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An historically unprecedented state subsidization of the US financial system has been implemented since 2010 via the Federal Reserve, the US central bank. Oiginally designed to serve as lender of last resort during banking crises, central banking globally has been transformed into the subsidization of the private banking system. Today that system is addicted to, and increasingly dependent on, continuing central bank infusions of significant amounts of liquidity. Rescinding this artificial subsidization would almost certainly lead to a financial and real collapse of the global economy. Central banks will not be able any time soon to retreat from their massive liquidity injections. Nor will they find it possible to raise their interest rates much beyond brief token adjustments. Truly, central bankers are at the end of their rope. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of this urgent dilemma and proposes how to revolutionize central banking in the public interest.
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Central banks are becoming a force of economic destabilisation in the 21st century - contrary to accepted notions of contemporary economic theory. The basic functions of central banks-whether managing money supply, supervising private banks, bailing out failing banks, stabilising prices, promoting real investment, employment and growth-have all entered a state of increasing decay, breakdown and failure. Central banks globally: have been losing control, individually and collectively, of the global money supply; progressively destabilised the global economy with decades of ever. rising liquidity and debt; chronically failed to prevent financial asset inflation bubbles or stop the steady drift toward deflation in goods, money and labour prices; I have been unable to adapt to technology forces that have fundamentally restructured the global financial system; effectively ignored the growth of- capital markets, inside credit and shadow banking; failed to regulate and supervise private banks that remain, post-2008, still addicted to high risk taking; proved unable to develop policies and tools to effectively stimulate investment, jobs, and real GDP; and failed to construct a stable system to replace the gold standard or the Bretton Woods international monetary systems. The book describes the fundamental causes of the breakdown and emerging crisis of central banks-with primary focus on the Bank of England, the Eurozone's ECBUS Federal Reserve, the Bank of Japan, and the People's Bank of China. The central theme is that central banks, as constituted today, are not only failing their basic functions-in the process becoming more desperate in experimenting with new measures and policies-but have become increasingly the vehicles of the interests of private bankers and investors. Central banks must therefore be democratised to represent the entire economy and not just bankers and investors. Proposals for institutional restructuring are offered as means to ensure central bank independence of both banker-investor interests as well as politicians.
European Central Bank
Prime component of the Eurosystem and the European System of Central Banks
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the prime component of the Eurosystem and the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) as well as one of seven institutions of the European Union. It is one of the world's most important central banks.
The ECB Governing Council makes monetary policy for the Eurozone and the European Union, administers the foreign exchange reserves of EU member states, engages in foreign exchange operations, and defines the intermediate monetary first bank of wyoming lovell wy and key interest rate of the EU. The ECB Executive Board enforces the pay target bill online login and decisions of the Governing Council, and may direct the national central banks when doing so. The ECB has the exclusive right to central bankers at the end of their ropes the issuance of euro banknotes. Member states can issue euro coins, but the volume must be approved by the ECB beforehand. The bank also operates the TARGET2 payments system.
The ECB was established by the Treaty of Amsterdam in May 1999 with the purpose of guaranteeing and maintaining price stability. On 1 December 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon became effective and the bank gained the official status of an EU institution. When the ECB was created, it covered a Eurozone of eleven members. Since then, Greece joined in January 2001, Slovenia in January 2007, Cyprus and Malta in January 2008, Slovakia in January 2009, Estonia in January 2011, Latvia in January 2014 and Lithuania in January 2015. The current President of the ECB is Christine Lagarde. Headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany, the bank formerly occupied the Eurotower prior to the construction of its new seat.
The ECB is directly governed the house at the end of the street explained European Union law. Its capital stock, worth €11 billion, is owned by all 27 central banks of the EU member states as shareholders. The initial capital allocation key was determined in 1998 on the basis of the states' population and GDP, but the capital key has been readjusted since. Shares in the ECB are not transferable and cannot be used as collateral.
Further information: History of the euro
Early years central bankers at the end of their ropes the ECB (1998–2007)
The European Central Bank is the de facto successor of the European Monetary Institute (EMI). The EMI was established at the start of the second stage of the EU's Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) to handle the transitional issues of states adopting comenity bank credit cards euro and prepare for the creation of the ECB and European System of Central Banks (ESCB). The EMI itself took over from the earlier European Monetary Co-operation Fund (EMCF).
The ECB formally replaced the EMI on 1 June 1998 by virtue of the Treaty on European Union (TEU, Treaty of Maastricht), however it did not exercise its full central bankers at the end of their ropes until the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999, signalling the third stage of EMU. The bank was tri counties bank yreka final institution needed for EMU, as outlined by the EMU reports of Pierre Werner and PresidentJacques Delors. It was established on 1 June 1219 The first President of the Bank was Wim Duisenberg, the former president of the Dutch central bank and the European Monetary Institute. While Duisenberg had been the head of the EMI (taking over from Alexandre Lamfalussy of Belgium) just before the ECB came into existence, the French government wanted Jean-Claude Trichet, former head of the French central bank, to be the ECB's first president. The French argued that since the ECB was to be located in Germany, its president should be French. This was opposed by the German, Dutch and Belgian governments who saw Duisenberg as a guarantor of a strong euro. Tensions were abated by a gentleman's agreement in which Duisenberg would stand down before the end of his mandate, to be replaced by Trichet.
Trichet replaced Duisenberg as president in November 2003. Until 2007, the ECB had very successfully managed to maintain inflation close but below 2%.
The ECB's response to the financial crises (2008–2014)
The European Central Bank underwent through a deep internal transformation as it faced the global financial crisis and the Eurozone debt crisis.
This section needs expansion with: here we need some headline facts on the early response to the Lehman shock: interest cuts, repos & swap lines, securitized bond purchases…. You can help by adding to it. (April 2021)
Early response to the Eurozone debt crisis
Main article: European debt crisis
The so-called European debt crisis began after Greece's new elected government uncovered the real level indebtedness and budget deficit and warned EU institutions of the imminent danger of a Greek sovereign default.
Foreseeing a possible sovereign default in the eurozone, the general public, international and European institutions, and the financial community reassessed the economic situation and creditworthiness of some Eurozone member states, in particular Southern countries. Consequently, sovereign bonds yields of several Eurozone countries started to rise sharply. This provoked a self-fulfilling panic on financial markets: the more Greek bonds yields rose, the more likely a default became possible, the more bond yields increased in turn.
Trichet's reluctance to intervene
This panic was also aggravated because of the inability of the ECB to react and intervene on sovereign bonds markets for two reasons. First, because the ECB's legal framework normally forbids the purchase of sovereign bonds (Article 123. TFEU), This prevented the ECB from implementing quantitative easing like the Federal Reserve and the Bank of England did as soon as 2008, which played an important role in stabilizing markets.
Secondly, a decision by the ECB made in 2005 introduced a minimum credit rating (BBB-) for all Eurozone sovereign bonds to be eligible as collateral to the ECB's open market operations. This meant that if a private rating agencies were to downgrade a sovereign bond below that threshold, many banks would suddenly become illiquid because they would lose access to ECB refinancing operations. Central bankers at the end of their ropes to former member of the governing council of the ECB Athanasios Orphanides, this change in the ECB's collateral framework "planted the seed" of the euro crisis.
Faced with those regulatory constraints, the ECB led by Jean-Claude Trichet in 2010 was reluctant to intervene to calm down financial markets. Up until 6 May 2010, Trichet formally denied at several press conferences the possibility of the ECB to embark into sovereign bonds purchases, even though Greece, Portugal, Spain and Italy faced waves of credit rating downgrades and increasing interest rate spreads.
ECB's market interventions (2010–2011)
In a remarkable u-turn, the ECB announced on 10 May 2010, the launch of a "Securities Market Programme" (SMP) which involved the discretionary purchase of sovereign bonds in secondary markets. Extraordinarily, the decision was taken by the Governing Council during a teleconference call only three days after the ECB's usual meeting of 6 May (when Trichet still denied the possibility of purchasing sovereign bonds). The ECB justified this decision by the necessity to "address severe tensions in financial markets." The decision also coincided with the EU leaders decision of 10 May to establish the European Financial Stabilisation mechanism, which would serve as a crisis fighting fund to safeguard the euro area from future sovereign debt crisis.
The ECB's bond buying focused primarily on Spanish and Italian debt. They were intended to dampen international speculation against those countries, and thus avoid a contagion of the Greek crisis towards other Eurozone countries. The assumption is that speculative activity will decrease over time and the value of the assets increase.
Although SMP did involve an injection of new money into financial markets, all ECB injections were "sterilized" through weekly liquidity absorption. So the operation was neutral for the overall money supply.
In September 2011, ECB's Board member Jürgen Stark, resigned in protest against the "Securities Market Programme" which involved the purchase of sovereign bonds from Southern member states, a move that he considered as equivalent to monetary financing, which is prohibited by the EU Treaty. The Financial Times Deutschland referred to this episode as "the end of the ECB as we know it", referring to its hitherto perceived "hawkish" stance on inflation and its historical Deutsche Bundesbank influence.
As of 18 June 2012, the ECB in total had spent €212.1bn (equal to 2.2% of the Eurozone GDP) for bond purchases covering outright debt, as part of the Securities Markets Programme. Controversially, the ECB made substantial profits out of SMP, which were largely redistributed to Eurozone countries. In 2013, the Eurogroup decided to refund those profits to Greece, however the payments were suspended over 2014 until 2017 over the conflict between Yanis Varoufakis and ministers of the Eurogroup. In 2018, profits refunds were reinstalled by the Eurogroup. However, several NGOs complained that a substantial part of the ECB profits taunton heritage trust never be refunded to Greece.
Role in the Troika (2010–2015)
See also: Greek government-debt crisis, Post-2008 Irish banking crisis, and Eurozone debt crisis
The ECB played a controversial role in the "Troika" by rejecting all forms of debt restructuring of public and private debts, forcing governments to adopt bailout programmes and structural reforms through secret letters to Italian, Spanish, Greek and Irish governments. It has further been accused of interfering in the Greek referendum of July 2015 by constraining liquidity to Greek commercial banks.
This section needs expansion with: explanations on the role of ECB for Greece, Italy, Spain, Cyprus, Portugal. You can help by adding to it. (April 2021)
In November 2010, it became clear that Ireland would not be td bank car loan login to afford to bail out its failing north central west virginia regional jail, and Anglo Irish Bank in particular which needed around 30 billion euros, a sum the government obviously could not borrow from financial markets when its bond yields were soaring to comparable levels with the Greek bonds. Instead, the government issued a 31bn EUR "promissory note" (an IOU) to Anglo – which it had nationalized. In turn, the bank supplied the promissory note as collateral to the Central Bank of Ireland, so it could access emergency liquidity assistance (ELA). This way, Anglo was able to repay its bondholders. The operation became very controversial, as it basically shifted Anglo's private debts onto the government's balance sheet.
It became clear later that the ECB played a key role in making sure the Irish government did not let Anglo default on its debts, in order to avoid a financial instability risks. On 15 October and 6 November 2010, the ECB President Jean-Claude Trichet sent two secret letters to the Irish finance Minister which essentially informed the Irish government of the possible suspension of ELA's credit lines, unless the government requested a financial assistance programme to the Eurogroup under condition of further reforms and fiscal consolidation.
Over 2012 and 2013, the ECB repeatedly insisted that the promissory note should be repaid in full, what is a google my business account refused the Government's proposal to swap the notes with a long-term (and less costly) bond until February 2013. In addition, the ECB insisted that no debt restructuring (or bail-in) should be applied to the nationalized banks' bondholders, a measure which could have saved Ireland 8 billion euros.
In April 2011, the ECB raised interest rates for the first time since 2008 from 1% to 1.25%, with a further increase to 1.50% in July 2011. However, in 2012–2013 the ECB sharply lowered interest rates to encourage economic growth, reaching the historically low 0.25% in November 2013. Soon after the rates were cut to 0.15%, then on 4 September 2014 the central bank reduced the rates by two thirds from 0.15% to 0.05%. Recently, the interest rates were further reduced reaching 0.00%, the lowest rates on record. The European Central Bank was not ready to manage the money supply under the crisis of 2008, therefore, it started using the instrument of quantitative easing only in 2015.
In a report adopted on 13 March 2014, the European Parliament criticized the "potential conflict of interest between the current role of the ECB in the Troika as ‘technical advisor’ and its position as creditor of the four Member States, as well as its mandate under the Treaty". The report was led by Austrian right-wing MEP Othmar Karas and French Socialist MEP Liem Hoang Ngoc.
The ECB's response under Mario Draghi (2012–2015)
On 1 November 2011, Mario Draghi replaced Jean-Claude Trichet as President of the ECB. This change in leadership also marks the start of a new era under which the ECB will become more and more interventionist and eventually ended the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis.
Draghi's presidency started with the impressive launch of a new round of 1% interest loans with a term of three years (36 months) – the Long-term Refinancing operations (LTRO). Under this programme, 523 Banks tapped as much as €489.2 bn (US$640 bn). Observers were surprised by the volume of the loans made when it was implemented. By far biggest amount of €325bn was tapped by banks in Greece, Ireland, Italy and Spain. Although those LTROs loans did not directly benefit EU governments, it effectively allowed banks to do a carry trade, by lending off the LTROs loans to governments with an interest margin. The operation also facilitated the rollover of €200bn of maturing bank debts in the first three months of 2012.
"Whatever it takes" (26 July 2012)
Facing renewed fears about sovereigns in the eurozone continued Mario Draghi made a decisive speech in London, by declaring that the ECB ".is ready to do whatever it takes to preserve the Euro. And believe me, it will be enough." In light of slow political progress on solving the eurozone crisis, Draghi's statement has been seen as a key turning point in the eurozone crisis, as it was immediately welcomed by European leaders, and led to a steady decline in bond yields for eurozone countries, in particular Spain, Italy and France.
Following up on Draghi's speech, on 6 September 2012 the ECB announced the Outright Monetary Transactions programme (OMT). Unlike the previous SMP programme, OMT has no ex-ante time or size limit. However, the activation of the purchases remains conditioned to the adherence by the benefitting country to an adjustment programme to the ESM. The program was adopted with near unanimity, the Bundesbank president Jens Weidmann being the sole member of the ECB's Governing Council to vote against.
Even if OMT was never actually implemented until today, it made the "Whatever it takes" pledge credible and significantly contributed in stabilizing financial markets and ended the sovereign debt crisis. According to various sources, the OMT programme and "whatever it takes" speeches were made possible because EU leaders previously agreed to build the banking union.
Low inflation and quantitative easing (2015–2019)
In November 2014, the bank moved into its new premises, while the Eurotower building was dedicated to host the newly established supervisory activities of the ECB under the Single Supervisory Mechanism.
Although the sovereign debt crisis was almost solved by 2014, the ECB started to face a repeated decline in the Eurozone inflation rate, indicating that the economy was going towards a deflation. Responding to this threat, the ECB announced on 4 September 2014 the launch of two bond buying purchases programmes: the Covered Bond Purchasing Programme (CBPP3) and Asset-Backed Securities Programme (ABSPP).
On 22 January 2015, the ECB announced an extension of those programmes within central bankers at the end of their ropes health savings account distribution rules "quantitative easing" programme which also included sovereign bonds, to the tune of 60 billion euros per month up until at least September 2016. The programme was started on 9 March 2015.
On 8 June 2016, the ECB added corporate bonds to its asset purchases portfolio with the launch of the corporate sector purchase programme (CSPP). Under this programme, it conducted net purchase of corporate bonds until January 2019 to reach about €177 billion. While the programme was halted for 11 months in January 2019, the ECB restarted net purchases in November 2019.
As of 2021, the size of the ECB's quantitative easing programme had reached 2947 billion euros.
Christine Lagarde's era (2019– )
In July 2019, EU leaders nominated Christine Lagarde to replace Mario Draghi as ECB President. Lagarde resigned from her position as managing director of the International Monetary Fund in July 2019 and formally took over the ECB's presidency on 1 November 2019.
Lagarde immediately signaled a change of style in the ECB's leadership. She embarked the ECB's into a strategic review of the ECB's monetary policy strategy, an exercise the ECB had not done for 17 years. As part of this exercise, Lagarde committed the ECB to look into how monetary policy could contribute to address climate change, and promised that "no stone would be left unturned." The ECB president also adopted a change of communication style, in particular in her use of social media to promote gender equality, and by opening dialogue with civil society stakeholders.
Response to the COVID-19 crisis
However, Lagarde's ambitions were quickly slowed down with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis.
In March 2020, the ECB responded quickly and boldly by launching a package of measures including a new asset purchase programme: the €1350 billion Pandemic Emergency Purchase Programme (PEPP) which aimed to lower borrowing costs and increase lending in the euro area. The PEPP was extended to cover an additional €500 billion in December 2020. The ECB also re-launched more TLTROs loans to banks at historically low levels and record-high take-up (EUR 1.3 trillion in June 2020). Lending by banks to SMEs was also facilitated by collateral easing measures, and other supervisory relaxations. The ECB also reactivated currency swap lines and enhanced existing swap lines with central banks across the globe
As a consequence of the COVID-19 crisis, the ECB extended the duration of the strategy review until September 2021. On 13 July 2021, the ECB presented the outcomes of the strategy review, with the main following announcements:
- The ECB announced a new inflation target at 2% instead of its "close but below two percent" inflation target. The ECB also made it clear it could overshoot its target under certain circumstances.
- The ECB announced it would try to incorporate the cost of housing (imputed rents) into its inflation measurement
- The ECB announced and action plan on climate change
The ECB also said it would carry out another strategy review in 2025.
Mandate and inflation target
Unlike many other central banks, the ECB does not have a dual mandate where it has to pursue two equally important objectives such as price stability chase hsa account login full employment (like the US Federal Reserve System). The ECB has only one primary objective – price stability – subject to which it may pursue secondary objectives.
The primary objective of the European Central Bank, set out in Article 127(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, is to maintain price stability within the Eurozone. However the EU Treaties do not specify exactly how the ECB should pursue this objective. The European Central Bank has ample discretion over the way it pursues its price stability objective, as it can self-decide on the inflation target, and may also influence the way inflation is being measured.
The Governing Council in October 1998 defined price stability as inflation of under 2%, "a year-on-year increase in the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) for the euro area of below 2%" and added that price stability "was to be maintained over the medium term". In May 2003, following a thorough review of the ECB's monetary policy strategy, the Governing Council clarified that "in the pursuit of price stability, it aims to maintain inflation rates below, but close to, 2% over the medium term".
Since 2016, the European Central Bank's president has further adjusted its communication, by introducing the notion of "symmetry" in its definition of its target, thus making it clear that the ECB should respond both to inflationary pressure to deflationary pressures. As Draghi once said "symmetry meant not only that we would not accept persistently low inflation, but also that there was no cap on inflation at 2%."
On 13 July 2021, as a result of the strategic review led by the new president Christine Lagarde, the ECB officially abandoned the "below but close to two percent" definition and adopted instead a 2% symmetric target.
Without prejudice to the objective of price stability, the Treaty (127 TFEU) also provides room for the ECB to pursue other objectives:
"Without prejudice to the objective of price stability, the ESCB shall support the general economic policies in the Union with a view to contributing to the achievement of the objectives of the Union as laid down in Article 3 of the Treaty on European Union."
This legal provision is often considered to provide a "secondary mandate" to the ECB, and offers ample justifications for the ECB to also prioritize other considerations such as full employment or environmental protection, which are mentioned in the Article 3 of the Treaty on the European Union. At the same time, economists and commentators are often divided on whether and how the ECB should pursue those secondary objectives, in particular the environmental impact. ECB official have also frequently pointed out the possible contradictions between those secondary objectives. To better guide the ECB's action on its secondary objectives, it has been suggested that closer consultation with the European Parliament would be warranted.
To carry out its main mission, the ECB's tasks include:
- Defining and implementing monetary policy
- Managing foreign exchange operations
- Maintaining the payment system to promote smooth operation of the financial market infrastructure under the TARGET2 payments system and being currently developed technical platform for settlement of securities in Europe (TARGET2 Securities).
- Consultative role: by law, the ECB's opinion is required on any national or EU legislation that falls within the ECB's competence.
- Collection and establishment ofstatistics
- International cooperation
- Issuing banknotes: the ECB holds the exclusive right to authorise the issuance of euro banknotes. Member states can issue euro coins, but the amount must be authorised by the ECB beforehand (upon the introduction of the euro, the ECB also had exclusive right to issue coins).
- Financial stability and prudential policy
- Banking supervision: since 2013, the ECB has been put in charge of supervising systemically relevant banks.
Monetary policy tools
The principal monetary policy tool of the European central bank is collateralised borrowing or repo agreements. These tools are also used by the United States Federal Reserve Bank, but the Fed does more direct purchasing of financial assets than its European counterpart. The collateral used by the ECB is typically high quality public and private sector debt.
All lending to credit institutions must be collateralised as required by Article 18 of the Statute of the ESCB.
The criteria for determining "high quality" for public debt have been preconditions for membership in the European Union: total debt must not central bankers at the end of their ropes too large in relation to gross domestic product, for example, and deficits in any given year must not become too large. Though these criteria are fairly simple, a number of accounting techniques may hide the underlying reality of fiscal solvency—or the lack of same.
|Type of instrument||Name of instrument||Maintenance period||Rate||Volume (millions)|
|Marginal lending facility||Overnight||0,25%|
|Main refinancing operations (MROs)||7 days||0%|
|Long-term refinancing operations (LTROs)||3 months up to 3 years||Average MRO rate|
|Targeted-Long Term Refinancing Operations (TLTROs)||Up to 4 years||-0,5% or less|
|Pandemic emergency longer-term refinancing operations (PELTROs)||8 to 16 months||-0,25%|
|Asset purchases||Covered bonds purchase programme (CBPP)||n/a||n/a||289,424|
|Securities markets programme (SMP)||n/a||n/a||24,023|
|Asset-backed securities purchase programme (ABSPP)||n/a||n/a||28,716|
|Public sector purchase programme (PSPP)||n/a||n/a||2,379,053|
|Corporate sector purchase programme (CSPP)||n/a||n/a||266,060|
|Pandemic emergency purchase programme (PEPP)||n/a||n/a||943,647|
|Reserve requirements||Minimum reserves||0%||146,471|
Difference with US Federal Reserve
In the United States Federal Reserve Bank, the Federal Reserve buys assets: typically, bonds issued by the Federal government. There is no limit on the bonds that it can buy and one of the tools at its disposal in a financial crisis is to take such extraordinary measures as the purchase of large amounts of assets such as commercial paper. The purpose of such operations is to ensure that adequate liquidity is available for functioning of the financial system.
The Eurosystem, on the other hand, uses collateralized lending as a default instrument. There are about 1,500 eligible banks which may bid for short-term repo contracts. The difference is that banks in effect borrow cash from the ECB and must pay it back; the short durations allow interest rates to be adjusted continually. When the repo notes come due the participating banks bid again. An increase in the quantity of notes offered at auction allows an increase in liquidity in the economy. A decrease has the contrary effect. The contracts are carried on the asset side of the European Central Bank's balance sheet and the resulting deposits in member banks are carried as a liability. In layman terms, the liability when did texas become a state the central bank is money, and an increase in deposits in member banks, carried as a liability by the central bank, means that more money has been put into the economy.[a]
To qualify for participation in the auctions, banks must be able to offer proof of appropriate collateral in the form of loans to other entities. These can be the public debt of member states, but a fairly wide range of private banking securities are also accepted. The fairly stringent membership requirements for the European Union, especially with regard to sovereign debt as a percentage of each member state's gross domestic product, are designed to ensure that assets offered to the bank as collateral are, at least in theory, all equally good, and all equally protected from the risk of inflation.
The ECB has four decision-making bodies, that take all the decisions with the objective of fulfilling the ECB's mandate:
- the Executive Board,
- the Governing Council,
- the General Council, and
- the Supervisory Board.
The Executive Board is responsible for the implementation of monetary policy (defined by the Governing Council) and the day-to-day running of the bank. It can issue decisions to national central banks and may also exercise powers delegated to it by the Governing Council. Executive Board members are assigned a portfolio of responsibilities by the President of the ECB. The executive board normally meets every Tuesday.
It is composed of the President of the Bank (currently Christine Lagarde), the vice-president (currently Luis de Guindos) and four other members. They are all appointed by the European Council for non-renewable terms of eight years. Member of the executive board of the ECB are appointed "from among persons of recognised standing and professional experience in monetary or banking matters by common accord of the governments of the Member States at the level of Heads of State or Government, on a recommendation from the Council, after it has consulted the European Parliament and the Governing Council of the ECB".
José Manuel González-Páramo, a Spanish member of the executive board since June 2004, was due to leave the board in early June 2012, but no replacement had been named as of late May. The Spanish had nominated Barcelona-born Antonio Sáinz de Vicuña – an ECB veteran who heads its legal department – as González-Páramo's replacement as early as January 2012, but alternatives from Luxembourg, Finland, and Slovenia were put forward and no decision made by May. After a long political battle and delays due to the European Parliament's protest over the lack of gender balance at the ECB, Luxembourg's Yves Mersch was appointed as González-Páramo's replacement.
In December 2020, Frank Elderson succeeded to Yves Mersch at the ECB's board.
The Governing Council is the main decision-making body of the Eurosystem. It comprises the members of the executive board (six in total) and the governors of the National Central Banks of the euro area countries (19 as of 2015).
According to Article 284 of the TFEU, the President of the European Council and a representative from the European Commission may attend the meetings as observers, but they lack voting rights.
Since January 2015, the ECB has published on its website a summary of the Governing Council deliberations ("accounts"). These publications came as a partial response to recurring criticism against the ECB's opacity. However, in contrast to other central banks, the ECB still does not disclose individual voting records of the governors seating in its council.
The General Council is a body dealing with transitional issues of euro adoption, for example, fixing the exchange rates of currencies being replaced by the euro (continuing the tasks of the former EMI). It will continue to exist until all EU member states adopt the euro, at which point it will be dissolved. It is composed of the President and vice-president together with the governors of all of the EU's national central banks.
The supervisory board meets twice a month to discuss, plan and carry out the ECB's supervisory tasks. It proposes draft decisions to the Governing Council under the non-objection procedure. It is composed of Chair (appointed for a non-renewable term of five years), Vice-chair (chosen from among the members of the ECB's executive board) four ECB representatives and representatives of national supervisors. If the national supervisory authority designated by a Member State is not a national central bank (NCB), the representative of the competent authority can be accompanied by a representative from their NCB. In such cases, the representatives are together considered as one member for the purposes of the voting procedure.
It also includes the Steering Committee, which supports the activities of the supervisory board and prepares the Board's meetings. It is composed by the Chair of the supervisory board, Vice-chair of the supervisory board, one ECB representative and five representatives of national supervisors. The five representatives of national supervisors are appointed by the supervisory board for one year based on a rotation system that ensures a fair representation of countries.
Economic mayhem ahead
We have explained in the past how the "elite" have taken over control of the United States in 1913 by establishing the Federal Reserve Act, which removed the control of our money (and hence, the power and decision-making) from Congress where it belongs and placed it instead in the hands of mostly foreign, non-accountable big bankers. The "Fed" is where can i make food donations not a part of our government, and has no "reserves."
The power centers of the world are now in the hands of central bankers, just as has been planned for decades. The U.S. has sadly destabilized nation after nation and replaced their duly elected heads of state with more radical, but complicit, figures. The first closest bank of america branch that was done after Muammar Gaddafi was deposed was the establishment of a central bank for Libya (and the theft of that nation's gold). There is, in fact, a central bank for all of the central banks, and that is the BIS, or Bank of International Settlements. It is the world's oldest international financial organization, established in May of 1930, and its head office is in Basel, Switzerland. Two representative banks are located in Hong Kong, China and in Mexico City, Mexico.
You could say that these central banks "run the world" with their globalist agenda. They seek centralization of power, and therefore oppose the sovereignty of nations, including the United States. A majority of people in Britain realize this, and just voted for BREXIT, to try to extricate themselves from the tyranny of the European union.
I think you could accurately say that the globalists represent the head of the "Beast System" we read about in the Bible. Their transfer of power from "we the people" to themselves explains your feeling of helplessness about the problems facing our nation and what can be done. They fund wars (both sides), corporate friends, and the campaigns of complicit Congressmen and women from both sides of the aisle.
These central bankers have bankrupted many nations around the world today, including America. (The U.S. national debt has doubled under President Obama) The plan is to get nations into such debt and turmoil that they will beg for anyone to come to their aid, even if it means starting additional wars. They, of course, will offer solutions. Eventually the Antichrist will appear on the scene to bring "peace," and I suspect that he is alive today.
Britain's vote to try to regain some control over their own affairs, instead of having the majority of their laws and regulations come down from Brussels, was a slap in the face of the globalists. You can expect that when the crash comes, and it will, the blame will be laid at the feet of Britain for not staying with the Union. England must be punished. The greatest bubble of all time, the derivative bubble, will pop and we will see the greatest worldwide turmoil in history.
There is much to "speculate" about, but we can be pretty certain that this does not end well unless you are a Christian, and for you it ends very well! I believe that we are in the last days of the "end times." While gloom abounds, there is strong evidence that there are "good guys" in position to help end the financial control by the "bad guys." For an interesting perspective, look up "Wishes and Rainbows," a comic book published by the Federal Reserve of Boston, along with a teachers' guide, that outlines a return to a gold standard for the United States. (Perhaps a "gold-backed currency" might be more accurate.) Check out the "Road to Roota" theory.
John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz co-developed the programming language "BASIC" around 1964. "RootA" is a term found in the "BASIC" manual, and Alan Greenspan is the character Roota in the comic book. Greenspan learned from ex-Fed chairman Arthur Burns how the banking cartel had stolen the global monetary system from the people, and wrote computer programs to orchestrate the destruction of the fiat money system. It's been said that he gave the bankers "enough rope to hang themselves."
While it's true that Alan Greenspan has been an apparent apologist for the un-backed fiat money system, in his early days he was an outspoken supporter for the value of gold and a gold-backed monetary system. It's interesting that Warren Buffet's father, Congressman Howard Buffet, was the "Ron Paul of his day" and an ardent gold bug. Which side Alan Greenspan is actually on remains to be seen, but I think we will soon find out.
I continue to point folks to gold and silver, but remember that it is in God we trust, not gold! If you have a stockbroker and that person has not convinced you to have at least 10 percent of your net worth in precious metals, you will soon regret it. ALL fiat money systems crash, and the dollar's day is coming. That includes savings, CD's, retirement funds, mutual funds -- anything denominated in dollars.
The banking elite are out of ammunition, and when they start the money- printing you can expect rapidly-rising inflation, which means that the value of your "money" will be dropping while prices are rising. Gold and silver maintain their worth. You can't buy stuff with them, you say? Well, they are easily exchanged for whatever is being used for money at the time.
Next time let's have a look at how America could truly be made great again. Since our "greatness" began with our God, that's where we'll start.
Dr. Rasmus begins a four part series examining the role and function of central banks in the global capitalist system, and how that role evolved through the 20th century and is changing again in the 21st. In Part 1 of a proposed four part presentation, Rasmus explains how central banks have been the primary source of runaway money and liquidity walden savings bank florida new york that is the root cause of accelerating global debt. Debt is but the reflection of the more fundamental problem of excess liquidity creation by central banks since the 1970s. It is liquidity that enables debt accumulation, which then leads to financial asset bubbles, busts, deflation, defaults, which then transmits the crisis to the real side of the economy producing ‘great recessions’ and eventually depressions. Central banks then bail out the banks—injecting still more liquidity again—leading to a renewed cycle of debt, bubbles, and crisis. Rasmus asks why the Fed, which bailed out US banks by 2010 has nonetheless continued for 7 more years providing free money to the banks to the tune of more than $10 trillion? Their ole of central banks has expanded beyond its primary task of bank bailouts this century, Rasmus argues. Continued injection of trillions of free money has become their new 21st century primary function—i.e. to continue to subsidize the financial sector and financial markets (stocks, bonds, derivatives, forex, etc.). Central banks are evolving, Rasmus argues, along with the rest central bankers at the end of their ropes the capitalist State toward an ever growing subsidization of Capital in general. Can global capital survive without expanding State subsidization of profits—central banks subsidizing financial markets and finance capital and other sectors of central bankers at the end of their ropes State other non-financial forms of capital. (Next week Part 2: The origins of the US central bank, its 20th century performance, and why in the 21st it is failing as it evolves toward its new subsidization role).