what city is the murder capital of canada

Subzero temperatures dropping as low as minus 40 keep you indoors for half the year but maybe it's just as well since your city has the highest murder rate. Murder Capital of the World: Directed by Charlie Minn. With Daniel Borunda, Charles Bowden, Howard Campbell, Paul Cicala. An investigation of the economic. Louis isn't the capital or the state's largest city, but it's made a big impression with a violent crime rate that's 267 percent higher than the state average.

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Top 10 Murder Capitals in the United States. 365 Bloor Street East, Toronto, Ontario, M4W 3L4

VIOLENT CRIME CAPITAL: Winnipeg tops national list for all the wrong reasons

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Author of the article:

James Snell

Publishing date:

Nov 03, 2021 •  November 3, 2021 •  3 minute read •  41 Comments

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Winnipeg is number one on the police-reported violent crime severity index for 2020.

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Thunder Bay is in second place on the Stats Canada report followed by Regina, Saskatoon and Sudbury. Barrie, Ontario scored lowest on the index.

“We’ve been putting millions of dollars towards these issues, especially downtown,” Coun. Kevin Klein (Charleswood-Tuxedo-Westwood) told the Winnipeg Sun on Wednesday. “At what point do taxpayers stand up and say, ‘Look, you have no idea how to fix this problem. We need to take a different approach, because it’s not working.'”

The police-reported violent crime severity index ranks violent crime in Canadian census metropolitan areas (CMA). The CMA, according to Stats Can, must have a minimum population of 100,000, with 50,000 or more, living in the downtown core. The index measures yearly fluctuations in violent crime, include homicide, attempted murder, sexual assault, assault, robbery, criminal harassment, uttering threats, and other violent offences. The rankings may be affected by differences in the way police services handle crime.

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Klein, former chairman of the Winnipeg Police Board, said Winnipeg lost thousands of people to emigration in 2020. Over the last eight years, he explained, violent crime has dramatically increased under the watch of several city councillors.

“And if you look at an area like Waverley West, where home construction is booming — it’s going to be the size of Brandon,” he said. “We haven’t added one police car to help with that area. We haven’t added one officer. Brandon has over 100 police officers and we didn’t add one. Why can’t they respond to house break-ins? I think the answer is clear.”

Winnipeg was recently ranked the most intelligent city by the Intelligent Community Forum. It edged-out contenders in Brazil, Australia, Russia and Vietnam. The city also ranked high in 2014, 2015 and 2016. The designation is of little consequence, explained Klein.

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“The City pays the U.S. company that’s in charge of that,” he said. “In fact, there are over 200 Canadian cities that didn’t participate. So are we the smartest, or the most gullible?”

The Sun asked Mayor Brian Bowman on Wednesday his thoughts on violent crime. He said the City is taking action on several fronts, including the Illicit Drug Strategy, the Community Safety and Crime Prevention Program, the Downtown Community Safety Strategy and the Downtown Community Safety Partnership. The current Winnipeg Police Service budget is $301 million before capital-related expenses.

“The majority of members of council have supported actions, and have voted for some of the initiatives I’ve listed that try to deal with the root causes of crime and try to build healthier individuals and healthier neighbourhoods,” he said. “We can’t police our way out of some of the acute issues affecting our residents.”

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Coun. Markus Chambers (St. Norbert-Seine River) chairman of the Winnipeg Police Board, told the Sun 2019 and 2020 were bad years for homicides in the City. Gangs are mostly to blame, he explained.

“The service has been committed towards a gang suppression strategy and reducing the violent crime that takes place around the drug trade,” he said. “We have a plan in place to address the concerns that have been raised.”

In a statement to the Suna spokesperson for the Winnipeg Police Service said they realize Winnipeg is high on the crime severity index, adding the city faces challenges similar to other Canadian urban police agencies.

“We’ve recently spoken about how crime guns used in the drug and gang subcultures have impacted our community,” they said. “We’ve also spoken about how the impact of methamphetamine and opioid-related offences have driven violent crime. These are some of the factors contributing to this overall statistic and confronting our officers on a daily basis.”

[email protected]

Twitter @JamesWestgateSn

Violent Crime Stats

Police-reported violent crime index for 2020

Worst

Winnipeg 154.8

Thunder Bay 152.5

Regina 127.0

Saskatoon (119.9)

Best

Québec City 56.8

St. Catharines-Niagara 56.6

Ottawa 55.7

Barrie 50.0

From 2005 to 2020, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay and Regina consistently reported among the highest violent crime severity index, with Winnipeg and Thunder Bay reporting among the three highest values every year for the past 10 years.

— Stats Canada

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Источник: https://torontosun.com/news/national/report-manitoba-tops-provincial-per-capita-homicide-rate-in-2020

Homicide capital of Canada

Hey there, time traveller!
This article was published 24/7/2012 (3414 days ago), so information in it may no longer be current.

Homicide capital of Canada.

Violent crime capital of Canada.

Social issues within poorer neighbourhoods are blamed for the high incidence of crime.

These are the inglorious honours given to Winnipeg following the release of a new report by Statistics Canada.

A national survey of police-reported crime data for 2011 found Winnipeg and Manitoba had the highest homicide rates in the country, and Winnipeg had the most violent crime.

Winnipeg had a homicide rate of 5.1 per 100,000 residents -- highest among major Canadian communities and Winnipeg's highest since the data were first collected in 1981.

Manitoba had a homicide rate of 4.2 per 100,000 residents.

The official homicide rate would have been higher, but it was based on the 39 known homicides at the close of the year. Two more homicides were discovered in June -- victims of alleged serial killer Shawn Cameron Lamb -- but those were recorded too late to be part of the 2011 analysis.

The violent crime capital title comes as a result of a weighted score for all violent crimes. While the total number of violent crimes decreased in Winnipeg in 2011, the Violent Crime Severity Index, which measures the seriousness of violent crime, found Winnipeg had the highest score in the country; and an increase of six per cent from last year -- the only major Canadian city of similar size or larger to see the violent crime index increase.

University of Winnipeg criminologist Melannie Nimmo said the high rate of homicides and violence in the city is a result of social issues within specific neighbourhoods.

Homicides are concentrated in the downtown and North End, Nimmo said.

"It's no coincidence that the most violent areas of the city are the core and the North End," she said. "It's happening in impoverished, marginalized areas.

"The percentage of at-risk, marginalized aboriginal youth (in those areas) is exploding."

Nimmo said turning the situation around is not solely a job left to Winnipeg police, who react to crime. However, she said, police can, and have been, working closely with community groups and government and other non-government agencies to focus on the root of the social problems that lead to crime.

Whether Winnipeg can shed those notorious titles depends on the ability to focus on policies and initiatives that work, she said.

"It depends on how much we maintain best-practice, evidence-based programs," Nimmo said.

Winnipeg Mayor Sam Katz said no city wants the titles of homicide and violent crime capital of Canada, but he added he found solace in the fact the total number of crimes in Winnipeg was decreasing.

"If crime were going up in our city, I'd then be very, very concerned," Katz said. "When I see it's been dropping over the last few years, I know we're headed in the right direction."

Katz said many people feel safety has improved in recent years, in part due to the fact there are more police and cadets who patrol downtown. He said certain crimes have dropped five to 10 per cent.

Katz said "there's no point" comparing Winnipeg's crime rate with other cities, since every place has its own issues.

"I have no problem going downtown, I have no problem going to the North End, regardless of the day of the week, regardless of what time it is," Katz said.

The Statistics Canada data reflect figures released by the Winnipeg Police Service Monday, which showed a decrease in almost all categories of crime.

Shannon Brennan, an analyst with Statistics Canada, said the severity index recognizes some violent crimes are more serious than others, adding while the total number of crimes is decreasing across the country, Winnipeg experienced an increase in the seriousness of violent crime based on a three per cent increase in the number of robberies and almost double the number of homicides.

Statistics Canada found the crime rate is declining across the country: Police reported more than 424,400 incidents of violent crime in 2011, about 14,800 fewer than in 2010. Violent crimes account for about one in five crimes reported to police.

However, unlike Winnipeg, the country's violent crime severity index declined four per cent.

While the overall crime rate fell across the country, the national homicide rate rose seven per cent. Police reported 598 homicides in 2011, 44 more than in 2010, for a rate of 1.7 homicides per 100,000 residents.

Both the rate and severity of violent crime fell four per cent in 2011 in Canada, the report said. It was the fifth consecutive annual decline in the what city is the murder capital of canada of violent crime.

 

-- with files from Jen Skerritt

[email protected]

 

By the numbers

Winnipeg and Manitoba had the highest homicide rates in the country for 2011.

Manitoba had the highest homicide commercial property management cincinnati among provinces for the fifth year in a row, followed by Saskatchewan and Alberta.

Winnipeg had the highest homicide rate (5.1 per 100,00 population) among census metropolitan areas (CMA), and the highest rate since 1981, when CMA data was first collected.

The next highest homicide rates were Halifax (4.4) and Edmonton (4.2).

HOMICIDES

Winnipeg: 2011 -- 39**; 2010 - 22; 5.1 per 100,000 residents

Manitoba: 2011 -- 53; 2010 - 45; 4.2 per 100,000 residents

 

VIOLENT CRIME SEVERITY INDEX

The index determines the seriousness of crime in a community. It is calculated by placing a weighted score for each category of violent crime.

A Statistics Canada analyst said the VCS Index increased in Winnipeg as a result of a three per cent increase in robberies and an almost doubling in the homicide rate, from 22 to 39.**

 

** There were 41 homicides in Winnipeg in 2011 but the two additional incidents were only discovered by police in June and were too late to be included in this year's report.

 

Comparing Winnipeg

with other Canadian communities of a similar size or larger

 

% change

CityIndex2010 to 2011

 

Winnipeg173.8+ 6

(pop. 762,800)

Quebec46.8- 8

(pop. 761,700)

Hamilton 75.8- 5

(pop. 750,200)

Edmonton105.9 - 2

(pop. shelby county state bank elk horn iowa - 11

(pop. 1,265,100)

Vancouver98.3 - 9

(pop. 2,419,700)

Montreal 97.70

(pop. 3,908,700)

Toronto84.7- 3

(pop. 5,838,800)

Canada 85.3- 4

 

Comparing Winnipeg with other major what craft stores are open today Canadian cities

 

% change

CityIndex2010 to 2011

 

Winnipeg173.8+ 6

(pop. 762,800)

Saskatoon134.5- 14

(pop. 272,000)

Regina123.5- 18

(pop. 218,700)

Edmonton105.9 - 2

(pop. 1,196,300)

Calgary72.1 - 11

(pop. 1,265,100)

Vancouver98.3 - 9

(pop. 2,419,700)

Источник: https://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/homicide-capital-of-canada-163663166.html

Vancouver Crime Rates: Is This City Safe?

According to the international magazine The Economist, the Greater Vancouver area has consistently qualified as one of the top ten most livable cities in the world. In fact, it came in at #6 on the 2019 list. Vancouver boasts cultural diversity, an internationally recognized healthcare system, scenic views of the ocean and the mountains, quality education, and world-class infrastructures. These are all contributing factors to what makes this city so livable.

Crime is also an important criteria when assessing livability. As a world-class city, how does Vancouver’s crime rate measure up? We take a look at the statistics and comparisons across the country, and the globe, to help you decide whether or not what city is the murder capital of canada safe to settle down in Vancouver.

 

How Crime Rates Are Measured in Vancouver

Statistics Canada publishes an annual report on the number of police-reported criminal incidents and types of crimes across the country. This report contains three indexes: A Crime Severity Index, a Violent Crime Severity Index, and a Non-violent Crime Severity Index.

The Crime Severity Index includes all Criminal Code offences as well as federal statute offences.

The Violent Crime Severity Index includes crimes against a boone county distillery that involves the use of, or threatened use of, violence. Crimes that fall under this category are:

  • Homicide
  • Attempted murder
  • Assault
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery

Lastly, the non-violent Crime Severity Index includes crimes that aren’t categorized as violent crimes.

 

Violent What city is the murder capital of canada Rates in Vancouver

Violent crimes are the most concerning since they pose the biggest threat www bbt com mobile personal security. In Vancouver, the overall violent crime rate in 2019 was 8.46 offenses per 1000 people.

Homicides

Based on the data collected and shared by the Vancouver Police Department (VPD) in early 2020, the number of homicides in 2019 was lower than it has been in 5 years at just 10 homicides. However, Vancouver’s overall violent crime rate has seen an increase.

The number of homicides in 2019 is five less than in 2018 and almost 50% less than the number of homicides in 2017. Twelve homicides were accounted for in 2016, and 16 homicides in 2015.

Sexual Offenses

In contrast to the downward trend of homicides, the VPD report shows that the number of sexual offenses increased from 520 in 2015 to 623 in 2019. The most significant increase in numbers occurred in 2018 with 50 more reported incidents. Vancouver did see a what city is the murder capital of canada decrease in the total number of reported sexual offenses in 2019, with 13 less compared to the numbers in the previous year.

For every 1000 people in the Vancouver population, the number of sexual offences in 2019 occurred at a rate of 0.91 compared to 0.01 for homicides.

Overall Violent Crime

Although the rate of homicides and sexual offenses decreased in the last year, the overall violent crime rate increased by 8.1%. This was largely due to 20.6% increase in the rate of attempted murder and 10.5% increase in assaults. Robberies also saw an increase of 4.9%.

Property Crime

Property Crime is another significant category to review when it comes to your personal safety, as well as your business ventures. In 2018, overall property crime rates in Vancouver were 6.2%, which was higher than BC’s property crime rate (4.77%) and Canada’s property crime rate (3.34%).

In that same year, Vancouver saw an increase of 5.4% in property crimes from the previous year. The largest contributors to this increase were the 20.5% increase in business break-and-enters (twice as many as residential break-and-enters), 13.3% increase of possession of stolen property, and 11.4% increase of theft from auto.

 

Is Vancouver Safe at Night?

Most neighbourhoods in Vancouver are typically safe enough to walk around at night. However, you may want to avoid walking what city is the murder capital of canada in the dark in Chinatown, Gastown, and East Hastings.

If you are contemplating which Vancouver neighbourhood you should open a business in, it is worth noting that the Central Business District had the highest number of crimes in 2019, based on data collected by the Vancouver Police Department.

Vancouver Chinatown

 

Vancouver’s Safest Neighborhoods

Sotheby International Realty published an article in 2018 to advise potential real estate buyers on the safest neighbourhoods.

The article listed the following neighbourhoods as the safest in the city:

  1. South Cambie
  2. Arbutus Ridge
  3. Shaugnessy
  4. Kerrisdale
  5. West Point Grey

This list is aligned with the 2019 data collected by the Vancouver police which shows the 5 neighbourhoods having some of the lowest crime rates in Greater Vancouver.

Vancouver Family Walking

 

National and Global Crime Rate Comparison

Numbeo ranks 396 of the world’s major cities in a global crime index. Mid-way through 2020, Vancouver came in at the 259th place. Oslo, Norway as well as Brooklyn, NY and Shanghai, China all had similar indices.

So far, Vancouver has shown improvement from the 211th ranking in 2019. From 2013 to 2020 Vancouver has fluctuated between 208 to 287. However, in 2012, the city fared significantly better, coming in at the 76th spot on the charts.

As far as a nationwide comparison, according to 2018 data collected for Maclean’s annual report on “Canada’s Most What city is the murder capital of canada Places”, Vancouver’s Crime Severity Index (108) has increased and is higher than the nation’s average (75.01). However, Vancouver’s Violent Crime Severity Index (96) has decreased and is tiber river winnipeg spa than the nation’s average (82.44).

Over the past 5 years, Vancouver’s Crime Severity Index has increased by 3.57.

Based on this data, Vancouver is Canada’s 59th most dangerous community out of the 237 communities examined.

 

Making Vancouver a Safer Place

Paladin Security helps make Vancouver safer by providing security services to businesses, the healthcare industry, education institutions, government institutions, and warehouses.

Through our specialized training and industry-leading selection process, we employ the most qualified security officers in the country. Our state-of-the-art security programs provide the security solutions that you need. And our knowledgeable security consultants help you make customized, evidence-based decisions.

Protect your staff and your customers, and strengthen the performance of your business through our specialized security services.

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Источник: https://paladinsecurity.com/safety-tips/vancouver-crime-rate/

 

Does CapitalPunishment Deter Murder?

A brief look at theevidence

 

 

by John Lamperti

Professor of Mathematics, emeritus

Dartmouth College

Hanover, NH

March, 2010  

 

 

 

 

In light of the massive amount of evidencebefore us, I see no alternative but to conclude that capital punishment cannotbe justified on the basis of its deterrent effect.

 

Justice Marshall, U.S. Supreme Court, Furman v.Georgia, 1972

 

Contrary to the views of some social theorists,I am convinced that the death penalty can be an effective deterrent againstspecific crimes.

 

                           RichardM. Nixon (March 10, 1973)

 

 

Ethical,philosophical and religious values are central to the continuing controversyover capital punishment. Nevertheless, factual evidence can and should informpolicymaking. The evidence for capital punishment as a uniquely effectivedeterrent to murder is especially important, since deterrence is the only majorpragmatic argument on the pro-death penalty side.[1]The purpose of this paper is to survey and evaluate the evidence fordeterrence.

 

Wemust define the question correctly. We are not asking whether the threat ofpunishment, in general, deters crime, nor whether there should be heavypenalties for murder. The issue at stake is this: Does capital punishment, in aform that could be practiced in the United States, provide a better deterrentto murder than long imprisonment? In particular, is it likely that expandingthe death penalty in New Hampshire would lead to fewer murders or eliminatingit to more? If not, capital punishment offers no practical benefits to weighagainst its social costs.[2]

what city is the murder capital of canada small (but still substantial andgrowing) portion of the vast literature on crime and prevention deals withfactual evidence about deterrence. This evidence is statistical and theproblems of interpretation are difficult. Nevertheless, there is a broadconsensus about the answer to our question. We will begin the survey after somegeneral remarks about statistical reasoning.

 

Kinds of statistical evidence[3]

 

Statisticalanalysis is essential for interpreting complex data and making decisions in theface of uncertainty. It's useful to recall two notable cases where statisticshelped form social policies.

 

In1954 the Public Health Service organized "the biggest public healthexperiment ever," a field test of the Salk polio vaccine. The goal was todetermine whether the new vaccine could substantially reduce the incidence ofparalytic polio. Several difficulties had to be overcome. The occurrence ofpolio varied from year to year and place to place in a seemingly random manner.Moreover, even without any preventive measures the incidence of the disease waslow, on the order of 50 cases per 100,000 susceptible children. This meant thatlarge chance variations in the number of cases were to be expected in the studypopulation, and these variations might either mask a positive effect from thevaccine or produce the illusion of an effect where none existed.

 

Toovercome these problems a carefully designed experiment was performed,involving nearly a million children. A "control group" receivedplacebo injections instead of the real vaccine; the rest, of course, wereinoculated with the Salk vaccine. The children in the control group were chosenat random from all those who volunteered and qualified for the experiment, andneither they, their parents, nor the doctors who examined them knew whichchildren had received the actual vaccine. This process insured that there wereno systematic differences between those receiving the vaccine and the placebo.The incidence of paralytic polio in the control group turned out to be nearlythree times greater than that for the vaccinated children, and because of theexperimental design a clear conclusion emerged: It was virtually impossiblethat such an outcome could have happened unless the treatment had a positiveeffect. Thus the Salk vaccine, though not perfect, was judged a definitesuccess.

 

Asecond example is the problem of cigarette smoking and health, especially theeffect of smoking on the occurrence of lung cancer. A relationship was firstsuspected during the 1920s and 30s when physicians in the U.S. and Englandobserved that nearly all their lung cancer patients were heavy smokers.  A 1955 study compared smoking rates andlung cancer deaths (lagged 20 years) for 11 countries, and found a highpositive correlation (0.7): higher lung cancer rates went with more smoking.(This sort of correlation can be misleading however, since it is individuals,not countries, who smoke and get cancer.) Other studies compared groups of smokers with control groups ofnon-smokers, chosen to be as similar as possible to the smokers in otherrespects. These investigations made it clear that there is a strong association between heavy smoking and lung cancer,but they do not prove that smoking causes the cancer.

 

The point is worth stressing, for similar problems arise ininvestigating capital punishment. While smokers have a much higher incidence oflung cancer than do people who have never smoked, this does not by itself provethat smoking causescancer. It might happen that some third factor (or a combination of factors)causes the cancer, and that this factor is also associated with smoking. Ifthat were true, then even though smokers would run higher risks of lung cancerthan non-smokers there would be no gain from quitting; smoking would onlyindicate, but not cause, cancer proneness.

 

Tosettle the question, something more was needed--either evidence for thathypothetical third factor on one hand, in which case smoking would not be theculprit, or clarity about the causal mechanism on the other. In thesmoking/lung cancer case no "third factor" has been found, andadditional evidence of a genuine link has indeed developed.  For example, there was a dose/responserelationship–the more an individual smoked, the greater the chance oflung cancer. Animal studies showed that exposure to cigarette smoke definitelydid cause lung cancer in dogs. Considering this and other work, in 1963 a scientific commissionreported to the U.S. Surgeon General the conclusion that heavy smoking can cause lung cancer. That conclusion isnow almost universally accepted.

 

Finally,here is an imaginary (and somewhat facetious) example where a strong associationdefinitely does notequal causation.  Suppose someonestudied all the elementary school children in New Hampshire and compared theirreading test scores to their shoe sizes. It’s certain that they would find a very strong positivecorrelation—children who wear larger shoes have better scores.  Does that mean that parents could helptheir kids read better by getting them bigger shoes? Hardly! In this case thereis anobvious “third factor”: the children’s’ ages.  Fifth and sixth graders are older and usually read betterthan first and second graders, and they generally also have bigger feet. The association is certainly real, but buying yourdaughter larger shoes will not make her a better reader.

 

Capital punishment in the United States

 

Thequestion of the death penalty and deterrence of homicide has something incommon with the smoking/lung cancer problem. Both deal with rare phenomenasubject to random fluctuations, and neither can be studied by a controlledexperiment like the Salk vaccine trial. In the case of smoking and cancer,initial observations revealed a strong positive association between the twovariables, and subsequent research had to determine whether this associationwas due to a causal relationship. In the capital punishment problem the dataare far less clear, and a first look suggests that executions are associatedwith higher rates ofmurder rather than lower as deterrence would indicate.  Can any cause-and-effect relation beestablished in this case?

 

Fordecades, murder has been more common in states with capital punishment than in those whereit is not used. Data from 1973 to 1984 showed that murder rates in the stateswithout the death penalty were consistently lower and averaged only 63% of thecorresponding rates in the states retaining it.[4]  The gap has persisted since that time, and in 2008 the average murderrate in states with capital punishment was 5.2 (per 100,000 people) while innon-death penalty states it was 3.3.[5]No deterrence can be seen here--but it might exist and yet be masked by otherfactors. Many things affect homicide rates; the problem is to separate theimpact, if any, of capital punishment from that of all the other variables,known and unknown.  How can this bedone?


Anearly approach consisted of comparing homicide rates in states with and withoutcapital punishment, choosing groups of neighboring states as nearly alike aspossible in other respects. Such comparisons were made by Thorsten Sellin forthe years from 1920 to 1958.[6] This method is a far cry from the controlled experiment performed to test theSalk vaccine, since "other things being equal" is never exactly truewhen comparing units as large and varied as states. Still, if deterrence playsa significant role its effect should show up as lower homicide rates in thedeath penalty states when compared to similar, neighboring abolition states.Here are Sellin's conclusions:

 

The data examined reveal that

 

1. The level of the homicide deathrates varies in different groups of states. It is lowest in the New Englandareas and in the northern states of the Middle West and lies somewhat higher inMichigan, Indiana and Ohio.

 

2. Within each group of states having similarsocial and economic conditions and populations, it is impossible to distinguishthe abolition state from the others.

 

3. The trends of the homicide deathrates of comparable states with or without the death penalty are similar.

 

The inevitable conclusion is that executionshave no discernible effect on homicide death rates which, as we have seen, areregarded as adequate indicators of capital murder rates.

 

Anothermethod is to follow the murder rate in a fixed state or jurisdiction and seewhat happened when capital punishment was abolished, and, in some cases, whenit was reintroduced. Sellin and others did studies of this kind too. Theseinvestigations again failed to reveal any additional deterrent effect due tocapital punishment.[7] Both typesof study have been updated by other researchers and the changing practice ofexecutions since 1967 (first a ten year moratorium, then their resumption) hasbeen taken into account. The conclusions--no indications of deterrence--remainthe same.[8]

 

Thesestudies should reveal a general, long-lasting deterrent effect of the deathpenalty if it exists. Other investigators looked for short-term or specialkinds of deterrence. In 1935 Robert Dann published an analysis of homicides inPhiladelphia during 60 days before and 60 days after five highly publicizedexecutions. Dann argued that the deterrent effect of the executions shouldresult in lower homicide rates during the post-execution periods. The resultwas the opposite; rates were higher than usual. Some 20 years later LeonardSavitz did a similar study, although in his work the critical days were theones when death sentences were pronounced after well-publicized trials. Savitzfound no significant difference in homicides for the before and after periods.[9]Similar studies of short-term deterrence were carried out in Chicago andCalifornia, and again no deterrent effect was found.

 

Itis sometimes suggested that capital punishment provides added protection forpolice and prison guards, and a number of states that have abolished capitalpunishment for “ordinary” murder retain it for the killing of police or prisonstaff. This sort of deterrence has been investigated several times, and noevidence was found that absence of capital punishment makes police or prisonwork more dangerous.[10]One survey did, however, confirm that police in what city is the murder capital of canada penalty states believe it contributes to their safety.Interestingly, the same survey showed police in the abolition states believingby almost the same margin that absence of capital punishment did not add to the hazards of their jobs.

 

Sincethe mid 1970s investigators have used more sophisticated statistical methodsboth to analyze new data and to reexamine older findings in new ways. With someexceptions (see the next section) the results are consistent with the earlierfindings. Bailey and Peterson, for example, conclude that "Deterrence andcapital punishment studies have yielded a fairly consistent pattern of non-deterrence." Although they find agreement that "the overall (general)homicide rate is not responsive to capital punishment," they do call forfurther research into particular types of crimes.[11]

 

Regression models: Ehrlich and others

 

Bythe mid 1970s, informed opinion agreed that existing data showed no increaseddeterrence due to the death penalty. A study by economist Isaac Ehrlich brokethat pattern. Ehrlich considered U.S murder and execution statistics for theperiod 1933-1969 together with measures of social factors such as unemploymentand per capita income, and then tried to establish a mathematical modelpredicting the murder rate from all the other variables, national executionrates among them. His model produced a negative coefficient for the executionvariable (i.e., more executions are associated with fewer homicides), which heasserted was statistically significant. Ehrlich concluded that "In light of these observations, one cannotreject the hypothesis that punishment, in general, and execution, inparticular, exert a unique deterrent effect on potential murderers."[12]

 

Thisstudy was important for methodological reasons, since it was apparently thefirst time multiple regression was used to investigate deterrence. (Thisinnovation made it hard for non-mathematicians to understand and evaluate thepaper.)  Moreover, the fact thatEhrlich was the first researcher to claim positive evidence for addeddeterrence due to capital punishment guaranteed that his work would receiveattention.

 

Ehrlich'sdata were soon studied by other investigators and his results reconsidered.Peter Passell and John Taylor focused on Ehrlich's observed negative relationbetween executions and homicide rates, and asked what happens when the timeperiod chosen for the model is changed. They also experimented with varying hisassumptions as to the model's functional form. In both cases they found thatsome broad aspects of the model were unchanged, but the indication of a specialdeterrent effect from executions disappeared completely. Passell and Taylorconcluded that whatever the other virtues of Ehrlich's work, no valid inferenceabout deterrence could be drawn from it.[13]Another research team, William Bowers and Glen Pierce, found much the samething.[14]Others have experimented what city is the murder capital of canada their own regression models for both time-seriesand cross-sectional (interstate) studies. The results are mixed, but most ofthe researchers failed to find any evidence for deterrence.

 

Ihave had some personal experience with this issue. Students in a statisticsclass I taught at Dartmouth experimented with Ehrlich's model and data duringour study of regression analysis. We confirmed Passell and Taylor's findingthat the indication of deterrence was extremely unstable when small changeswere made in Ehrlich's assumptions. My own conclusion is that regression onnationally aggregated data can never yield reliable evidence on deterrence, proor con. The signal, if any, is hopelessly buried in the noise.

 

Inthe final section of his paper, Ehrlich interpreted the negative correlation hefound as suggesting a "tradeoff between executions and murders," andhe estimated that over the period 1935-1969, "an additional execution peryear . may have resulted, on average, in 7 or 8 fewer murders." Thisdramatic statement was only slightly softened by his qualification that"the expected trade-offs . mainly serve a methodological purpose."

 

Theidea that one execution might prevent 7 or 8 murders is easily grasped andremembered. This is unfortunate, because no such conclusion is justified byEhrlich's research. We have seen that the negative correlation between murdersand executions in his model disappears when minor changes are made in certainassumptions. But even if the model were much more accurate and stable, the"trade-off" idea would still be invalid. It requires the doubtfulassumption that all other factors could remain constant while the executionrate alone was increased. Worse yet, it confounds association and causation.

 

Ehrlichhimself surely understood this; that is presumably what he meant when he spokeof a “methodological purpose." But he did not stress or explain the need for caution, and predictablysome of his readers did not get the point. They were, in effect, ready to buytheir children larger shoes to improve their reading scores; that is, to stepup executions in order to prevent homicides. But the hope of saving seven, orany number, of lives by one additional execution cannot be defended byEhrlich's work. The earlier conclusion, that U.S. murder statistics give what city is the murder capital of canada for an additional deterrent effect of capital punishment, still held.

 

Ehrlich’swork, like that of his critics, became possible in the 1970s because of accessto high-speed computing.  Sincethen much easier access to computing, as well as widespread access tosubstantial data sets, have encouraged others to undertake econometric-styleinvestigations of capital punishment and deterrence.  So far in the 21st century about 10 substantialstudies have been published.  Theirfindings have been mixed, with some claiming miss peregrines home for peculiar children tamil dubbed movie of execution/murder“trade-offs” similar to or larger than Ehrlich’s 7 or 8, while others found nosuch evidence or even an effect in the opposite direction (so-called“brutalization” hypothesis). A summary of these studies, together with a majornew investigation, can be found in a very recent article by three University ofTexas researchers. Ann taylor comenity bank login results “provide no empirical support for the argumentthat the existence or application of the death penalty deters prospectiveoffenders from committing homicide.”[15]  

 

Deterrence--or the opposite?

 

Ifcapital punishment really has any effect on homicide rates, that effect must besmall. Worse, it might go the wrong way! There are cases where the deathpenalty has been a causeof homicide rather than a preventive.

 

Howcould capital punishment be a cause of murder? In a medical paper, Dr. LouisWest has described what he calls "attempting suicide by homicide."[16]In these bizarre cases a person actually kills in order to court death by execution.Here is one of them:

 

Recentlyan Oklahoma truck driver had parked to have lunch in a Texas roadside cafe. Atotal stranger--a farmer from nearby--walked through the door and blew him inhalf with a shotgun. When the police finally disarmed the man and asked why hehad done it, he replied, "I was just tired of living."

 

Othershave also documented examples of killing to invite execution; for example,Clinton Duffy, the former warden of San Quentin prison, described several casesin his 1963 book 88 Men and 2 Women.In these instances the death penalty was a cause of homicide rather than apreventive.[17]

 

Anotherpossibility is the so-called "brutalization hypothesis," whichsuggests that capital punishment can encourage homicide by seeming to legitimizekilling of enemies. Studies from London and New York State have found anincrease in homicides after highly publicized executions, rather than thedecrease consistent with deterrence.[18]How valid these findings are and how generally they might apply is not clear.

 

Onthe other hand, there is also anecdotal evidence that best interest rates for savings accounts 2019 homicides may havebeen deterred by the death penalty. For example, in 1971 the Los Angeles PoliceDepartment reported that half of a group of suspects under arrest for robberystated that they had decided not to carry or not use weapons in their"work" to avoid any risk of a killing which could lead to their ownexecution. These statements to police can hardly be taken at face value, butsome such cases are probably genuine.

 

Whenwe acknowledge that there must be instances when capital punishment helps detera murder, we must also recognize that at other times it can encourage what itis meant to prevent. Since neither effect can be measured directly we must turnback to the statistical studies, which seek to determine the net effect. Theirevidence does not prove that the death penalty is no added deterrent to murder,nor could it. It does show, I believe, that any special deterrent effect issmall in magnitude, and it might go in either direction. Carrier account number verizon is still probablyall that can be said.

 

Further discussion

 

Howdo advocates of capital punishment reply to all this? Some rely uncritically oninvestigations such as Ehrlich's or those of his successors that claim to findevidence that deterrence is real. Others state opinions like those of Professor Ernest van den Haag of NewYork University. In an article "On deterrence and the death penalty''[19]van den Haag offered neither new data nor new analysis to support his beliefthat capital punishment has a special deterrent value. Instead he gavepsychological and "common sense" arguments on its behalf, togetherwith a general criticism of the findings of "Professor Sellin et al."He feels that the statistics are not good enough, that "the similar areasare not similar enough, the periods are not long enough.'' After more suchcriticism van den Haag concludes: "I doubt that the presence or absence ofa deterrent effect of the death penalty is likely to be demonstrable by statisticalmeans. It is on our uncertainty that the case for deterrence must rest."

 

Thatremarkable statement makes a weak case indeed. It is true that statisticalevidence cannot prove that any effect is precisely zero. If, for example, theSalk vaccine had no impact whatever, this could not have been proved by thetrial described earlier. The experimental results would have indicated, with ahigh degree of confidence, that any benefit from the vaccine must lie below acertain level. As the amount of data increased that level would become smaller,and zero effect would be the natural conclusion.  It would be perverse to then decide to use the vaccineanyhow because the tests did not exclude the possibility that there could be some benefit, however small.  Such a decision would be even moreunreasonable if the vaccine was very costly or had dangerous side effects.This, in effect, is just what van den Haag advocates in relation to capitalpunishment. As negative evidence accumulates, it becomes more and moreimplausible to base one's "case for deterrence" on the smaller andsmaller region of uncertainty that remains.

 

Conclusion

 

Wehave surveyed a great deal of material; there is a lot more not mentioned here.None of it has the clarity of a well-designed statistical experiment, nor couldit. And yet despite that uncertainty, I believe Justice Marshall was right, andRichard Nixon wrong, in the judgments quoted at the start of this paper.Marshall's view is today supported by an overwhelming majority among America's leadingcriminologists, who believe that capital punishment does not contribute tolower rates of homicide.[20]

 

Thereis a strong international trend against capital punishment. In recent yearsGreat Britain (1973), Canada (1976), France (1981), Australia (1985), Italy(1994) and Spain (1995), among others, have eliminated capital punishment formurder after extensive study and debate. Russia adopted a moratorium in 1996and has not executed anyone since. South Africa abolished capital punishment in1995 after its transition to democracy. In 1998 the European Union Councilreasserted the “opposition of the European Union to the death penalty in allcases and in all circumstances.” Executions have also become less frequent in many nations where thedeath penalty remains on the books, and in 2009 no executions were carried outanywhere in the Western Hemisphere—except in the United States.[21]

 

Thetrend toward abolition has not been observed to cause increases in homicide. In Canada, for example, around threemurders were committed per every 100,000 people before the death penalty wasabolished in 1976, while after that the what city is the murder capital of canada consistently went down reaching1.85 homicides per 100,000 people in 2003.[22] Other nations such as Great Britain have experiencedincreases in murder--but even greater increases in other violent crimes thatwere never subject to death sentences. Some years ago this passage from aUnited Nations study summed it up: "It is generally agreed that the datawhich now exist show no correlation between the existence of capital punishmentand lower rates of capital crime."[23]The conclusion still holds.

 

Manyof those who defend the deterrent value of the death penalty rely on strongintuitive feelings that capital punishment should be uniquely effective. When theavailable evidence doesn't support that conclusion, they argue that theevidence is imperfect. It is. But if there were a substantial net deterrenteffect from capital punishment under modern U.S. conditions, the studies wehave surveyed should clearly reveal it. They do not.

 

***

 

Ifexecutions protected innocent lives through deterrence, that would weigh in thebalance against capital punishment's heavy social costs. But despite years oftrying, this benefit has not been proven to exist; the only certain effects ofcapital punishment are its liabilities. The death penalty in New Hampshireserves no social purpose, and its abolition would be a practical and a moralstep forward.

 

SupremeCourt Justice Blackmun, a Nixon appointee, ruled in the Furman case that capital punishment is not perse unconstitutional. That does not mean it is a good policy. An excerpt fromBlackmun's Furman opinion can well conclude this paper:

 

Iyield to no one in the depth of my distaste, antipathy, and, indeed, abhorrence,for the death penalty. That distaste is buttressed by a belief that capitalpunishment serves no useful purpose that can be demonstrated.

 



Notes

 

[1]It is often suggested that executing convicted murderers canat least save money. This common belief is wrong; executions are far moreexpensive than life imprisonment. See Mark Costanzo and Lawrence White,"An overview of the death penalty and capital trials: history, currentstatus, legal procedures, and cost," Journal of Social Issues 50, no. 2 (summer1994), pp, 1-18. More up to date research, summarized and cited in testimonybefore the NH Commission, has reinforced that conclusion. 

 

[2]The greatest cost is that innocent people have beenexecuted, and that others surely will be in the future. For a review of casesin which people were wrongly sentenced to die, see chapter 25 in Hugo AdamBedau (ed.),The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies (Oxford, 1997). Seealso Charles Black, Capital Punishment: The Inevitability of Caprice and Mistake (Norton, 1974). Inrecent years the case of Troy Davis, who has spent many years on death row inGeorgia for a crime he probably did not commit, has attracted considerableattention. See also “Trial by Fire,” The New Yorker, Sept. 7 2009, for a detailedaccount of the trial and execution of an almost surely innocent man in Texas.

 

3This section borrows heavily from an excellent book: Statistics, Third Edition, by DavidFreedman, Robert Pisani and     Roger Purves, New York: Norton, 1998.

                       

[4]Data from Ruth Peterson and William Bailey, "Murder andcapital punishment in the evolving context of the post-Furman era," SocialForces,March 1988, pp. 774-807. The exception to this pattern is the District ofColumbia, which has no death penalty and very high homicide rates. (Of courseD.C. is not a state, and special circumstances apply.)

 

[6]Thorsten Sellin, The Death Penalty (1959). Excerpts fromthis book and many other sources were reprinted (along with some new material)in a useful anthology The Death Penalty in America, edited by Hugo A.Bedau (1964).  Sellin was a leadingcriminologist and a pioneer in death-penalty studies until his death in 1994.

 

[7]This work and that described below is summarized in WilliamBailey and Ruth Peterson, "Murder,capital punishment, and deterrence: areview of the literature," chapter 9 in Bedau (1997), note 2.

 

 

[9]Savitz's article was reprinted in Bedau's 1964 anthologycited in note 6.

 

[10]A recent investigation is Bailey and Peterson, "Murder,capital punishment, and deterrence: a review of the evidence and an examinationof police killings," Journal of Social Issues, summer

1994, pp. 53-74.

 

[12] "Thedeterrent effect of capital punishment: A question of life or death," AmericanEconomic

Review June 1975, pp. 397-417.

 

[13] "The deterrencecontroversy: a reconsideration of the time series evidence," in Capital

Punishment in theUnited States,H. Bedau and C. Pierce, editors, 1976.

 

[14]"The illusion of deterrence in Issac Ehrlich's researchon capital punishment," Yale Law Journal, Dec. 1975, pp. 187-208

 

[15]  Tomislav Kovanzik, LynneVieraitis, and Denise Boots, “Does the death penalty save lives?  New evidence from state panel data,1977 to 2006,” Criminology and Public Policy, Vol.  8 (2009, Issue 4.

 

[16] "Medicineand Capital Punishment," in To Abolish the Death Penalty, Hearings before theU.S. House Judiciary Committee, March and July, 1968, p. 124. Dr. West chairedthe Department of Psychiatry, Neurology and Behavioral Sciences at theUniversity of Oklahoma School of Medicine.

 

[17]Further examples are described by M. W. Espy Jr. in"Capital punishment and deterrence: what the statistics cannot show,"Crime & Delinquency, Oct. 1980, pp. 537-544.

 

[18]William Bowers and Glenn Pierce, "Deterrence orbrutalization: what is the effect of executions?" Crime and Delinquency, Oct. 1980, pp. 453-484.

 

[20] Michael Radelet andRonald Akers, "Deterrence and the death penalty: the views of theexperts," Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 87, no.1 (1996), pp.1-16.  Radelet with anothercollaborator, Traci Lacock, recently replicated this survey of leadingcriminologists and again found an overwhelming consensus that executions do notlower homicide rates.  (The same Journal, vol. 99, 2009.)

 

[21] In addition to the United States,nations carrying out sizable numbers of death sentences in 2009 include China(the number of executions is a “state secret” but it is known to what city is the murder capital of canada more thanthe rest of the world combined), Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan, VietNam and Seria, in decreasing order. The United States was in fifth position with 52.

 

Go BackИсточник: https://math.dartmouth.edu/~lamperti/my%20DP%20paper,%20current%20edit.htm

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Источник: https://torontosun.com/news/national/report-manitoba-tops-provincial-per-capita-homicide-rate-in-2020

VIOLENT CRIME CAPITAL: Winnipeg tops national list for all the wrong reasons

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Author of the article:

James Snell

Publishing date:

Nov 03, 2021 •  November 3, 2021 •  3 minute read •  41 Comments

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Winnipeg is number one on the police-reported violent crime severity index for 2020.

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Thunder Bay is in second place on the Stats Canada report followed by Regina, Saskatoon and Sudbury. Barrie, Ontario scored lowest on the index.

“We’ve been putting millions of dollars towards these issues, especially downtown,” Coun. Kevin Klein (Charleswood-Tuxedo-Westwood) told the Winnipeg Sun on Wednesday. “At what point do taxpayers stand up and say, ‘Look, you have no idea how to fix this problem. We need to take a different approach, because it’s not working.'”

The police-reported violent crime severity index ranks violent crime in Canadian census metropolitan areas (CMA). The CMA, according to Stats Can, must have a minimum population of 100,000, with 50,000 or more, living in the downtown core. The index measures yearly fluctuations in violent crime, include homicide, attempted murder, sexual assault, assault, robbery, criminal harassment, uttering threats, and other violent offences. The rankings may be affected by differences in the way police services handle crime.

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Klein, former chairman of the Winnipeg Police Board, said Winnipeg lost thousands of people to emigration in 2020. Over the last eight years, he explained, violent crime has dramatically increased under the watch of several city councillors.

“And if you look at an area like Waverley West, where home construction is booming — it’s going to be the size of Brandon,” he said. “We haven’t added one police car to help with that area. We haven’t added one officer. Brandon has over 100 police officers and we didn’t add one. Why can’t they respond to house break-ins? I think the answer is clear.”

Winnipeg was recently ranked the most intelligent city by the Intelligent Community Forum. It edged-out contenders in Brazil, Australia, Russia and Vietnam. The city also ranked high in 2014, 2015 and 2016. The designation is of little consequence, explained Klein.

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“The City pays the U.S. company that’s in charge of that,” he said. “In fact, there are over 200 Canadian cities that didn’t participate. So are we the smartest, or the most gullible?”

The Sun asked Mayor Brian Bowman on Wednesday his thoughts on violent crime. He said the City is taking action on several fronts, including the Illicit Drug Strategy, the Community Safety and Crime Prevention Program, the Downtown Community Safety Strategy and the Downtown Community Safety Partnership. The current Winnipeg Police Service budget is $301 million before capital-related expenses.

“The majority of members of council have supported actions, and have voted for some of the initiatives I’ve listed that try to deal with the root causes of crime and try to build healthier individuals and healthier neighbourhoods,” he said. “We can’t police our way out of some of the acute issues affecting our residents.”

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Coun. Markus Chambers (St. Norbert-Seine River) chairman of the Winnipeg Police Board, told the Sun 2019 and 2020 were bad years for homicides in the City. Gangs are mostly to blame, he explained.

“The service has been committed towards a gang suppression strategy and reducing the violent crime that takes place around the drug trade,” he said. “We have a plan in place to address the concerns that have been raised.”

In a statement to the Sun , a spokesperson for the Winnipeg Police Service said they realize Winnipeg is high on the crime severity index, adding the city faces challenges similar to other Canadian urban police agencies.

“We’ve recently spoken about how crime guns used in the drug and gang subcultures have impacted our community,” they said. “We’ve also spoken about how the impact of methamphetamine and opioid-related offences have driven violent crime. These are some of the factors contributing to this overall statistic and confronting our officers on a daily basis.”

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Violent Crime Stats

Police-reported violent crime index for 2020

Worst

Winnipeg 154.8

Thunder Bay 152.5

Regina 127.0

Saskatoon (119.9)

Best

Québec City 56.8

St. Catharines-Niagara 56.6

Ottawa 55.7

Barrie 50.0

From 2005 to 2020, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay and Regina consistently reported among the highest violent crime severity index, with Winnipeg and Thunder Bay reporting among the three highest values every year for the past 10 years.

— Stats Canada

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Beautiful Thunder Bay. Photo via Flickr user Jeremiah John McBride

Thunder Bay, Ontario had a dramatic spike in its murder rate last year despite the nationwide murder rate remaining at a five-decade low, according to new data from Stats Canada.

Released yesterday, the annual Stats Canada report on nationwide murders showed only a slight increase from 2013's total murders of 513 compared to 516 in 2014. This continues a trend of Canada's murder rate being its lowest since 1966.

However, the northern Ontario city of Thunder Bay had a sharp rise in murders, up from just three in 2013 to 11 in 2014. In 2013, the city with the highest number of homicides was Regina, Saskatchewan, with nine murders and a murder rate of 3.84 percent per capita.

One of the most disturbing statistics in the report is in regards to Aboriginal people. Despite making up just five percent of the total population in Canada, Aboriginal people accounted for nearly a quarter of all murder victims last year, making up 117 of the total.

"Aboriginal people were victims of homicide in 2014 at a rate that was about six times higher than that of non-Aboriginal people," the report reads, noting that there were 7.20 victims per 100,000 Aboriginal people versus 1.13 victims per 100,000 non-Aboriginal people.

Aboriginal men were seven times more likely to be murdered than their non-Aboriginal counterparts, and three times more likely to be murdered than Aboriginal females. The most murders of Aboriginal people comes in at 13.29 per 100,000 in Manitoba, which also scored the highest for overall murders nationwide.

It should be noted, however, that while Aboriginal murders were largely solved according to the Stats Can report—coming at an 87 percent solved rate compared to 71 percent for non-Aboriginals—the rate of murders against Aboriginal women has stayed unchanged since 1984, despite there being a decline in murders against non-Aboriginal women.

Most murders against Aboriginal people were committed by someone they knew, oftentimes their spouse, and the Stats Canada report found that a third of those accused of murder were Aboriginal.

After Manitoba, the province with the next highest number of murder per capita rate is Alberta, coming in at a 2.52 percent compared to Manitoba's 3.43. Nunavut is still the region with the highest murder rate, sitting at almost 11 percent. This is largely due to Nunavut's smaller population in comparison to the amount of homicides, with only four murders occurring in a population of roughly 32,000.

The number of murders in Ontario (population roughly 13-million, roughly three times that of Alberta and 10 times that of Manitoba) stayed on the decline, went down to 155 from 168 in 2013, and the overall murder rate is a mere 1.13 per capita. Toronto in particular made up 80 of the province's total murders, which is a hard statistic to justify when Toronto's population is 26 times higher than that of Thunder Bay, yet has a murder rate per capita eight times lower.

As Canada's largest city, Toronto's 1.38 per capita ratio looks particularly impressive (way to not murder each other, guys) when compared to US cities such as Chicago (15.1 murder ratio) and even the relatively peaceful New York (3.9).

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Homicide capital of Canada

Hey there, time traveller!
This article was published 24/7/2012 (3414 days ago), so information in it may no longer be current.

Homicide capital of Canada.

Violent crime capital of Canada.

Social issues within poorer neighbourhoods are blamed for the high incidence of crime.

These are the inglorious honours given to Winnipeg following the release of a new report by Statistics Canada.

A national survey of police-reported crime data for 2011 found Winnipeg and Manitoba had the highest homicide rates in the country, and Winnipeg had the most violent crime.

Winnipeg had a homicide rate of 5.1 per 100,000 residents -- highest among major Canadian communities and Winnipeg's highest since the data were first collected in 1981.

Manitoba had a homicide rate of 4.2 per 100,000 residents.

The official homicide rate would have been higher, but it was based on the 39 known homicides at the close of the year. Two more homicides were discovered in June -- victims of alleged serial killer Shawn Cameron Lamb -- but those were recorded too late to be part of the 2011 analysis.

The violent crime capital title comes as a result of a weighted score for all violent crimes. While the total number of violent crimes decreased in Winnipeg in 2011, the Violent Crime Severity Index, which measures the seriousness of violent crime, found Winnipeg had the highest score in the country; and an increase of six per cent from last year -- the only major Canadian city of similar size or larger to see the violent crime index increase.

University of Winnipeg criminologist Melannie Nimmo said the high rate of homicides and violence in the city is a result of social issues within specific neighbourhoods.

Homicides are concentrated in the downtown and North End, Nimmo said.

"It's no coincidence that the most violent areas of the city are the core and the North End," she said. "It's happening in impoverished, marginalized areas.

"The percentage of at-risk, marginalized aboriginal youth (in those areas) is exploding."

Nimmo said turning the situation around is not solely a job left to Winnipeg police, who react to crime. However, she said, police can, and have been, working closely with community groups and government and other non-government agencies to focus on the root of the social problems that lead to crime.

Whether Winnipeg can shed those notorious titles depends on the ability to focus on policies and initiatives that work, she said.

"It depends on how much we maintain best-practice, evidence-based programs," Nimmo said.

Winnipeg Mayor Sam Katz said no city wants the titles of homicide and violent crime capital of Canada, but he added he found solace in the fact the total number of crimes in Winnipeg was decreasing.

"If crime were going up in our city, I'd then be very, very concerned," Katz said. "When I see it's been dropping over the last few years, I know we're headed in the right direction."

Katz said many people feel safety has improved in recent years, in part due to the fact there are more police and cadets who patrol downtown. He said certain crimes have dropped five to 10 per cent.

Katz said "there's no point" comparing Winnipeg's crime rate with other cities, since every place has its own issues.

"I have no problem going downtown, I have no problem going to the North End, regardless of the day of the week, regardless of what time it is," Katz said.

The Statistics Canada data reflect figures released by the Winnipeg Police Service Monday, which showed a decrease in almost all categories of crime.

Shannon Brennan, an analyst with Statistics Canada, said the severity index recognizes some violent crimes are more serious than others, adding while the total number of crimes is decreasing across the country, Winnipeg experienced an increase in the seriousness of violent crime based on a three per cent increase in the number of robberies and almost double the number of homicides.

Statistics Canada found the crime rate is declining across the country: Police reported more than 424,400 incidents of violent crime in 2011, about 14,800 fewer than in 2010. Violent crimes account for about one in five crimes reported to police.

However, unlike Winnipeg, the country's violent crime severity index declined four per cent.

While the overall crime rate fell across the country, the national homicide rate rose seven per cent. Police reported 598 homicides in 2011, 44 more than in 2010, for a rate of 1.7 homicides per 100,000 residents.

Both the rate and severity of violent crime fell four per cent in 2011 in Canada, the report said. It was the fifth consecutive annual decline in the severity of violent crime.

 

-- with files from Jen Skerritt

[email protected]

 

By the numbers

Winnipeg and Manitoba had the highest homicide rates in the country for 2011.

Manitoba had the highest homicide rate among provinces for the fifth year in a row, followed by Saskatchewan and Alberta.

Winnipeg had the highest homicide rate (5.1 per 100,00 population) among census metropolitan areas (CMA), and the highest rate since 1981, when CMA data was first collected.

The next highest homicide rates were Halifax (4.4) and Edmonton (4.2).

HOMICIDES

Winnipeg: 2011 -- 39**; 2010 - 22; 5.1 per 100,000 residents

Manitoba: 2011 -- 53; 2010 - 45; 4.2 per 100,000 residents

 

VIOLENT CRIME SEVERITY INDEX

The index determines the seriousness of crime in a community. It is calculated by placing a weighted score for each category of violent crime.

A Statistics Canada analyst said the VCS Index increased in Winnipeg as a result of a three per cent increase in robberies and an almost doubling in the homicide rate, from 22 to 39.**

 

** There were 41 homicides in Winnipeg in 2011 but the two additional incidents were only discovered by police in June and were too late to be included in this year's report.

 

Comparing Winnipeg

with other Canadian communities of a similar size or larger

 

% change

CityIndex2010 to 2011

 

Winnipeg173.8+ 6

(pop. 762,800)

Quebec46.8- 8

(pop. 761,700)

Hamilton 75.8- 5

(pop. 750,200)

Edmonton105.9 - 2

(pop. 1,196,300)

Calgary72.1 - 11

(pop. 1,265,100)

Vancouver98.3 - 9

(pop. 2,419,700)

Montreal 97.70

(pop. 3,908,700)

Toronto84.7- 3

(pop. 5,838,800)

Canada 85.3- 4

 

Comparing Winnipeg with other major western Canadian cities

 

% change

CityIndex2010 to 2011

 

Winnipeg173.8+ 6

(pop. 762,800)

Saskatoon134.5- 14

(pop. 272,000)

Regina123.5- 18

(pop. 218,700)

Edmonton105.9 - 2

(pop. 1,196,300)

Calgary72.1 - 11

(pop. 1,265,100)

Vancouver98.3 - 9

(pop. 2,419,700)

Источник: https://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/homicide-capital-of-canada-163663166.html
Introduction

Unless you're an amateur sleuth specializing in unsolved murders, these cites are good places to avoid. If you're ready to see the country, take our advice, and don't book a permanent vacation in these rough towns where everyone lives on the wrong side of the tracks. Because we care about your safety and general well-being, we've compiled this list of the 10 most murderous cities in the United States. This terrifying tally is based on each city's murder rate per 100,000 residents. Only the biggest, most murderous cities were considered for our prizes. Shall we get started?

1. Detroit, MI

With 45.1 murders per 100,000 residents, Detroit churns out fresh corpses almost as quickly as they build new cars. This adds up to a whopping 316 murders annually. With such an impressive number of robberies, rapes and assaults, walking around town is like playing extreme roulette. The city has 97 percent more police officers than the Michigan average. However, it seems like the men in blue are too busy solving crimes to prevent them. On the bright side, Detroit is safer than 1 percent of Michigan's cities and 2 percent of cities across the continent. That's a real accomplishment! Learn more about the Detroit, MI crime rate.

2. New Orleans, LA

According to our experts, New Orleans scored an "F" for crime. Believe us when we tell you that "F" does not stand for "fantastic". All the stats indicate that New Orleans is riddled with violent crimes. The murder rate is impressively freaky at 41.3 per 100,000 residents. With a population of 343,000, the city puts 156 new murders on the books each year. New Orleans experiences 50 percent more violent crimes compared to the rest of the notoriously violent state. It's time to pick up some voodoo charms because your chances of being a victim are one in 128. Learn more about the New Orleans, LA crime rate.

3. Newark, NJ

The Newark aiport is considered one of the best in the US, but unless you plan on hiding in the luggage area, Newark is a dangerous place. New Jersey is a relatively safe state with violent crime rates that are 21 percent below the national average. However, this sense of security spontaneously disappears when you step inside the Brick City. This oasis of crime is responsible for 112 murders each year, which is 40.2 per 100,000 residents. If you like being busy, become a police officer in Newark. The town's force of 1,322 investigates 3,539 violent crimes annually. Here's a travel tip. If you see a guy with red stains on his shirt, don't ask him if he enjoyed the pizza. Learn more about the Newark, NJ crime rate.

4. St. Louis, MO

Even the Midwest has a murderous dark side that you can discover on a visit to St. Louis. The city's famous Gateway Arch supposedly celebrates the nation's westward expansion, but it's easier to believe that it commemorates the city's record-setting crime rates. Each year, 37.6 murders occur per 100,000 residents. That equals 120 deaths annually. St. Louis isn't the capital or the state's largest city, but it's made a big impression with a violent crime rate that's 267 percent higher than the state average. The town has plenty of police officers. It's only logical to assume that it's still not enough to crack down on all the crime in this sporty city. Learn more about the St. Louis crime rate.

5. Baltimore, MD

Baltimore is a fantastic city known for its naval ports, sports teams, scenic Inner Harbor and notable residents, including John Waters, Babe Ruth and Edgar Allen Poe. It's also known for its exceptional murder and violent crime rates. How safe is Baltimore? In Maryland, 99 percent of cities are safer than Baltimore. According to our experts, Baltimore sees 223 murders annually, which is 37.4 per 100,000 residents. Together with its outstanding performance in violent crimes, Baltimore is 195 percent more dangerous than the rest of Maryland. Learn more about the Baltimore, MD crime rate.

6. Birmingham, AL

If you're a regular reader, you'll know that Birmingham is one of our favorite cities. But, unfortunately, not for all the right reasons. It appears on many of our top 10 lists, including our recent breakdown of the nation's 10 most dangerous cities. Birmingham is not just dangerous. It's murderous. Property damage reports are more than 100 percent higher than the Alabama average, but this is nothing compared to the city's violent crime rate, which is an eye-popping 212 percent higher. The city has 63 murders each year, which equates to 29.7 muderders per 100,000 people. Learn more about the Birmingham, AL crime rate.

7. Jackson, MS

As you may know from geography class, Jackson is the capital of Mississippi. What you probably didn't learn is that it's the murder capital of the state. The city is named after the nation's seventh president Andrew Jackson, who is turning over in his grave right now. Here are a few things that would have really bugged Old Hickory. The rate of violent crime in his eponymous city is 237 percent higher than the rest of the state. This includes 50 murders and thousands of violent crimes each year. Maybe Jackson, TN, would have been a better pick for him. Learn more about the Jackson, MS crime rate.

8. Cincinnati, OH

Cincinnati has art, culture, corporate headquarters and a lot of crime. Locals call it Cincy. That has to be short for sin city. Ohio has four murders per 100,000 people, but Cincinnati has 23.6. Based on its population of 300,000, the city has 70 murders each year or 23.6 murders per 100,000 people. These people aren't mad about the weather or the outstanding amenities. They must be fighting over that delicious Cincinnati-style chili. There has to be a nice part of town. We just haven't been able to find it. Learn more about the Cincinnati, OH crime rate.

9. Oakland, CA

If you're ready to fly into the danger zone, Oakland is a great place to do it. The statistics are with you. One in every 51 residents will be the victim of a violent crime this year. In California, murder rates stand at 5 murders per 100,000 citizens. In sunny Oaktown, this jumps to 22 per 100,000 residents or 90 murders annually. Violent crime rates in Oakland are 391 percent higher than the California average. That takes a lot of work. Finally, we understand why Oakland is one of America's most exciting cities. You never know who will be murdered this week.Learn more about the Oakland, CA crime rate.

10. Baton Rouge, LA

Beautiful weather, a low cost of living and gorgeous natural surroundings haven't stopped Louisiana's capital city from making it big in the world of crime and murder. Baton Rouge has outdone the rest of the state, which is 40 percent more violent than the nation as a whole. New Orleans is more popular, so Baton Rouge seized the opportunity to top the violent crime list. Baton Rouge isn't a very large city, but it manages to attract attention by having 49 murders annually. If you have a death wish, it's a great destination. Learn more about the Baton Rouge, LA crime rate.

For more information, check out the AreaVibes Best and Worst Places to Live list for real-time, up-to-date and interactive top 100 best and worst list of cities. The report is sortable, and it allows you to filter by population and by category as well as by state.

Источник: https://www.areavibes.com/library/top-10-cities-highest-murder-rate/

Saskatchewan has highest Crime Severity Index in Canada

Saskatchewan has the highest Crime Severity Index (CSI) in Canada, according to the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics’ (CCJS), which released its statistics Oct. 29.

Saskatchewan’s CSI increased by 5.40 per cent in 2019, from 140.59 in 2018 to 148.18 in 2019.

The province’s Violent Crime Severity Index (VCSI) also increased by 21.12 per cent, jumping from 141.16 in 2018 to 170.97 in 2019.

The province’s non-violent crime, however, dropped by 0.31 per cent, from 140.06 in 2018 to 139.63 in 2019.

Quebec was the only province to report a lower CSI (-one per cent). The types of offences driving increases in the CSI across the provinces and territories varied from fraud, child pornography, homicide, and breaking and entering.

The largest increases in the CSI were recorded in the CMAs of Kelowna (+20 per cent), Victoria (+16 per cent), Belleville (+13 per cent) and Vancouver (+11 per cent).

Around Saskatchewan

Regina had the third highest CSI in 2019 among Canada’s 35 census metropolitan areas with a population of 100,000 or more. Lethbridge had the highest CSI, followed by Winnipeg.

Saskatoon dropped from fourth to fifth in 2019. Saskatoon’s CSI measure was 117.3 in 2019, down slightly from 2018’s 117.78. But Saskatoon’s violent crime severity rating jumped by almost 24 per cent, hitting 134.73 in 2019, up from 109.03 in 2018.

North Battleford drops in crime ranking

North Battleford dropped to number four in CSI ranking in communities of 10,000 or more.

Crime, however, continues to be an issue. North Battleford’s CSI increased by 13.42 per cent in 2019 compared with only a 3.95 per cent increase in 2018. It’s CIS was 437.70 and 385.92 in 2019 and 2018 respectively.

North Battleford had a whopping 46.87 per cent increase in its Violent Crime Severity Index (VCSI) jumping from 377.77 in 2018 to 554.83 in 2019.

The non-violent crime in North Battleford only increased 1.70 per cent in 2019.

Homicide rate increases in the Prairie Provinces

Nationally, the increase in homicides was driven by Saskatchewan (+21), Alberta (+19), and Manitoba (+17). There were fewer homicides in Ontario (-26) and Quebec (-6).

Police reported a two per cent increase in homicides with 678 homicides in 2019, compared with 658 in 2018. 

Homicide rate for Indigenous peoples 6.5 times higher than for non-Indigenous people

The homicide rate for Indigenous peoples (First Nation, Métis and Inuit) was six and a half times higher (8.82 homicides per 100,000 population) than for Canada's non-Indigenous population (1.34 per 100,000 population). Indigenous peoples accounted for five per cent of Canada's population, but 27 per cent of all homicide victims nationally in 2019.

Police reported 174 Indigenous homicide victims in 2019, 33 more than in 2018.

Colonization, residential schools, work camps and forced relocation, have profoundly impacted Indigenous communities and families, Statistics Canada said when releasing the numbers.

“Indigenous peoples often experience social and institutional marginalization, discrimination, and various forms of trauma and violence—including intergenerational trauma and gender-based violence. As a result, many Indigenous peoples experience challenging social and economic circumstances. These factors play a significant role in the overrepresentation of Indigenous people in the criminal justice system and as victims of crime.”

Crime decreases on Onion Lake Cree Nation

Onion Lake Cree Nation’s CSI measure decreased in 2019 by 14.5 per cent, dropping from 905.58 in 2018 to 774.4 in 2019.

Onion Lake’s violent crime severity index also decreased. It went from 1,098.36 in 2018 to 903.58 in 2019, which translates into a 17.73 per cent decrease.

Onion Lake’s non-violent crime dropped by 12.99 per cent going from 834.10 in 2018 to 725.76 in 2019.

Gang related homicides increase

The number of firearm-related (+10) and gang-related (+6) homicides increased in 2019. Handguns accounted for most firearm-related homicides (60 per cent), which has been the case since 1995. Handguns also accounted for the majority (78 per cent) of gang-related homicides committed with a firearm.

More sexual assaults reported

The #MeToo movement is attributed for the notable increase in police-reported sexual assaults in the last three years.

In 2019, police-reported sexual assaults rose seven per cent, marking the fifth consecutive annual increase.

Significant increase in police-reported child pornography

The national rate of police-reported child pornography increased by 46 per cent. Police reported 8,815 incidents in 2019, 2,881 more than in 2018. The huge rise and severity of incidents of child pornography made child pornography the second leading offence driving the national increase in the CSI in 2019.

More offences related to harassing and threatening behaviours

The rates of many types of criminally harassing and threatening behaviours rose sharply in 2019. In particular, criminal harassment (+17 per cent in the rate per 100,000 population, +3,634 incidents), uttering threats (+20 per cent rate, +14,555 incidents), indecent or harassing communications (+29 per cent rate, +5,517 incidents), and the non-consensual distribution of intimate images (+31 per cent rate, +489 incidents) all increased from a year earlier. Uttering threats was the largest contributor to the national increase in the Violent Crime Severity Index in 2019.

Police-reported fraud increases

Nationally, the rate of police-reported fraud (including identity theft and identity fraud) increased for the eighth year in a row, up 10 per cent from 2018 and 64 per cent higher than the rate recorded a decade earlier.

According to the Canadian Anti-fraud Centre, there were 19,285 victims of fraud in 2019 and more than $98 million lost due to fraud.

Increase in shoplifting

Police reported more than 140,200 incidents of shoplifting (373 incidents per 100,000 population) in 2019, up 11 per cent from 2018.

There were large increases in the rate of shoplifting in Manitoba (+48 per cent), Alberta (+37 per cent) and British Columbia (+18 per cent).

Police-reported meth offences increase

A number of police services have indicated that the illicit use of methamphetamine (crystal meth) is a growing issue in their communities and may be contributing to increases in other types of crime, including property and violent crimes.

There were 14,446 methamphetamine offences in Canada in 2019, up three per cent from the previous year.

Effects of COVID-19 on crime to be determined

The police-reported crime statistics from 2019 don’t reflect the impacts in Canada by the COVID-19 pandemic. The 2020 police-reported data will identify possible changes in Canadian crime patterns as a result of the pandemic.

Canada’s crime rate lower than decade ago

The police-reported crime rate, which measures the volume of crime, increased seven per cent in 2019 to 5,874 incidents per 100,000 Canadians. Even with this increase, the crime rate in 2019 was nine per cent lower than a decade ago.

Police reported more than 2.2 million Criminal Code incidents in 2019, 164,748 more than in 2018.

The CSI measures the volume and severity of police-reported crime in Canada. The CSI tracks changes in the severity of police-reported crime from year to year. It considers the change in volume of a particular crime and the relative seriousness of that crime in comparison to other crimes.

Источник: https://www.sasktoday.ca/north/local-news/saskatchewan-has-highest-crime-severity-index-in-canada-4157938

Vancouver Crime Rates: Is This City Safe?

According to the international magazine The Economist, the Greater Vancouver area has consistently qualified as one of the top ten most livable cities in the world. In fact, it came in at #6 on the 2019 list. Vancouver boasts cultural diversity, an internationally recognized healthcare system, scenic views of the ocean and the mountains, quality education, and world-class infrastructures. These are all contributing factors to what makes this city so livable.

Crime is also an important criteria when assessing livability. As a world-class city, how does Vancouver’s crime rate measure up? We take a look at the statistics and comparisons across the country, and the globe, to help you decide whether or not it’s safe to settle down in Vancouver.

 

How Crime Rates Are Measured in Vancouver

Statistics Canada publishes an annual report on the number of police-reported criminal incidents and types of crimes across the country. This report contains three indexes: A Crime Severity Index, a Violent Crime Severity Index, and a Non-violent Crime Severity Index.

The Crime Severity Index includes all Criminal Code offences as well as federal statute offences.

The Violent Crime Severity Index includes crimes against a person that involves the use of, or threatened use of, violence. Crimes that fall under this category are:

  • Homicide
  • Attempted murder
  • Assault
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery

Lastly, the non-violent Crime Severity Index includes crimes that aren’t categorized as violent crimes.

 

Violent Crime Rates in Vancouver

Violent crimes are the most concerning since they pose the biggest threat to personal security. In Vancouver, the overall violent crime rate in 2019 was 8.46 offenses per 1000 people.

Homicides

Based on the data collected and shared by the Vancouver Police Department (VPD) in early 2020, the number of homicides in 2019 was lower than it has been in 5 years at just 10 homicides. However, Vancouver’s overall violent crime rate has seen an increase.

The number of homicides in 2019 is five less than in 2018 and almost 50% less than the number of homicides in 2017. Twelve homicides were accounted for in 2016, and 16 homicides in 2015.

Sexual Offenses

In contrast to the downward trend of homicides, the VPD report shows that the number of sexual offenses increased from 520 in 2015 to 623 in 2019. The most significant increase in numbers occurred in 2018 with 50 more reported incidents. Vancouver did see a slight decrease in the total number of reported sexual offenses in 2019, with 13 less compared to the numbers in the previous year.

For every 1000 people in the Vancouver population, the number of sexual offences in 2019 occurred at a rate of 0.91 compared to 0.01 for homicides.

Overall Violent Crime

Although the rate of homicides and sexual offenses decreased in the last year, the overall violent crime rate increased by 8.1%. This was largely due to 20.6% increase in the rate of attempted murder and 10.5% increase in assaults. Robberies also saw an increase of 4.9%.

Property Crime

Property Crime is another significant category to review when it comes to your personal safety, as well as your business ventures. In 2018, overall property crime rates in Vancouver were 6.2%, which was higher than BC’s property crime rate (4.77%) and Canada’s property crime rate (3.34%).

In that same year, Vancouver saw an increase of 5.4% in property crimes from the previous year. The largest contributors to this increase were the 20.5% increase in business break-and-enters (twice as many as residential break-and-enters), 13.3% increase of possession of stolen property, and 11.4% increase of theft from auto.

 

Is Vancouver Safe at Night?

Most neighbourhoods in Vancouver are typically safe enough to walk around at night. However, you may want to avoid walking alone in the dark in Chinatown, Gastown, and East Hastings.

If you are contemplating which Vancouver neighbourhood you should open a business in, it is worth noting that the Central Business District had the highest number of crimes in 2019, based on data collected by the Vancouver Police Department.

Vancouver Chinatown

 

Vancouver’s Safest Neighborhoods

Sotheby International Realty published an article in 2018 to advise potential real estate buyers on the safest neighbourhoods.

The article listed the following neighbourhoods as the safest in the city:

  1. South Cambie
  2. Arbutus Ridge
  3. Shaugnessy
  4. Kerrisdale
  5. West Point Grey

This list is aligned with the 2019 data collected by the Vancouver police which shows the 5 neighbourhoods having some of the lowest crime rates in Greater Vancouver.

Vancouver Family Walking

 

National and Global Crime Rate Comparison

Numbeo ranks 396 of the world’s major cities in a global crime index. Mid-way through 2020, Vancouver came in at the 259th place. Oslo, Norway as well as Brooklyn, NY and Shanghai, China all had similar indices.

So far, Vancouver has shown improvement from the 211th ranking in 2019. From 2013 to 2020 Vancouver has fluctuated between 208 to 287. However, in 2012, the city fared significantly better, coming in at the 76th spot on the charts.

As far as a nationwide comparison, according to 2018 data collected for Maclean’s annual report on “Canada’s Most Dangerous Places”, Vancouver’s Crime Severity Index (108) has increased and is higher than the nation’s average (75.01). However, Vancouver’s Violent Crime Severity Index (96) has decreased and is lower than the nation’s average (82.44).

Over the past 5 years, Vancouver’s Crime Severity Index has increased by 3.57.

Based on this data, Vancouver is Canada’s 59th most dangerous community out of the 237 communities examined.

 

Making Vancouver a Safer Place

Paladin Security helps make Vancouver safer by providing security services to businesses, the healthcare industry, education institutions, government institutions, and warehouses.

Through our specialized training and industry-leading selection process, we employ the most qualified security officers in the country. Our state-of-the-art security programs provide the security solutions that you need. And our knowledgeable security consultants help you make customized, evidence-based decisions.

Protect your staff and your customers, and strengthen the performance of your business through our specialized security services.

Security Officers in Gastown

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Источник: https://paladinsecurity.com/safety-tips/vancouver-crime-rate/
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