santander
    • Orito, San Migue, Valle del Guamuez, Puerto Caicedo, Puerto Guzmán, Puerto Asis and Puerto Leguizamo in Putumayo
    • Cartagena del Chairá, San Vicente del Caguan, Puerto Rico, El Doncello, Paujil and La Montañita in Caquetá
    • the municipality of Puerto Carreño in Vichada, except the departmental capital
    • within 5km of the Venezuelan border and within 5km of the Ecuadorian border, except for the border crossing on the Pan-American highway, at Ipiales.

    If you’re travelling to Colombia during coronavirus, see the Coronavirus page for more information.

    During the COVID-19 pandemic it is more important than ever to get travel insurance and check your cover. See the FCDO’s guidance on foreign travel insurance.

    For information about COVID-19 vaccines, see the Coronavirus page.

    There have been large scale protests in recent months which could recur at any time. These demonstrations can be confrontational and may turn violent. A number of people have been killed and injured. You should remain vigilant, avoid all demonstrations, and monitor local media for the latest information.

    Terrorists are very likely to try to carry out attacks in Colombia. The security situation can change very quickly in many areas of the country. You should pay close attention to warnings issued by the Colombian authorities. See Terrorism

    Despite high levels of crime, most visits to Colombia are trouble-free. See Crime

    If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. Consular support is limited in parts of Colombia where we advise against all but essential travel and areas where there is a limited state presence. When consular support is unavailable, the British Embassy will liaise with local authorities to request assistance.

    If you need to contact the emergency services, call 123 (in Spanish).

    UK health authorities have classified Colombia as having a risk of Zika virus transmission. For more information and advice, visit the website of the National Travel Health Network and Centre website.

    The Overseas Business Risk service offers information and advice for British companies operating overseas on how to manage political, economic, and business security-related risks.

    Источник: https://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice/colombia

    Columbia is on the short list for a $200M meat plant with 251 jobs


    Columbia is on the short list of locations for Swift Prepared Foods, which is seeking a location for a $200 million Italian meats processing plant to open in 2022.

    Columbia is one of three locations the company is considering, said Bernie Andrews, executive vice president of Regional Economic Development Inc., by phone on Wednesday.

    Company officials on Tuesday made their pitch to the Chapter 100 Review Panel over Zoom. It includes members of each taxing entity involved.

    The company has made an application for the issuance of Chapter 100 Revenue Bonds. Related to that, it is seeking 75% property tax forgiveness for 10 years.

    The 251 full-time jobs would have an average annual wage of $52,693. The plant's annual payroll would be $13.23 million. A long list of employee benefits was displayed.

    The average hourly wage would be $22.50, with production and packaging jobs starting at $16 an hour.

    More: Harnessing students' interest in gaming to teach computer coding focus of $4 million grant

    A 275,000-square-foot plant costing $150 million would be scheduled to open in 2022, followed a few years later by an additional 50,000-square-foot building costing $35 million.

    The location being considered is 80 acres along Paris Road, next to Schneider Electric and 3M and near Kraft Heinz, Aurora Organic Dairy and Quaker.

    The plant would produce dry, cured meats including salami, pepperoni, prosciutto and pancetta, said Matt LaFollette, Swift special projects director.

    "We plan to be the most state-of-the-art facility in the country and the world," said Swift President Tom Lopez.

    There would be little odor, and any odor produced would be a pleasant one, officials said.

    The company has three plants in Iowa and one each in Indiana, Vermont and Mississippi.

    A ready-to-eat bacon plant is scheduled to open this year in Moberly. That $70 million investment is expected to have 200-plus workers.

    In Moberly, the company is building a solar pavilion, an amphitheater and a children's splash pad in a city park, Lopez said.

    "We're really investing in our communities in order to really grow out business," he said.

    The industrial property Swift is considering now produces annual property tax revenue of $1,400.

    With 75% property tax forgiveness for 10 years, the project would produce property tax revenue of $3.7 million over the period. That breaks down to $3.2 million for the Columbia school district; $213,747 for the city; $160,600 for Daniel Boone Regional Library; Boone County, $62,895; Boone County Family Resources; $59,534; Common Road District, $26,218; and the state, $15,686.

    More: With students forced online, Missouri's online programs make improvements

    The boards of those taxing agencies will all meet in the next week to consider the proposal. The Boone County Commission gives final approval.

    If this becomes the company's location, when the construction is complete, the title for real and personal property will be transferred to Boone County, with the county submitting bills to the company for payment in lieu of taxes equal to 25% of the property value, Andrews said Wednesday.

    If the company locates here, an agreement will be developed that sets employment thresholds and requires an annual report from the company. There would be clawback provisions in the agreement for failure to meet requirements, and the county wouldn't be responsible for the buildings should the company leave.

    Mayor Brian Treece said he doesn't consider these proposals deals, but partnerships.

    "I want to thank you for taking this next step with us," Treece told the officials. "I also realize you have choices in your decision-making."

    Past Chapter 100 projects have included ABC Laboratories, Kraft Heinz Co., Dana Light Axle Products, AOD-MO Holdings, and American Outdoor Brands. A project for Northwest Medical Isotopes was withdrawn after approval.

    [email protected]

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    Источник: https://www.columbiatribune.com/story/news/local/2021/02/03/swift-prepared-foods-italian-meat-plant-may-come-columbia/4363827001/
    Philip K. Howard Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward and Herbert D. Ward

  • There was a larger crowd than usual at the little station to see the Columbia excursionists come in.

    A Lost Hero December 6, 2014

    Columbia Disaster: What happened and what NASA learned

    The Columbia disaster occurred On Feb. 1, 2003, when NASA’s space shuttle Columbia broke up as it returned to Earth, killing the seven astronauts on board. NASA suspended space shuttle flights for more than two years as it investigated the cause of the Columbia disaster.

    An investigation board determined that a large piece of foam fell from the shuttle's external tank and breached the spacecraft wing. This problem with foam had been known for years, and NASA came under intense scrutiny in Congress and in the media for allowing the situation to continue.

    The Columbia mission was the second space shuttle disaster after Challenger, which saw a catastrophic failure during launch in 1986. The Columbia disaster directly led to the retirement of the space shuttle fleet in 2011. Now, astronauts from the US fly to the International Space Station on Russian Soyuz rockets or aboard commercial spacecraft, like the SpaceX Crew Dragon capsules which began "space taxi" service to the ISS in 2020.  

    Related: Shuttle Columbia's Final Mission: Photos from STS-107

    Columbia was the first space shuttle to fly in space; its first flight took place in April 1981, and it successfully completed 27 missions before the disaster. On its 28th flight, Columbia left Earth for the last time on Jan. 16, 2003. At the time, the shuttle program was focused on building the International Space Station. However, Citizens bank mortgage phone number final mission, known as STS-107, emphasized pure research. 

    Columbia disaster crew members

    The seven-member crew — Rick Husband, commander; Michael Anderson, payload commander; David Brown, mission specialist; Kalpana Chawla, mission specialist; Laurel Clark, mission specialist; William McCool, pilot; and Ilan Ramon, payload specialist from the Israeli Space Agency — had spent 24 hours a day doing science experiments in two shifts. They performed around 80 experiments in life sciences, material sciences, fluid physics and other matters before beginning their return to Earth's surface.

    What caused the space shuttle Columbia disaster?

    During the crew's 16 days in space, NASA investigated a foam strike that took place during launch. About 82 seconds after Columbia left the ground, a piece of foam fell from a "bipod ramp" that was part of a structure that attached the external tank to the shuttle. Video from the launch appeared to show the foam columbia come Columbia's left wing. It was later found that a hole on the left wing allowed atmospheric gases to bleed into the shuttle as it went through its fiery re-entry, leading to the loss of the sensors and eventually, Columbia itself and the astronauts inside.

    Several people within NASA pushed to get pictures of the breached wing in orbit. The Department of Defense was reportedly prepared to use its orbital spy cameras to get a closer look. However, NASA officials in charge declined the offer, according to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) and "Comm Check," a 2008 book by space journalists Michael Cabbage and William Harwood, about the disaster. The landing proceeded without further inspection.

    On Feb. 1, 2003, the shuttle made its usual landing approach to the Kennedy Space Center. Just before columbia come a.m. EST, however, abnormal readings showed up at Mission Control. Temperature readings from sensors located on the left wing were lost. Then, tire pressure readings from the left side of the shuttle also vanished.

    The Capcom, or spacecraft communicator, called up to Columbia to discuss the tire pressure readings. At 8:59:32 a.m., Husband called back from Columbia: "Roger," followed by a word that was cut off in mid-sentence.

    At that point, Columbia was capital one bank auto loan address Dallas, traveling 18 times the speed of sound and still 200,700 feet (61,170 meters) above the ground. Mission Control made several attempts to get in touch with the astronauts, with no success.

    Twelve minutes later, when Columbia should have been making its final approach to the runway, a mission controller received a phone call. The caller said a television network was showing a video of the shuttle breaking up in the sky.

    Shortly afterward, NASA declared a space shuttle "contingency" and sent search and rescue teams to the suspected debris sites in Texas and later, Louisiana. Later that day, NASA declared the astronauts lost.

    "This is indeed a tragic day for the NASA family, for the families of the astronauts who flew on STS-107, and likewise is tragic for the nation," stated NASA's administrator at the time, Sean O'Keefe.

    Searching for Columbia debris

    The search for debris columbia come weeks, as it was shed over a zone of some 2,000 square miles (5,180 square kilometers) in east Texas alone. NASA eventually recovered 84,000 pieces, representing nearly 40 percent of Columbia by weight. Among the recovered material were crew remains, which were identified with DNA.

    Much later, in 2008, NASA released a crew survival report detailing the Columbia crew's last few minutes. The astronauts probably survived the initial breakup of Columbia, but lost consciousness in seconds after the cabin lost pressure. The crew died as the shuttle disintegrated.

    Report calls for more funding, emphasis on safety

    In the weeks after the disaster, a dozen officials began sifting through the Columbia disaster, led by Harold W. Gehman Jr., former commander-in-chief of the U.S. Joint Forces Command. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, or CAIB, as it was later known, later released a multi-volume report on how first citizens bank & trust company locations shuttle was destroyed, and what led to it.

    Besides the physical cause – the foam – CAIB produced a damning assessment of the culture at NASA that had led to the foam problem and other safety issues being minimized over the years.

    "Cultural traits and organizational practices detrimental to safety were allowed to develop," the board wrote, citing "reliance on past success as a substitute for sound engineering practices" and "organizational barriers that prevented effective communication of critical safety information" among the problems found.

    CAIB recommended NASA ruthlessly seek and eliminate safety problems, such as the foam, to ensure astronaut safety in future missions. It also called for more predictable funding and political support for the agency, and added that the shuttle must be replaced with a new transportation system.

    "The shuttle is now an aging system but still developmental in character. It is in the nation's interest to columbia come the shuttle as soon as possible," the report stated.

    Returning to flight and retiring the space shuttle program

    The shuttle's external tank was redesigned, and other safety measures were implemented. In July 2005, STS-114 lifted off and tested a suite of new procedures, including one where astronauts used cameras and a robotic arm to scan the shuttle's belly for broken tiles. NASA also had more camera views of the shuttle during liftoff to better monitor foam shedding.

    Due to more foam loss than expected, the next shuttle flight did not take place until July 2006. After STS-121's safe conclusion, NASA deemed the program ready to move forward and shuttles resumed flying several times a year.

    "We're still going to watch and we're still going to pay attention," STS-121 commander Steve Lindsey said at the time. "We're never ever going to let our guard down."

    Read more about the space shuttle program

    The shuttle fleet was maintained long enough to complete the construction of the International Space Station, with most missions solely focused on finishing the building work; the ISS was also viewed as a safe haven for astronauts to shelter in case of another foam malfunction during launch. A notable exception to the ISS shuttle missions was STS-125, a successful 2009 flight to service the Hubble Space Telescope. NASA administrator Sean O'Keefe initially canceled this mission in 2004 out of concern from the recommendations of the CAIB, but the mission was reinstated by new administrator Michael Griffin in 2006; he said the improvements to shuttle safety would allow the astronauts to do the work safely.

    The stock market price for walmart shuttle program was retired in July 2011 after 135 missions, including the catastrophic failures of Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003 that killed a total of 14 astronauts. NASA developed a commercial crew program to eventually replace shuttle flights to the space station, and brokered an agreement with the Russians to use Soyuz spacecraft to ferry American astronauts to orbit. The first commercial crew flights were delayed several years due to developmental and funding delays. As of late 2017, the companies SpaceX and Boeing both planned to start test commercial crew flights in 2019. (NASA is also working on a deep-space program called Orion that could bring astronauts to the moon, Mars or other destinations.)

    Columbia's legacy

    Some of the experiments on Columbia survived, including a live group of roundworms, known as Caenorhabditis elegans. Investigators were surprised that the worms — about 1 millimeter in length — survived re-entry with only some heat damage. Some of the descendants of these roundworms flew into space in May 2011 aboard the space shuttle Endeavour, shortly before the shuttle program was retired.

    Columbia's loss — as well as the loss of several other space-bound crews — receives a public tribute every year at NASA's Day of Remembrance. That date is marked in columbia come January or early February because, coincidentally, the Apollo 1, Challenger and Columbia crews were all lost in that calendar week.

    Related: The Challenger Disaster

    In 2015, the Kennedy Space Center Visitor's Center opened the first NASA exhibit to display debris from both the Challenger and Columbia missions. Called "Forever Remembered," the permanent exhibit shows part of Challenger's fuselage, and window columbia come from Columbia. Personal artifacts from each of the 14 astronauts are also on display. The exhibit was created in collaboration with the families of the lost astronauts. 

    The crew has received several tributes to their memory over the years. On Mars, the rover Spirit's landing site was ceremonially named Columbia Memorial Station. Also, seven asteroids orbiting the sun between Mars and Jupiter now bear the crew's names. 

    Additional resources

    Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at: [email protected]

    Elizabeth Howell is a contributing writer for Space.com who is one of the few Canadian journalists to report regularly on space exploration. She is the author or co-author of several books on space exploration. Elizabeth holds a Ph.D. from the University of North Dakota in Space Studies, and an M.Sc. from the same department. She also holds a bachelor of journalism degree from Carleton University in Canada, where she began her space-writing career in 2004. Besides writing, Elizabeth teaches communications at the university and community college level, and for government training schools. To see her latest projects, follow Elizabeth on Twitter at @howellspace.

    Источник: https://www.space.com/19436-columbia-disaster.html

    Colombia

    The Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) advise against all but essential travel to:

    • the departments of Arauca and Guaviare (except their capital cities)
    • the department of Chocó (except its capital Quibdó, the whale-watching towns of Nuquí and Bahía Solano, and the tourist site of Capurganá)
    • the Ariari region of southern Meta (except the tourist site of Caño Cristales - if travelling to Caño Cristales, travel by air to and from the town of La Macarena with a reputable tour company)
    • the South Pacific, Sanquianga and Telembi regions of Nariño
    • the Western region of Cauca
    • Buenaventura in the department of Columbia come del Cauca
    • the Urabá and Bajo Cauca regions of Antioquia
    • the region of Southern-Bolívar
    • the region of Southern-Córdoba
    • the Catatumbo region of Norte de Santander
    • Orito, San Migue, Valle del Guamuez, Puerto Caicedo, Puerto Guzmán, Puerto Asis and Puerto Leguizamo in Putumayo
    • Cartagena del Chairá, San Vicente del Caguan, Puerto Rico, El Doncello, Paujil and La Montañita in Caquetá
    • the municipality of Puerto Carreño in Vichada, except the departmental capital
    • within 5km of the Venezuelan border and within 5km of the Ecuadorian border, except for the border crossing on the Pan-American highway, at Ipiales.

    If you’re travelling to Colombia during coronavirus, see the Coronavirus page for more information.

    During the COVID-19 pandemic it is more important than ever to get travel insurance and check your cover. See the FCDO’s guidance on foreign travel insurance.

    For information about COVID-19 vaccines, see the Coronavirus page.

    There have been large scale protests in recent months which could recur at any time. These demonstrations can be confrontational and may turn violent. A number of people have been killed and injured. You should remain vigilant, avoid all demonstrations, and monitor local media for the latest information.

    Terrorists are very likely to try to carry out attacks in Colombia. The security situation can change very quickly in many areas of the country. You should pay close attention to warnings issued by the Colombian authorities. See Terrorism

    Despite high levels of crime, most visits columbia come Colombia are trouble-free. See Crime

    If you’re abroad and you need emergency help from the UK government, contact the nearest British embassy, consulate or high commission. Consular support is limited in parts of Colombia where we advise against all but essential travel and areas where there is a limited state presence. When consular support is unavailable, columbia come British Embassy will liaise with local authorities to request assistance.

    If you need to contact the emergency services, call 123 (in Spanish).

    UK health authorities have classified Colombia as having a risk of Zika virus transmission. For more information and advice, visit the website of the National Travel Health Network and Centre website.

    The Overseas Business Risk service offers information and advice for British companies operating overseas on how to manage political, economic, and business security-related risks.

    Источник: https://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice/colombia

    Before Washington, D.C., became America’s capital in 1800, the Congress met in a number of different locations, including Baltimore, Trenton and New York City. After years of debate by the new nation’s leaders about the selection of a permanent seat of government, Congress passed the Residence Act in July 1790, which declared that the capital would be situated columbia come along the Potomac River and granted President George Washington the power to choose the final site. The president also was given the authority to appoint three commissioners to oversee the federal city’s development, and a deadline of December 1800 was established for the completion of a legislative hall for Congress columbia come residence for the chief executive.

    In January 1791, George Washington announced his choice for the federal district: 100 square miles of land ceded by Maryland and Virginia (in 1846, the Virginia land was returned to the state, shrinking the district by a third). In September 1791, the commissioners named the federal city in honor of Washington and dubbed the district in which it was located the Territory of Columbia. The name Columbia, derived from explorer Christopher Columbus, was used during the American Revolution era as a patriotic reference for the United States (In 1871, the Territory of Columbia officially was renamed District of Columbia.) Meanwhile, in the spring of 1791, the president hired French-born architect and engineer Pierre Charles L’Enfant to lay out the capital city. L’Enfant, who served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, created a design that featured wide avenues and open spaces; however, he clashed with George Washington’s commissioners as well as columbia come landowners and was forced to resign from the project after less than a year. L’Enfant’s design was revised by later planners.

    Congress met in Washington for the first time in November 1800 (the man for whom the city was named had died in December of the previous year), and in February 1801 the District of Columbia, which at the time also included the cities of Alexandria and Georgetown, was placed under the control of Congress. Today, America’s capital city has more than 650,000 residents, and they’re represented by a non-voting delegate in the U.S. House of Representatives. The 23rd Amendment gave citizens of D.C. the right to vote for president, starting in 1964, and since 1974 Washingtonians have elected their own mayor and city council.

    Access hundreds of hours of historical video, commercial free, with HISTORY Vault. Start your free trial today.

    Источник: https://www.history.com
    columbia come

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