are mushrooms good for you when pregnant

High blood pressure isn't healthy for anyone, but for pregnant women, it can be particularly dangerous. Hypertension during pregnancy is. There are many types of mushrooms which are packed with health benefits and and can provide nutrition for children as well as nutrition for pregnancy. Mushrooms contain a number of vitamins and minerals that are important during pregnancy such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, and selenium. Notably, their star.

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: Are mushrooms good for you when pregnant

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When cooked well, mushrooms are so tasty that they are irresistible. They can be added to salads, soups, pizzas and spicy preparations. Freshly picked mushrooms are even better with low calories and high protein.

But are mushrooms safe for consumption during pregnancy? MomJunction tells you about the benefits and risks of eating mushrooms when you are pregnant, the types of mushrooms you can eat and the ones you should avoid.

Can Pregnant Women Eat Mushrooms?

Yes, it is safe to consume mushrooms during pregnancy, but avoid raw mushrooms as they are carcinogenic.

Also, not all mushrooms are edible, and it is important to know the difference.

Cooked or dried mushrooms are good as they are highly nutritious and are rich in vitamins, minerals and trace elements (1).

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What Are The Benefits Of Eating Mushrooms During Pregnancy?

Mushrooms offer excellent nutrition for your growing baby. Including them in your regular diet helps you share the benefits with the baby in the womb.

1. Abundant vitamin B

Mushrooms are natural sources of B complex vitamins including thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3) and pantothenic acid (B5) (2), which are beneficial for the mom-to-be and the baby.

  • Thiamine and niacin aid in brain development of the baby, relieve fatigue and boost energy.
  • Riboflavin aids in keeping the skin healthy, improving eyesight and developing strong bones, muscles, and nerves.
  • Pantothenic acid prevents digestion issues (3).

2. Vitamin D promotes healthy bones

Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy can cause tiredness, back pain, bone weakness, and depression. Adding mushrooms to your diet can give you abundant vitamin D (4). It helps absorb calcium in the body, to form strong bones and teeth in the baby (5).

3. Protein and fiber

Protein and fiber are present abundantly in mushrooms.

  • Protein is necessary for the overall development of your baby, as it contributes to the muscle mass (6).
  • Fiber helps prevent irritable create mcb account such as constipation and fatigue, keeping you active and ready for a smooth delivery (7).

4. Iron promotes hemoglobin levels

Your body requires more hemoglobin as the volume of the blood increases during pregnancy. Mushrooms are an excellent source of iron, which helps produce hemoglobin and red blood cells in both the mother and the fetus (8).

5. Antioxidants boost the immune system

Antioxidants (selenium and ergothioneine) present in mushrooms boost the immune system (9) and keep you disease-free and healthy during pregnancy. Mushrooms also contain zinc, potassium, and selenium, which assist the baby’s growth and development.

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Nutritional Value Of Mushrooms

The nutrient value of raw, white mushrooms (per 100gm serving) is as follows (10):

NUTRIENTAMOUNT
Calories22kcal
Carbohydrates3.26g
Protein3.09g
Fiber1g
Fat0.34g
Vitamins
Vitamin C2.1mg
Folic acid17mcg
Pyridoxine0.104mg
Niacin3.607mg
Riboflavin0.402mg
Thiamin0.081mg
Minerals
Potassium318mg
Calcium3mg
Iron0.5mg
Magnesium9mg
Zinc0.52mg
Phosphorus86mg

To benefit from the high nutrient value of mushrooms, you should be able to differentiate between edible and poisonous mushrooms. Read next about the type of mushrooms that you can eat.

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[ Read: Benefits Of Cauliflower In Pregnancy ]

What Type Of Mushrooms Can You Eat?

Mushrooms that you can eat during pregnancy include:

1. White button mushrooms are a common variety found everywhere (9). You can recognize them by their pale white shoot with a spotted top. The top is flavorful and can be used to make delicious dishes. The shoot contains fiber, which is used in making broths and stews.

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2. Shiitake mushrooms are black and possess a leafy texture, and popularly used in Chinese cuisine. Shiitake and maitake are medicinal mushrooms, which have high levels of beta-glucan, a polysaccharide sugar, and fiber. It is an anti-tumor, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-fungal and antioxidant substance (11).

  • Shiitake (Lentinula edodes)

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  • Maitake (Hen-of-the-wood or Grifola Frondosa)

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3. Porcini mushrooms (Boletus edulis) are golden in color and are highly flavorful. These are the most expensive mushrooms and are used in Italian cuisine.

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4. True morel mushrooms (Morchella) are a wild variety but have an edible strain that comes with a hollow stem. Make sure that you clean and cook them properly as these mushrooms are likely to cause allergic reactions and gastrointestinal upset (13).

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5. Chestnut mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) look like white button mushrooms but have a brown cap and pink to dark brown gills. They have a strong taste and look like a darker strain of button mushroom.

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Other edible mushrooms you can eat during pregnancy include:

  • King Oysters/ Eringi (Pleurotus eryngii) 

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Giant puffball (Calvatia gigantea), dryad’s saddle, scarlet elf cups, wood ears, beefsteak fungus, cauliflower fungus, penny buns, field blewits and hedgehog fungus are edible mushrooms but are best avoided when you are pregnant.

Not all mushrooms are meant to be eaten. Some are used for medicinal purposes only while others are highly poisonous and must be avoided. Continue reading to know more about the mushrooms you should not eat.

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[ Read: Avocados During Pregnancy ]

Types Of Mushrooms To Avoid During Pregnancy

Certain mushrooms can lead to the death of both the mother and the baby and must be avoided.

1. Magic mushrooms contain psilocybin, a chemical that alters the brain activity and affects your growing fetus. They should not be consumed even when you are breastfeeding (10).

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2. Parasol mushrooms are umbrella-shaped, with milky gills, white rings, and some spots. They are brightly colored, and caps are cream colored (10).

Parasol mushrooms

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3. False morels: They are wrinkled with irregularly shaped caps.

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Other poisonous mushrooms you need to avoid are Puffballs Amanitas, Crimini, Chanterelle, Portable, Death Cap, Fly Agaric, Angel Wing, Conocybe Filaris, Deadly Webcap, Autumn Skullcap, Destroying Angels and Podostroma Conru-damae.

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What Are The Risks Of Taking Toxic Mushrooms?

There are some potential side effects of taking the above mentioned poisonous mushrooms. Remember that these risks will not arise from healthy and edible mushrooms.

  • Cause congenital abnormalities: Consumption of poisonous or toxic mushrooms can lead to physical birth defects in babies (11).
  • Hallucinogenic: Some poisonous mushrooms possess a hallucinogenic property owing to their psilocybin content, which alters the brain activity (2).

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Precautions To Follow When Eating Mushrooms When Pregnant

Here are a few tips on how to eat mushrooms and stay safe.

  • Buy fresh mushrooms, which do not have decaying spots and bruises.
  • In the case of processed mushrooms, check for the expiration date.
  • Wash and cook properly. Never have raw mushrooms.
  • If you want to check if the mushroom is causing any side effects, eat it in a small amount and look for a reaction. Avoid if you experience any allergic reactions.

Next, we have the answers to some more questions about mushrooms during pregnancy.

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[ Read: Fruits To Eat During Pregnancy ]

Frequently Asked Questions:

1. Can I eat mushrooms in early pregnancy?

Yes, you can eat mushrooms in early pregnancy. Since they contain fiber, they help treat indigestion and constipation that are common in early pregnancy. The antioxidants (such as selenium and ergothioneine) in mushrooms fight free radicals and boost the immune system.

2. Does craving mushrooms during pregnancy indicate the gender of the baby?

No. The assumption that craving for mushrooms indicates the baby’s gender is just another old wives’ tale.

Mushrooms are safe for the baby growing within you. Include them in your diet but do not eat the unsafe ones. Cook them well and add to any dish you like, to boost its nutritional value. Check with your doctor if you have any doubts about eating mushrooms during pregnancy.

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Have you enjoyed eating mushroom icici direct com login page during your pregnancy? Use our comments section to share your story.

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Jyoti Benjamin has 25 years of experience as a clinical dietitian and currently works in Seattle. She focuses on teaching people the value of good nutrition and helping them lead healthy lives by natural means. Benjamin has a masters in Foods and Nutrition, and has been a longtime member and Fellow of AND (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) and the. more

Swati Patwal is a clinical nutritionist and toddler mom with over eight years of experience in diverse fields of nutrition. She started her career as a CSR project coordinator for a healthy eating and active lifestyle project catering to school children. Then she worked as a nutrition faculty and clinical nutrition coach in different organizations. Her interest in scientific writing. more

Источник: https://www.momjunction.com/articles/safe-eat-mushroom-pregnancy_0089276/

Is it advisable for pregnant women to eat mushrooms while pregnant? During pregnancy, you must be careful what goes down your throat lest you face problems. Eat typical food you know they are safe for your condition or if unsure, seek advice from your gynecologist before ingesting uncommon food. While pregnant, be extra careful with what you eat. Even if you were a mushroom fan before pregnancy, seek advice before you eat them while pregnant. Every woman is different during this period, and not every pregnancy in a woman is the same.

Traditionally, people had myths and misconceptions about eating mushrooms, saying they are healthy, while others believe they are not suitable for pregnant mothers. So, can I eat mushrooms while pregnant? Yes, with some caveats. But some women can eat mushrooms without issues.  

Nutritionally, eating mushrooms is right for your health. It contains some vital vitamins and minerals that help develop the bundle you are carrying inside. You can eat mushrooms when pregnant, but some varieties may cause allergies, which leads to some side effects. Magic and wild mushrooms may cause stomach problems such as; vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea, but this depends on your body’s reactions towards these mushrooms. So, start with low quantities to know how your body reacts to mushrooms. If everything turns out fine, increase your intake until full servings. 

You may be asking yourself which varieties to consume and are safe to eat during pregnancy. Continue eating mushroom varieties that cause you no issues before to be on the safe side. But if you want to test other varieties, start with low quantities to monitor how your body is receptive or non-receptive. Eat common types of mushrooms while pregnant such as cremini, oyster, and button.  

Mushrooms can also be frozen or processed but must be consumed before expiry dates to be safe during pregnancy.

If you want to purchase your mushrooms, ensure they are fresh, with no bruising, and be clean. I advise you not to eat raw mushrooms, especially when pregnant; wash and cook them thoroughly to prevent the harmful fungi and germs from destroying your digestive system. If you doubt the above side effects, eat small quantities and monitor how your body responds. If there are any reactions, see your nutritionist for further advice. 

Apart from the natural mushroom fungi, other medicinal mushroom varieties have potent antioxidants, which are visa prepaid debit card pin number beneficial to pregnant mothers’ health. A few examples of these medicinal mushrooms include; maitake, shiitake, turkey, and reishi mushrooms. Some mushrooms are not advisable for pregnant mothers to eat; you know what makes your mushroom unsafe.

Raw mushrooms

Mushrooms are indigestible if eaten raw; this is because they contain rigid cell walls, so you must cook them properly before eating them, and this makes its nutrients bioavailable.

Magic mushrooms and wild mushrooms may cause problems when eaten raw. Magic mushrooms contain psilocybin, which may lead to hallucinations, drowsiness, vomiting, and nausea. It may also cause ataxia, which can lead to death. 

Precautions to take while eating mushrooms

If you eat mushrooms and realize that it has no allergic reactions on your body, you may not experience any side effects, and you must maintain the same variety.  Anyhow, follow the following precautions:

Purchase and consume while fresh; skip eating mushrooms raw. Check the structure and texture to ensure no bruises or decay spots, and then wash them thoroughly before cooking. Steer far away from processed mushrooms or reduce the servings per day. If you have been feasting with mushrooms along and you are deep-rooted into this diet, avoid medicinal mushrooms during pregnancy only; you can eat the rest. Your body is like a temple during pregnancy; not everything gets along.

Nutritional value of mushrooms

Mushrooms contain many nutrients essential for pregnant mothers; these nutrients include; proteins, carbohydrates, energy, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, sodium, vitamin D, copper, folate potassium, niacin, and many others.

Benefits of eating mushrooms

Mushrooms make other foods taste good; also, they add small quantities of fat, carbohydrates, or low amounts of calories. If you eat mushrooms, your body will benefit from the vitamin B complex, including compounds such as; thiamine B1, riboflavin B2, niacin B3, and pantothenic acid B5. Riboflavin helps in nerve development, good eyesight, healthy skin, and strong muscles and bones. Niacin helps maintain cholesterols levels and is very good for the heart and circulatory system’s health to both mother and the unborn. Thiamine, responsible for developing a baby’s brain, also boasts a good source of energy your body needs. Pantothenic acids prevent digestive disorders by increasing metabolism inside the gut.

Eating mushrooms enrich your body with proteins that aid in developing the placenta and supports the fetus. It also contains fiber, either insoluble or soluble, for proper digestion. Soluble fiber helps modulate the amount of sugar absorbed into the body and helps maintain blood pressure and cholesterol level.

Mushrooms contain antioxidants that help pregnant mothers stay healthy and disease-free by boosting the immune green dot moneypak activation codes. It contains potassium and zinc minerals, which allow the growth and healthy development of the unborn. It would be best if you had a lot of blood during pregnancy; iron available in mushrooms is essential for hemoglobin and oxygen-carrying protein. 

Conclusion

So, can I eat mushrooms while pregnant? Yes, you can eat mushrooms because they contain a lot of nutrients that supplement other foods. Mushrooms exist in many varieties, so choose the ones that have no allergy reactions to your body. I advise you not to eat mushrooms when first financial bank indianapolis locations because cell walls are rigid and hard to break. Don’t eat magic or wild mushrooms because they may cause issues. Magic contains psilocybin, which causes people to hallucinate, feel drowsy, vomit, nausea, and ataxia.

Mushrooms also contain insoluble and soluble fiber essential for proper digestion. Soluble fiber helps to moderate the amount of sugar absorbed into the body, maintaining blood pressure and cholesterols’ level. When you go to the market for mushrooms, buy fresh ones and watch for bruises or decay spots.

Источник: https://www.simple30.com/faq/can-i-eat-mushrooms-while-pregnant/

Role of mushrooms in gestational diabetes mellitus

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(2018) Determination of the Five Main Terpenoids in Different Tissues of Wolfiporia cocos. Molecules 23: 1839. doi: 10.3390/molecules23081839 [57] Esteban CI (2009) Medicinal interest of Poria cocos (Wolfiporia extensa). Rev Iberoam Micol 26: 103–107. doi: 10.1016/S1130-1406(09)70019-1 [58] Li Y, Zhang J, Li T, et al. (2016) A Comprehensive and Comparative Study of Wolfiporia extensa Cultivation Regions by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography. PLoS One 11: e0168998. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168998 [59] Shafrir E, Spielman S, Nachliel I, et al. (2001) Treatment of diabetes with vanadium salts: general overview and amelioration of nutritionally induced diabetes in the Psammomys obesus gerbil. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 17: 55–66. doi: 10.1002/1520-7560(2000)9999:9999<::AID-DMRR165>3.0.CO;2-J [60] Clark TA, Deniset JF, Heyliger CE, et al. (2014) Alternative therapies for diabetes and its cardiac complications: role of vanadium. Heart Fail Rev 19: 123–132. doi: 10.1007/s10741-013-9380-0 [61] Gruzewska K, Michno A, Pawelczyk T, et al. (2014) Essentiality and toxicity of vanadium supplements in health and pathology. J Physiol Pharmacol 65: 603–611. [62] Halberstam M, Cohen N, Shlimovich P, et al. (1996) Oral vanadyl sulfate improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM but not in obese nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes 45: 659–666. doi: 10.2337/diab.45.5.659 [63] Huang HY, Korivi M, Chaing YY, et al. (2012) Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012: 856381. [64] Huang HY, Korivi M, Yang HT, et al. (2014) Effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium polysaccharides supplementation on the progression of diabetes complications in obese-diabetic rats. Chin J Physiol 57: 198–208. doi: 10.4077/CJP.2014.BAC245 [65] Kobayashi M, Kawashima H, Takemori K, et al. (2012) Ternatin, a cyclic peptide isolated from mushroom, and its derivative suppress hyperglycemia and hepatic fatty acid synthesis in spontaneously diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 427: 299–304. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.09.045 [66] Laurino LF, Viroel FJM, Pickler TB, et al. (2017) Functional foods in gestational diabetes: Evaluation of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant rats treated with mushrooms. Reprod Toxicol 72: 36. [67] Jayasuriya WJ, Wanigatunge CA, Fernando GH, et al. (2015) Hypoglycaemic activity of culinary Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cystidiosus mushrooms in healthy volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients on diet control and the possible mechanisms of action. Phytother Res 29: 303–309. [68] Gao Y, Lan J, Dai X, et al. (2004) A Phase I/II Study of Ling Zhi Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Med Mushrooms 6: 327-334. [69] Friedman M (2016) Mushroom Polysaccharides: Chemistry and Antiobesity, Antidiabetes, Anticancer, and Antibiotic Properties in Cells, Rodents, and Humans. Foods 5: 80. doi: 10.3390/foods5040080 [70] Lo HC, Wasser SP (2011) Medicinal mushrooms for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus: history, current status, future perspectives, and unsolved problems (review). Int J Med Mushrooms 13: 401–426. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v13.i5.10
Источник: https://www.aimspress.com/article/id/3353

Can a mother's diet define her baby?

Some of the most trying of the 'helpful' advice doled out during pregnancy comes in cheap beach rentals in delaware form of old wives' tales. Supposedly well-meaning souls, usually a mother-in-law or some other elder (even a midwife), will be keen to my target redcard pay my bill their pearls throughout. Right from conception, in fact, we are told that diet can influence the sex of the child - if you are a carnivore with a predilection for salty foods and refined carbohydrates, a boy is on the cards. Conversely, if you prefer dairy products, eat limited amounts of meat and potatoes and avoid a range of things including salt, wine and beer, tea, coffee, chocolate, fresh fruit, spinach, tomatoes and mushrooms, are mushrooms good for you when pregnant likely to conceive a girl.

If this were true it would be a miracle if anyone ever gave birth to a daughter, but in such emotive matters there will be some who will seize upon any advice, as demonstrated by the women in last night's documentary, 8 boys and wanting a girl, who were desperately trying to sway the sex of their future child by means natural or otherwise.

After conception come the prediction theories, and these retreat yet further into fantasy. For instance, you are supposedly bearing a boy if you eat a raw garlic clove and the smell seeps on to your skin. Another, perhaps inspired by the nursery rhyme, is that a predilection for sweet things during pregnancy makes you more likely to be having a girl, while a creditcards com review will make you crave savoury, salty foods, meat and cheese in particular. There are attempts to lend such theories credence, linking testosterone with a need for protein. Really? At that stage? If I needed personal evidence to debunk this nonsense, I've got it - I'm craving savoury and sweet, and know plenty of girl-producing vegetarians who gave in to red meat cravings during pregnancy.

We also reveal superstitious tendencies when considering the impact indigo credit card customer service phone a pregnancy diet on the child's eating habits. I know women who believe that one of their children's faddy, unadventurous diet is the result of giving into carb/junk cravings during pregnancy, while another's is balanced because the pregnancy was marked by a healthy, varied diet. Other people insist their own dislikes stem from their mother's pregnancy diet - one friend in particular says she is considered an oddity back in Jamaica as she can't stomach mangoes, which her mother gorged on during pregnancy. I must admit to having the occasional misgiving on this subject - it would be good to hear others' opinions.

Theories abound on how to use diet to somehow modify or enhance your baby's looks. In cultures where a premium is put on a fair complexion there are prohibitions on dark coloured foods (coffee, chocolate, dates) and these foods also stand accused of causing dark pigmentation spots. According to academic research(pdf) and the many pregnancy message boards it is still a widely held belief in India that drinking saffron infused milk will ensure a fair complexioned child, though it has been officially debunked.

I suppose I can understand why people once believed that port wine stains could be the result of craving jam sandwiches or beetroot or strawberries, although it's as implausible as the belief that these stains can be caused by spilling wine or milk on the stomach. As holidays in march 2020 usa the Icelandic theory that cleft lips occur when the mother drinks out of a cracked cup. Why? I shouldn't have been surprised by the amount of anthropomorphising - there's the Romany Gypsy belief that eating snails will mean your child will be slow in learning to walk, eating snake will produce a child which can't walk or talk (Guyana), and some in China believe that eating crab will produce a mischievous child.

I don't wish to scoff at traditional beliefs, and there may be truth to some. For example, papaya is particularly feared throughout the tropics for its alleged miscarriage-causing properties, and it appears that unripe or semi-ripe papaya contains concentrated amounts of latex which can bring on uterine contractions. Knowing what to believe isn't easy, especially as given that in matters of diet, modern medicine isn't infallible.

Some maternal pronouncements of ancient wisdom are harmless fun but when they concern keeping well during pregnancy or relate to your baby's health, characteristics and future diet, it's difficult to navigate. Many women, especially when living in close proximity to a strong-minded dispenser of advice may struggle with ignoring the orders and admonitions (believe me, I know!) - it is particularly hard to refuse food or drink which has been specially prepared for you without giving offence. Very occasionally, however, myths have a veneer of plausibility or appear to be based on good sense, especially if considered when you are not at your rational best. So should we consider them, or should we dismiss everything other than proven medical fact are mushrooms good for you when pregnant as it is) out of hand?

Are there any theories - either above, or those I've missed - you'd lend credence?

Источник: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2010/feb/05/pregnancy-diet-gender-selection

Psilocybin mushrooms “Magic Mushrooms”

This sheet talks about using psilocybin mushrooms (“Magic Mushrooms”) in a pregnancy and while breastfeeding. This information should not take the place of medical care and advice from your healthcare provider.

What are Psilocybin mushrooms (“magic mushrooms”)?

The term magic mushrooms refer to mushrooms with hallucinogenic properties (causing changes in your reality) that are taken as an illegal drug. Psilocin and psilocybin are the hallucinogenic components found in certain types of mushrooms. Psilocybin mushrooms are sometimes called other names such as caps, shrooms, and buttons. Magic mushrooms are usually eaten fresh or dried but may be brewed in a tea or added to food.

I take magic mushrooms. Can it make it harder for me to become pregnant?

Studies have not been done to see if using magic mushrooms could make it harder for a woman to get pregnant.

Does taking magic mushrooms increase the chance for miscarriage?

Miscarriage can occur in any pregnancy. Users of magic mushrooms also report using other drugs such as cocaine, Ecstasy, LSD, and non-prescribed prescription drugs which may add more chance for miscarriage. Another concern is mistaking poisonous mushrooms for magic mushrooms which could lead to a medical emergency. Since users of magic mushrooms generally use other substances as well, it is unknown if using magic mushrooms increases the chance for miscarriage.

Does taking magic mushrooms increase the chance of birth defects?

In every pregnancy, a woman starts with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a birth defect. This is called her background risk. Studies on women have not been done to see if using magic mushrooms increases the chance of birth defects. A single animal study showed no increased chance of physical birth defects.

Could taking magic mushrooms cause other pregnancy complications or long-term problems in behavior or learning for the baby?

There are no published studies on the long term effects of using magic mushrooms during pregnancy. It’s unknown if magic mushrooms can increase the chance for pregnancy complications or affect a baby’s brain or development.

Can I breastfeed while taking magic mushrooms?

Magic mushrooms have not been studied for use during breastfeeding. If you are taking magic mushrooms while breastfeeding and you suspect that the baby has unusual symptoms, contact the child’s healthcare provider. Be sure to talk to your health care provider about all of your breastfeeding questions.

If a man takes magic mushrooms, could it affect his fertility (ability to get free printable worksheets 1st grade reading comprehension pregnant) or increase the chance of birth defects?

There are no studies looking at male fertility or possible risks to a pregnancy when the father takes magic mushrooms. In general, exposures that fathers have are unlikely to increase risks to a pregnancy. For more information, please see the MotherToBaby fact sheet Paternal Exposures at https://mothertobaby.org/fact- sheets/paternal-exposures-pregnancy/pdf/.

Selected References:

  • Hallock RM, et al. 2013.A survey of hallucinogenic mushroom use, factors related to usage, and perceptions of use among college students. Drug Alcohol Depend. 130(1-3):245-8.
  • Rolsten C, 1997. Effects of chlorpromazine and psilocin on pregnancy of C57BL/10 mice and their offspring at birth. Anat Rec 157:311.
  • Timar L, Czeizal AE. 1997, Birth weight and congenital anomalies following poisonous mushroom intoxication during pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 11: 861

OTIS/MotherToBaby recognizes that not all people identify as “men” or “women.” When using the term “mother,” we mean the source of the egg and/or uterus and by “father,” we mean the source of the sperm, regardless of the person’s gender identity.

View PDF Fact Sheet

Источник: https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets/magic-mushrooms/

Roles of Vitamin B in Pregnancy

Maintaining a healthy & balanced diet at all stages of life is important, but when you’re pregnant you have even more reason to take care of your body to ensure your little one grows into a healthy, bouncing baby!  B vitamins, which you’ll often hear referred to as the vitamin B complex, are particularly important aspects of your nutrition during pregnancy, especially vitamins B6, B9, and B12. These three specifically help minimize the risk of birth defects as well as relieve some symptoms of pregnancy.
This is why taking quality prenatal vitamins is a great way to assure you are getting all the vitamins you and baby need for a healthy pregnancy. Of course, prenatal vitamins are not meant to replace a healthy diet, but to support one.

Crucial Roles of Vitamin B in a Healthy Pregnancy

The entire B complex of eight vitamins plays a crucial role in your strength and health while your baby is developing. Are mushrooms good for you when pregnant your first and third trimesters, most women feel more tired and run down than usual.
Even though the B complex can come in great supplements, the best way to absorb these nutrients is through vitamin-rich foods!
Vitamin B rich foods help boost your natural energy with these nourishing vitamins for your growing baby. Take a look at the roles and benefits of all the B vitamins and find out how to get enough of each to ensure a happy, healthy pregnancy.

Vitamin B1: Thiamine

Since Thiamine plays a major role in the development of your baby’s brain, aim to consume 1.4 mg every day. Below are natural sources of vitamin B1, so incorporate these foods into your diet to keep your baby’s brain development on track.

Natural Food State of south dakota sales tax exemption form of Vitamin B1:

  • Peas
  • Oats
  • Pork
  • Lentils
  • Pecans
  • Salmon
  • Brazil Nuts
  • Dried Beans
  • Wheat Germ
  • Nutritional Yeast
  • Whole Grain Pasta
  • Fortified bread or Cereals

Vitamin B2: Riboflavin

Riboflavin is essential for good eye health and it has the added benefit of giving your skin a fresh, healthy glow – cue the compliments from friends and family about how great you look during your pregnancy! This is also true for your baby.
As with all B vitamins, riboflavin is water-soluble and therefore not stored in your body; this means you need to get a good, healthy dosage of around 1.4 mg each day when pregnant compared to the usual 1.1 mg for non-pregnant women.
Whole grains, fortified foods, and dark and leafy greens are rich sources of vitamin B2.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B2:

  • Almonds (roasted is an excellent source)
  • Sweet Potatoes
  • Carrots
  • Oats
  • Peas
  • Tempeh
  • Broccoli
  • Spinach
  • Fenugreek
  • Asparagus
  • Mushrooms
  • Whole Grains
  • Nutritional Yeast
  • Fortified Cereals
  • Brussel Sprouts
  • Cheese:  cottage and ricotta
  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Natural Yogurt
  • Wild Salmon (highest concentration of B2 found in animal sources)
  • Pork, Chicken, Beef (Liver and Kidney offer high amounts)

What Vitamin B2 Aids In Pregnancy

  • promotes good vision, healthy skin, the development and growth of baby’s bones, muscles, and nerves.
  • lowers risk of developing azealia banks wild n out full video, a pregnancy complication

Signs You Do Not Get Enough Vitamin B2

Riboflavin deficiency signs include anemia, magenta (dry and red tongue), skin rash, dermatitis, dryness and cracking around the mouth, nose, and/or lips. You also have a B2 deficiency risk if you are lactose intolerant or anorexic. Be sure you are eating nutrient-rich foods AND taking a prenatal vitamin.
If you are dealing with an eating disorder while pregnant, please don’t hesitate to speak with your healthcare provider. They can provide you with help, suggestions, and resources!
Contact a Pregnancy Educator at the American Pregnancy Association by calling 1-800-672-2296 M-F 10am-6pm to discuss your concerns, get resources, or to ask questions about your pregnancy.

Vitamin B3: Niacin

Vitamin B-3 has a whole host of benefits for your body; it can improve digestion, reduce nausea and take the edge off debilitating migraines. Aim for around 18 mg every day.

“Intake of more than 35 mg has not been studied in pregnant women” – Merck Manuals Online Medical Library

Therefore it is not recommended for pregnant women to consume doses larger than 18 mg of vitamin B3 when it comes to supplementation.
Sunflower and chia seeds are high in B3, along with organ meats and tuna but too much of the wrong tuna during pregnancy can expose you to high levels of mercury. This is why the American Pregnancy Association stands behind, Safe Catch Elite canned tuna. Below are more natural sources of vitamin B3.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B3:

  • Turkey
  • Venison
  • Wild Salmon
  • Chicken Breast
  • Peanuts
  • Crimini Mushrooms
  • Liver
  • Tuna
  • Peas
  • Tahini
  • Kidney Beans
  • Grass-fed Beef
  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Avocados
  • Asparagus
  • Tomatoes
  • Bell Peppers
  • Sweet Potato
  • Brown Rice

How Vitamin B3 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Essential for your baby’s brain development
  • Keeps nervous systems, mucous membranes, and skin healthy
  • Improves digestion, eases nausea and can relieve painful migraines for mom

What You Must Know About Vitamin B3 During Pregnancy

Niacin is one vitamin you do not want to overdose on during pregnancy. If you are on a niacin supplement before your pregnancy, you need to speak to your doctor about stopping the supplementation while you are pregnant and taking regular prenatal vitamins.

Vitamin B5: Pantothenic Acid

Pregnancy can do some strange and frustrating things to our bodies, one of which is painful leg cramps. Luckily, vitamin B5 can help to ease these cramps, so aim to consume 6 mg every day. It also has the added benefit of producing important pregnancy hormones.
Whole grains and fortified cereals are a fabulous source for B5 so that’s breakfast covered, but you’ll also find the vitamin in egg yolks, brown rice, cashew nuts, and broccoli, all of which are perfect ingredients for a delicious and nutritious stir fry! Below are several other sources of B5.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B5:

  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Sweet Potato
  • Avocado
  • Whole Grains or Fortified Cereals
  • Crimini Mushrooms
  • Oats
  • Organic Corn
  • Cauliflower
  • Wild Salmon
  • Chicken Breast
  • Milk
  • Oranges
  • Bananas
  • Sun-dried Tomatoes
  • Trail Mix (Seeds, Nuts and Chocolate Chips)

What Vitamin B5 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Helps metabolize fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
  • Helps to prevent pregnancy-related muscle cramps
  • Aids in the release of stress-relieving hormones

Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine

Pyridoxine is vital for the development of your baby’s nervous system and brain throughout each week of your pregnancy, but it has some beneficial side effects for you, too.
Part of its role in the body is to produce norepinephrine and serotonin, two essential neurotransmitters which aid a whole host of metabolic functions. Vitamin B6 during pregnancy can also help to alleviate nausea and vomiting which are perhaps two of the very worst early side effects of pregnancy.
To maximize both you and your baby’s health, you should consume between 25 and 50 mg each day.  The University of Michigan recommends managing nausea by taking 10 to 25 mg of Vitamin B6 3 times a day.  The National Library of Medicine research reports that excessive vitamin B6 does not show to be associated with any birth defects or malformations for the developing baby.
However, despite it being a very safe vitamin to consume, doctors recommend not to exceed the daily dose of 100 mg (in supplements alone); in this case, more isn’t better.
You can find B6 in beans, bananas, papayas, whole grain cereals, and several other natural food sources great for pregnancy smoothies rich in B6.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B6:

  • Garlic
  • Beans
  • Sweet Potatoes
  • Chickpeas
  • Avocados
  • Hazelnuts
  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Brown Rice
  • Prune Juice
  • Spinach
  • Bananas
  • Papayas
  • Chicken
  • Pork Loin
  • Wild Salmon
  • Turkey
  • Grass-fed Beef
  • Safe-Catch Elite Tuna

How Vitamin B6 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Helps to prevent low birth weight
  • Essential to the development of your baby’s brain and nervous system
  • Helps maintain blood glucose at healthy levels
  • May help with morning sickness

What You Must Know About Vitamin B6 During Pregnancy

Vitamin B6 in excess amounts can lead to numbness and nerve damage for individuals. Be sure you know the amount supplied in your prenatal vitamin and the amount in your diet does not exceed 100 mg per day.

Vitamin B7: Biotin

Pregnancy often causes a deficiency in vitamin B7, so make sure you’re dog sperm bank near me plenty of biotin-rich foods such as oats, milk, mushrooms, and Swiss Chard. The US Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science’s Institute of Medicine recommends at least 30 mcg of vitamin B7 for pregnant women.
If you’re planning on breastfeeding, note that the recommended intake for nursing moms is 35 mcg, so you may need to slightly increase your intake when your little bundle of joy arrives.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B7:

  • Oats
  • Avocado
  • Spinach
  • Broccoli
  • Cauliflower
  • Legumes
  • Royal Jelly
  • Fortified Cereal
  • Brewer’s Yeast
  • Blackstrap Molasses
  • Swiss Chard
  • Wild Salmon
  • Mushrooms
  • Wheat Bran
  • Cheese
  • Raspberries
  • Cauliflower
  • Egg Yolk
  • Chicken
  • Potatoes
  • Soy
  • Milk
  • Nuts
  • Liver
  • Pork

What Vitamin B7 Aids in Pregnancy

  • Helps hair loss, brittle nails, and skin rashes
  • Essential to embryonic growth during your pregnancy

Signs You Do Not Get Enough Vitamin B7

Vitamin B7 deficiencies can cause many symptoms like listlessness, depression, hair thinning, tingling sensations in legs and arms or hallucinations.

What You Must Know About Vitamin B7 During Pregnancy

Too large doses of biotin over long periods of time could lead to rare side effects like allergies, acne or miscarriages during pregnancy. These side effects are rare but always consult with your OBGYN when it comes to prenatal vitamins and your diet.

Vitamin B9: Folic Acid

It’s fairly common knowledge that folic acid is one of the most important B vitamins to take during pregnancy and for a very good reason. The proper amount of folic acid reduces the risk of your baby developing neural tube birth defects like spina bifida. It’s also responsible for helping to produce red blood cells which are obviously important for both you and your growing baby.
You should be consuming 400 – 800 mcg (micrograms) of vitamin B9 every day throughout your entire pregnancy, which translates to 0.4 – 0.8 mg (milligrams). If you’re trying to conceive it’s also recommended that you consume this same amount of folic acid (400 mcg pre-pregnancy is generally fine) to maximize amegy bank near me chances of getting pregnant.
On top of this, try to increase your consumption of foods which naturally contain the vitamin.

Folic Acid Dosages Breakdown

  • 400 mcg (0.4 mg) a day if you are trying to conceive
  • 400 – 800 mcg (0.4 – 0.8 mg) a day during pregnancy
    • Not to exceed 1000 mcg (1.0 mg) per day during pregnancy

Lentils, citrus fruits, particularly oranges and grapefruits, are high in folic acid, as are dark green veggies like spinach, broccoli, and asparagus.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B9:

  • Lentils
  • Spinach
  • Great Northern Beans
  • Fortified Cereals
  • Asparagus
  • Avocado
  • Peas
  • Nuts
  • Dried Beans
  • Egg Noodles
  • Beef Liver
  • Sprouts

What Vitamin B9 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Prevents NTDs (neural tube defects) like anencephaly (a brain defect) or spina bifida (spinal cord defect). NTDs can develop at the earliest stage of pregnancy, so it is important to be consuming folic acid from the time you start trying to conceive.
  • Reduces the risk of birth defects like cleft lip, cleft palate, some heart defects
  • Reduces the risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy
  • Important for the growth of the placenta, synthesis of DNA and the development of the baby
  • Essential for red blood cell production and helps prevent forms of anemia

The majority of prenatal vitamins supply 800 – 1,000 mg of vitamin B9. Be sure to not consume any more than 1,000 mg a day, unless you are advised by your doctor.

When Do You Need Extra Vitamin B9?

  • Those pregnant with twins, your doctor could have your take 1,000 mg daily
  • Overweight women may need more than 400mg a day, ask your doctor before you become pregnant and before you take extra
  • Those taking anti-seizure or diabetes meds may be told to take more daily
  • If your developing baby has already developed an NTD, your doctor may have you take 4,000 mg daily
  • If you have Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, a genetic mutation that makes it harder to produce folic acid (folate) in your body

It is important you understand all the prenatal vitamin limits when choosing your prenatal vitamins.

Vitamin B12: Cobalamin

Vitamin B12 is important for maintaining the health of your nervous system, but it’s also believed are mushrooms good for you when pregnant when combined with folic acid during pregnancy, B12 supplements can help to prevent spina bifida and other spinal and central nervous system birth defects in your baby, too.
You can find B12 in fortified foods (soy or soy milk), fish, poultry, eggs, and milk and should aim for around 2.6 mcg (micrograms) per day, but using supplements to achieve this intake will help.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B12:

  • Wild Salmon
  • Soy Milk or Soy Products (fortified with B12 on the label)
  • Shrimp
  • Grass-fed Beef Liver or Tenderloin
  • Yogurt
  • Fortified Cereals
  • Red Meat
  • Swiss Cheese
  • Milk
  • Cottage Cheese
  • Cod

How Vitamin B12 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Essential for baby’s neural tube formation, brain and spine development
  • Together with Folate (B9), it works to produce DNA synthesis and red blood cells
  • Aids the development and functioning of your brain, nerves and blood cells
  • Helps improve your energy, mood and stress levels by aiding the metabolization of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
  • Helps maintain the normal central nervous system and neurological functions by regulating the synthesis of myelin and fatty acids.

Signs You Do Not Get Enough Vitamin B12

For women of childbearing age, B12 deficiencies are quite rare, but if they occur it increases the risk of your baby developing an NTD (Neural Tube Defect). This is similar to problems that may result from low B9 (folate).

These serious birth defects can include:

  • Anencephaly – the spinal cord and brain do not form properly
  • Encephalocele – parts of the brain begins to push out
  • Spina bifida – the baby’s spine does not form correctly

If any of these birth defects run in the family a triple screen test will be necessary.
If you believe you may have a vitamin B12 deficiency and are suffering from depression, anxiety, fatigue or insomnia, contact your doctor immediately.
Brain damage can occur in severe deficiency conditions, it is very important you share all your concerns with your doctor to prevent any vitamin deficiencies from causing damage to your body or your are mushrooms good for you when pregnant baby’s body.

Do You Need a B12 Supplement?

Your doctor may ask you to supplement B12 with folic acid if you are vitamin B12 deficient before pregnancy. Both of these supplements together will help prevent birth defects in developing babies as well as helps combat defects that affect the spine and central nervous system. Prenatal vitamins should help with most deficiencies, ask your doctor if you have any questions.
It is important to note that while the Institute of Medicine (IOM) does not set an upper limit because of B12’s “low potential for toxicity,” you should still speak with your doctor before adding in an additional B12 supplement (on top of a prenatal vitamin) if you are not deficient.

Vitamin B Roles For Pregnancy Cheat Sheet

Here’s a handy cheat sheet to help you remember exactly how walmart pharmacy hours for today B vitamin can support you and your growing baby throughout pregnancy.

  • B-1 (Thiamine): 1.4 mg – Supports baby’s healthy brain development
  • B-2 (Riboflavin): 1.4 mg – Keeps eyes healthy and skin glowing
  • B-3 (Niacin): 18 mg – Eases morning sickness, keeps nausea at bay and improves digestion
  • B-5 (Pantothenic Acid): 6 mg – Reduces leg cramps and helps produce essential pregnancy hormones
  • B-6 (Pyridoxine): 25 – 50 mg – Aids the development of baby’s nervous system and brain (don’t exceed 100 mg)
  • B-7 (Biotin): 30 mcg – Deficiency is often caused by pregnancy, so increased consumption is vital
  • B-9 (Folic Acid): 400 – 800 mcg – Plays a huge role in reducing the risk of birth defects (don’t exceed 1000 mcg)
  • B-12 (Cobalamin): 2.6 mcg – Maintains and supports the development of you and your baby’s nervous system

B Vitamin Complex Supplements During Pregnancy

Typically, prenatal vitamins contain the perfect blend of B vitamin complex to fulfill all the recommended dosages we’ve outlined here. There’s no need to routinely supplement any B vitamins other than taking your prenatal vitamin; simply enjoy a well-balanced diet alongside it and look forward to the arrival of your little one!
If you have any questions be sure to ask your OBGYN. You and your developing baby’s health depend on you asking questions, staying healthy and stress-free. Enjoy being pregnant, and eat healthy for two (your baby needs only about 300 extra healthy calories per day unless otherwise advised by your doctor).

Want to Know More?

 


Compiled using information from the following sources:

1. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet. 1991; 338:131–137.

2. Biotin. (2017, Jan 10).

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/313.html

3. Pitkin RM. Folate and neural tube defects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85:285S–288S.

4. Harvard’s Nutrition Source on Vitamin B.

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-b/

5. Food sources of riboflavin.

https://www.dietitians.ca/Downloads/Factsheets/Food-Sources-of-Riboflavin.aspx

6. Scott, J. M. (n.d.). Addition of vitamin B12 to folic acid supplements to set up bill pay wells fargo the prevention of spina bifida and other neural tube defects.

7. Shrim, A., Boskovik, R., Maltepe, C., et al. Pregnancy outcome following use of large doses of vitamin B6 in the first trimester. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 26(8), 749-51.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17130022

8. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012 Jul;26 Suppl 1:55-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01277.x. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742602

9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH. National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplements: Vitamin B

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/

10. The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology/Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. “Pregnancy outcome following use of large doses of vitamin B6 in the first trimester”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17130022

11. National Institutes of Health (NIH): Vitamin B12 – Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/

12. National Library of Medicine, Pregnancy outcome following use of large doses of vitamin B6 in the first trimester
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17130022
13. University of Michigan, Vitamin B6 for Morning Sickness
https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/tn9126

Источник: https://americanpregnancy.org/healthy-pregnancy/pregnancy-health-wellness/vitamin-b-pregnancy/

Are mushrooms good for you when pregnant -

Image: Shutterstock

When cooked well, mushrooms are so tasty that they are irresistible. They can be added to salads, soups, pizzas and spicy preparations. Freshly picked mushrooms are even better with low calories and high protein.

But are mushrooms safe for consumption during pregnancy? MomJunction tells you about the benefits and risks of eating mushrooms when you are pregnant, the types of mushrooms you can eat and the ones you should avoid.

Can Pregnant Women Eat Mushrooms?

Yes, it is safe to consume mushrooms during pregnancy, but avoid raw mushrooms as they are carcinogenic.

Also, not all mushrooms are edible, and it is important to know the difference.

Cooked or dried mushrooms are good as they are highly nutritious and are rich in vitamins, minerals and trace elements (1).

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[ Read: Eating Sprouts During Pregnancy ]

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What Are The Benefits Of Eating Mushrooms During Pregnancy?

Mushrooms offer excellent nutrition for your growing baby. Including them in your regular diet helps you share the benefits with the baby in the womb.

1. Abundant vitamin B

Mushrooms are natural sources of B complex vitamins including thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3) and pantothenic acid (B5) (2), which are beneficial for the mom-to-be and the baby.

  • Thiamine and niacin aid in brain development of the baby, relieve fatigue and boost energy.
  • Riboflavin aids in keeping the skin healthy, improving eyesight and developing strong bones, muscles, and nerves.
  • Pantothenic acid prevents digestion issues (3).

2. Vitamin D promotes healthy bones

Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy can cause tiredness, back pain, bone weakness, and depression. Adding mushrooms to your diet can give you abundant vitamin D (4). It helps absorb calcium in the body, to form strong bones and teeth in the baby (5).

3. Protein and fiber

Protein and fiber are present abundantly in mushrooms.

  • Protein is necessary for the overall development of your baby, as it contributes to the muscle mass (6).
  • Fiber helps prevent irritable conditions such as constipation and fatigue, keeping you active and ready for a smooth delivery (7).

4. Iron promotes hemoglobin levels

Your body requires more hemoglobin as the volume of the blood increases during pregnancy. Mushrooms are an excellent source of iron, which helps produce hemoglobin and red blood cells in both the mother and the fetus (8).

5. Antioxidants boost the immune system

Antioxidants (selenium and ergothioneine) present in mushrooms boost the immune system (9) and keep you disease-free and healthy during pregnancy. Mushrooms also contain zinc, potassium, and selenium, which assist the baby’s growth and development.

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Nutritional Value Of Mushrooms

The nutrient value of raw, white mushrooms (per 100gm serving) is as follows (10):

NUTRIENTAMOUNT
Calories22kcal
Carbohydrates3.26g
Protein3.09g
Fiber1g
Fat0.34g
Vitamins
Vitamin C2.1mg
Folic acid17mcg
Pyridoxine0.104mg
Niacin3.607mg
Riboflavin0.402mg
Thiamin0.081mg
Minerals
Potassium318mg
Calcium3mg
Iron0.5mg
Magnesium9mg
Zinc0.52mg
Phosphorus86mg

To benefit from the high nutrient value of mushrooms, you should be able to differentiate between edible and poisonous mushrooms. Read next about the type of mushrooms that you can eat.

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[ Read: Benefits Of Cauliflower In Pregnancy ]

What Type Of Mushrooms Can You Eat?

Mushrooms that you can eat during pregnancy include:

1. White button mushrooms are a common variety found everywhere (9). You can recognize them by their pale white shoot with a spotted top. The top is flavorful and can be used to make delicious dishes. The shoot contains fiber, which is used in making broths and stews.

Image: Shutterstock

2. Shiitake mushrooms are black and possess a leafy texture, and popularly used in Chinese cuisine. Shiitake and maitake are medicinal mushrooms, which have high levels of beta-glucan, a polysaccharide sugar, and fiber. It is an anti-tumor, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-fungal and antioxidant substance (11).

  • Shiitake (Lentinula edodes)

Image: Shutterstock

  • Maitake (Hen-of-the-wood or Grifola Frondosa)

Image: Shutterstock

3. Porcini mushrooms (Boletus edulis) are golden in color and are highly flavorful. These are the most expensive mushrooms and are used in Italian cuisine.

Image: Shutterstock

4. True morel mushrooms (Morchella) are a wild variety but have an edible strain that comes with a hollow stem. Make sure that you clean and cook them properly as these mushrooms are likely to cause allergic reactions and gastrointestinal upset (13).

Image: Shutterstock

5. Chestnut mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) look like white button mushrooms but have a brown cap and pink to dark brown gills. They have a strong taste and look like a darker strain of button mushroom.

Image: Shutterstock

Other edible mushrooms you can eat during pregnancy include:

  • King Oysters/ Eringi (Pleurotus eryngii) 

Image: Shutterstock

Image: Shutterstock

Image: Shutterstock

Giant puffball (Calvatia gigantea), dryad’s saddle, scarlet elf cups, wood ears, beefsteak fungus, cauliflower fungus, penny buns, field blewits and hedgehog fungus are edible mushrooms but are best avoided when you are pregnant.

Not all mushrooms are meant to be eaten. Some are used for medicinal purposes only while others are highly poisonous and must be avoided. Continue reading to know more about the mushrooms you should not eat.

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[ Read: Avocados During Pregnancy ]

Types Of Mushrooms To Avoid During Pregnancy

Certain mushrooms can lead to the death of both the mother and the baby and must be avoided.

1. Magic mushrooms contain psilocybin, a chemical that alters the brain activity and affects your growing fetus. They should not be consumed even when you are breastfeeding (10).

Image: Shutterstock

2. Parasol mushrooms are umbrella-shaped, with milky gills, white rings, and some spots. They are brightly colored, and caps are cream colored (10).

Parasol mushrooms

Image: Shutterstock

3. False morels: They are wrinkled with irregularly shaped caps.

Image: Shutterstock

Other poisonous mushrooms you need to avoid are Puffballs Amanitas, Crimini, Chanterelle, Portable, Death Cap, Fly Agaric, Angel Wing, Conocybe Filaris, Deadly Webcap, Autumn Skullcap, Destroying Angels and Podostroma Conru-damae.

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What Are The Risks Of Taking Toxic Mushrooms?

There are some potential side effects of taking the above mentioned poisonous mushrooms. Remember that these risks will not arise from healthy and edible mushrooms.

  • Cause congenital abnormalities: Consumption of poisonous or toxic mushrooms can lead to physical birth defects in babies (11).
  • Hallucinogenic: Some poisonous mushrooms possess a hallucinogenic property owing to their psilocybin content, which alters the brain activity (2).

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Precautions To Follow When Eating Mushrooms When Pregnant

Here are a few tips on how to eat mushrooms and stay safe.

  • Buy fresh mushrooms, which do not have decaying spots and bruises.
  • In the case of processed mushrooms, check for the expiration date.
  • Wash and cook properly. Never have raw mushrooms.
  • If you want to check if the mushroom is causing any side effects, eat it in a small amount and look for a reaction. Avoid if you experience any allergic reactions.

Next, we have the answers to some more questions about mushrooms during pregnancy.

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[ Read: Fruits To Eat During Pregnancy ]

Frequently Asked Questions:

1. Can I eat mushrooms in early pregnancy?

Yes, you can eat mushrooms in early pregnancy. Since they contain fiber, they help treat indigestion and constipation that are common in early pregnancy. The antioxidants (such as selenium and ergothioneine) in mushrooms fight free radicals and boost the immune system.

2. Does craving mushrooms during pregnancy indicate the gender of the baby?

No. The assumption that craving for mushrooms indicates the baby’s gender is just another old wives’ tale.

Mushrooms are safe for the baby growing within you. Include them in your diet but do not eat the unsafe ones. Cook them well and add to any dish you like, to boost its nutritional value. Check with your doctor if you have any doubts about eating mushrooms during pregnancy.

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Have you enjoyed eating mushroom delicacies during your pregnancy? Use our comments section to share your story.

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Jyoti Benjamin has 25 years of experience as a clinical dietitian and currently works in Seattle. She focuses on teaching people the value of good nutrition and helping them lead healthy lives by natural means. Benjamin has a masters in Foods and Nutrition, and has been a longtime member and Fellow of AND (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) and the... more

Swati Patwal is a clinical nutritionist and toddler mom with over eight years of experience in diverse fields of nutrition. She started her career as a CSR project coordinator for a healthy eating and active lifestyle project catering to school children. Then she worked as a nutrition faculty and clinical nutrition coach in different organizations. Her interest in scientific writing... more

Источник: https://www.momjunction.com/articles/safe-eat-mushroom-pregnancy_0089276/

Psilocybin mushrooms “Magic Mushrooms”

This sheet talks about using psilocybin mushrooms (“Magic Mushrooms”) in a pregnancy and while breastfeeding. This information should not take the place of medical care and advice from your healthcare provider.

What are Psilocybin mushrooms (“magic mushrooms”)?

The term magic mushrooms refer to mushrooms with hallucinogenic properties (causing changes in your reality) that are taken as an illegal drug. Psilocin and psilocybin are the hallucinogenic components found in certain types of mushrooms. Psilocybin mushrooms are sometimes called other names such as caps, shrooms, and buttons. Magic mushrooms are usually eaten fresh or dried but may be brewed in a tea or added to food.

I take magic mushrooms. Can it make it harder for me to become pregnant?

Studies have not been done to see if using magic mushrooms could make it harder for a woman to get pregnant.

Does taking magic mushrooms increase the chance for miscarriage?

Miscarriage can occur in any pregnancy. Users of magic mushrooms also report using other drugs such as cocaine, Ecstasy, LSD, and non-prescribed prescription drugs which may add more chance for miscarriage. Another concern is mistaking poisonous mushrooms for magic mushrooms which could lead to a medical emergency. Since users of magic mushrooms generally use other substances as well, it is unknown if using magic mushrooms increases the chance for miscarriage.

Does taking magic mushrooms increase the chance of birth defects?

In every pregnancy, a woman starts with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a birth defect. This is called her background risk. Studies on women have not been done to see if using magic mushrooms increases the chance of birth defects. A single animal study showed no increased chance of physical birth defects.

Could taking magic mushrooms cause other pregnancy complications or long-term problems in behavior or learning for the baby?

There are no published studies on the long term effects of using magic mushrooms during pregnancy. It’s unknown if magic mushrooms can increase the chance for pregnancy complications or affect a baby’s brain or development.

Can I breastfeed while taking magic mushrooms?

Magic mushrooms have not been studied for use during breastfeeding. If you are taking magic mushrooms while breastfeeding and you suspect that the baby has unusual symptoms, contact the child’s healthcare provider. Be sure to talk to your health care provider about all of your breastfeeding questions.

If a man takes magic mushrooms, could it affect his fertility (ability to get partner pregnant) or increase the chance of birth defects?

There are no studies looking at male fertility or possible risks to a pregnancy when the father takes magic mushrooms. In general, exposures that fathers have are unlikely to increase risks to a pregnancy. For more information, please see the MotherToBaby fact sheet Paternal Exposures at https://mothertobaby.org/fact- sheets/paternal-exposures-pregnancy/pdf/.

Selected References:

  • Hallock RM, et al. 2013.A survey of hallucinogenic mushroom use, factors related to usage, and perceptions of use among college students. Drug Alcohol Depend. 130(1-3):245-8.
  • Rolsten C, 1997. Effects of chlorpromazine and psilocin on pregnancy of C57BL/10 mice and their offspring at birth. Anat Rec 157:311.
  • Timar L, Czeizal AE. 1997, Birth weight and congenital anomalies following poisonous mushroom intoxication during pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 11: 861

OTIS/MotherToBaby recognizes that not all people identify as “men” or “women.” When using the term “mother,” we mean the source of the egg and/or uterus and by “father,” we mean the source of the sperm, regardless of the person’s gender identity.

View PDF Fact Sheet

Источник: https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets/magic-mushrooms/

Roles of Vitamin B in Pregnancy

Maintaining a healthy & balanced diet at all stages of life is important, but when you’re pregnant you have even more reason to take care of your body to ensure your little one grows into a healthy, bouncing baby!  B vitamins, which you’ll often hear referred to as the vitamin B complex, are particularly important aspects of your nutrition during pregnancy, especially vitamins B6, B9, and B12. These three specifically help minimize the risk of birth defects as well as relieve some symptoms of pregnancy.
This is why taking quality prenatal vitamins is a great way to assure you are getting all the vitamins you and baby need for a healthy pregnancy. Of course, prenatal vitamins are not meant to replace a healthy diet, but to support one.

Crucial Roles of Vitamin B in a Healthy Pregnancy

The entire B complex of eight vitamins plays a crucial role in your strength and health while your baby is developing. During your first and third trimesters, most women feel more tired and run down than usual.
Even though the B complex can come in great supplements, the best way to absorb these nutrients is through vitamin-rich foods!
Vitamin B rich foods help boost your natural energy with these nourishing vitamins for your growing baby. Take a look at the roles and benefits of all the B vitamins and find out how to get enough of each to ensure a happy, healthy pregnancy.

Vitamin B1: Thiamine

Since Thiamine plays a major role in the development of your baby’s brain, aim to consume 1.4 mg every day. Below are natural sources of vitamin B1, so incorporate these foods into your diet to keep your baby’s brain development on track.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B1:

  • Peas
  • Oats
  • Pork
  • Lentils
  • Pecans
  • Salmon
  • Brazil Nuts
  • Dried Beans
  • Wheat Germ
  • Nutritional Yeast
  • Whole Grain Pasta
  • Fortified bread or Cereals

Vitamin B2: Riboflavin

Riboflavin is essential for good eye health and it has the added benefit of giving your skin a fresh, healthy glow – cue the compliments from friends and family about how great you look during your pregnancy! This is also true for your baby.
As with all B vitamins, riboflavin is water-soluble and therefore not stored in your body; this means you need to get a good, healthy dosage of around 1.4 mg each day when pregnant compared to the usual 1.1 mg for non-pregnant women.
Whole grains, fortified foods, and dark and leafy greens are rich sources of vitamin B2.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B2:

  • Almonds (roasted is an excellent source)
  • Sweet Potatoes
  • Carrots
  • Oats
  • Peas
  • Tempeh
  • Broccoli
  • Spinach
  • Fenugreek
  • Asparagus
  • Mushrooms
  • Whole Grains
  • Nutritional Yeast
  • Fortified Cereals
  • Brussel Sprouts
  • Cheese:  cottage and ricotta
  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Natural Yogurt
  • Wild Salmon (highest concentration of B2 found in animal sources)
  • Pork, Chicken, Beef (Liver and Kidney offer high amounts)

What Vitamin B2 Aids In Pregnancy

  • promotes good vision, healthy skin, the development and growth of baby’s bones, muscles, and nerves.
  • lowers risk of developing preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication

Signs You Do Not Get Enough Vitamin B2

Riboflavin deficiency signs include anemia, magenta (dry and red tongue), skin rash, dermatitis, dryness and cracking around the mouth, nose, and/or lips. You also have a B2 deficiency risk if you are lactose intolerant or anorexic. Be sure you are eating nutrient-rich foods AND taking a prenatal vitamin.
If you are dealing with an eating disorder while pregnant, please don’t hesitate to speak with your healthcare provider. They can provide you with help, suggestions, and resources!
Contact a Pregnancy Educator at the American Pregnancy Association by calling 1-800-672-2296 M-F 10am-6pm to discuss your concerns, get resources, or to ask questions about your pregnancy.

Vitamin B3: Niacin

Vitamin B-3 has a whole host of benefits for your body; it can improve digestion, reduce nausea and take the edge off debilitating migraines. Aim for around 18 mg every day.

“Intake of more than 35 mg has not been studied in pregnant women” – Merck Manuals Online Medical Library

Therefore it is not recommended for pregnant women to consume doses larger than 18 mg of vitamin B3 when it comes to supplementation.
Sunflower and chia seeds are high in B3, along with organ meats and tuna but too much of the wrong tuna during pregnancy can expose you to high levels of mercury. This is why the American Pregnancy Association stands behind, Safe Catch Elite canned tuna. Below are more natural sources of vitamin B3.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B3:

  • Turkey
  • Venison
  • Wild Salmon
  • Chicken Breast
  • Peanuts
  • Crimini Mushrooms
  • Liver
  • Tuna
  • Peas
  • Tahini
  • Kidney Beans
  • Grass-fed Beef
  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Avocados
  • Asparagus
  • Tomatoes
  • Bell Peppers
  • Sweet Potato
  • Brown Rice

How Vitamin B3 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Essential for your baby’s brain development
  • Keeps nervous systems, mucous membranes, and skin healthy
  • Improves digestion, eases nausea and can relieve painful migraines for mom

What You Must Know About Vitamin B3 During Pregnancy

Niacin is one vitamin you do not want to overdose on during pregnancy. If you are on a niacin supplement before your pregnancy, you need to speak to your doctor about stopping the supplementation while you are pregnant and taking regular prenatal vitamins.

Vitamin B5: Pantothenic Acid

Pregnancy can do some strange and frustrating things to our bodies, one of which is painful leg cramps. Luckily, vitamin B5 can help to ease these cramps, so aim to consume 6 mg every day. It also has the added benefit of producing important pregnancy hormones.
Whole grains and fortified cereals are a fabulous source for B5 so that’s breakfast covered, but you’ll also find the vitamin in egg yolks, brown rice, cashew nuts, and broccoli, all of which are perfect ingredients for a delicious and nutritious stir fry! Below are several other sources of B5.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B5:

  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Sweet Potato
  • Avocado
  • Whole Grains or Fortified Cereals
  • Crimini Mushrooms
  • Oats
  • Organic Corn
  • Cauliflower
  • Wild Salmon
  • Chicken Breast
  • Milk
  • Oranges
  • Bananas
  • Sun-dried Tomatoes
  • Trail Mix (Seeds, Nuts and Chocolate Chips)

What Vitamin B5 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Helps metabolize fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
  • Helps to prevent pregnancy-related muscle cramps
  • Aids in the release of stress-relieving hormones

Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine

Pyridoxine is vital for the development of your baby’s nervous system and brain throughout each week of your pregnancy, but it has some beneficial side effects for you, too.
Part of its role in the body is to produce norepinephrine and serotonin, two essential neurotransmitters which aid a whole host of metabolic functions. Vitamin B6 during pregnancy can also help to alleviate nausea and vomiting which are perhaps two of the very worst early side effects of pregnancy.
To maximize both you and your baby’s health, you should consume between 25 and 50 mg each day.  The University of Michigan recommends managing nausea by taking 10 to 25 mg of Vitamin B6 3 times a day.  The National Library of Medicine research reports that excessive vitamin B6 does not show to be associated with any birth defects or malformations for the developing baby.
However, despite it being a very safe vitamin to consume, doctors recommend not to exceed the daily dose of 100 mg (in supplements alone); in this case, more isn’t better.
You can find B6 in beans, bananas, papayas, whole grain cereals, and several other natural food sources great for pregnancy smoothies rich in B6.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B6:

  • Garlic
  • Beans
  • Sweet Potatoes
  • Chickpeas
  • Avocados
  • Hazelnuts
  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Brown Rice
  • Prune Juice
  • Spinach
  • Bananas
  • Papayas
  • Chicken
  • Pork Loin
  • Wild Salmon
  • Turkey
  • Grass-fed Beef
  • Safe-Catch Elite Tuna

How Vitamin B6 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Helps to prevent low birth weight
  • Essential to the development of your baby’s brain and nervous system
  • Helps maintain blood glucose at healthy levels
  • May help with morning sickness

What You Must Know About Vitamin B6 During Pregnancy

Vitamin B6 in excess amounts can lead to numbness and nerve damage for individuals. Be sure you know the amount supplied in your prenatal vitamin and the amount in your diet does not exceed 100 mg per day.

Vitamin B7: Biotin

Pregnancy often causes a deficiency in vitamin B7, so make sure you’re eating plenty of biotin-rich foods such as oats, milk, mushrooms, and Swiss Chard. The US Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science’s Institute of Medicine recommends at least 30 mcg of vitamin B7 for pregnant women.
If you’re planning on breastfeeding, note that the recommended intake for nursing moms is 35 mcg, so you may need to slightly increase your intake when your little bundle of joy arrives.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B7:

  • Oats
  • Avocado
  • Spinach
  • Broccoli
  • Cauliflower
  • Legumes
  • Royal Jelly
  • Fortified Cereal
  • Brewer’s Yeast
  • Blackstrap Molasses
  • Swiss Chard
  • Wild Salmon
  • Mushrooms
  • Wheat Bran
  • Cheese
  • Raspberries
  • Cauliflower
  • Egg Yolk
  • Chicken
  • Potatoes
  • Soy
  • Milk
  • Nuts
  • Liver
  • Pork

What Vitamin B7 Aids in Pregnancy

  • Helps hair loss, brittle nails, and skin rashes
  • Essential to embryonic growth during your pregnancy

Signs You Do Not Get Enough Vitamin B7

Vitamin B7 deficiencies can cause many symptoms like listlessness, depression, hair thinning, tingling sensations in legs and arms or hallucinations.

What You Must Know About Vitamin B7 During Pregnancy

Too large doses of biotin over long periods of time could lead to rare side effects like allergies, acne or miscarriages during pregnancy. These side effects are rare but always consult with your OBGYN when it comes to prenatal vitamins and your diet.

Vitamin B9: Folic Acid

It’s fairly common knowledge that folic acid is one of the most important B vitamins to take during pregnancy and for a very good reason. The proper amount of folic acid reduces the risk of your baby developing neural tube birth defects like spina bifida. It’s also responsible for helping to produce red blood cells which are obviously important for both you and your growing baby.
You should be consuming 400 – 800 mcg (micrograms) of vitamin B9 every day throughout your entire pregnancy, which translates to 0.4 – 0.8 mg (milligrams). If you’re trying to conceive it’s also recommended that you consume this same amount of folic acid (400 mcg pre-pregnancy is generally fine) to maximize your chances of getting pregnant.
On top of this, try to increase your consumption of foods which naturally contain the vitamin.

Folic Acid Dosages Breakdown

  • 400 mcg (0.4 mg) a day if you are trying to conceive
  • 400 – 800 mcg (0.4 – 0.8 mg) a day during pregnancy
    • Not to exceed 1000 mcg (1.0 mg) per day during pregnancy

Lentils, citrus fruits, particularly oranges and grapefruits, are high in folic acid, as are dark green veggies like spinach, broccoli, and asparagus.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B9:

  • Lentils
  • Spinach
  • Great Northern Beans
  • Fortified Cereals
  • Asparagus
  • Avocado
  • Peas
  • Nuts
  • Dried Beans
  • Egg Noodles
  • Beef Liver
  • Sprouts

What Vitamin B9 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Prevents NTDs (neural tube defects) like anencephaly (a brain defect) or spina bifida (spinal cord defect). NTDs can develop at the earliest stage of pregnancy, so it is important to be consuming folic acid from the time you start trying to conceive.
  • Reduces the risk of birth defects like cleft lip, cleft palate, some heart defects
  • Reduces the risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy
  • Important for the growth of the placenta, synthesis of DNA and the development of the baby
  • Essential for red blood cell production and helps prevent forms of anemia

The majority of prenatal vitamins supply 800 – 1,000 mg of vitamin B9. Be sure to not consume any more than 1,000 mg a day, unless you are advised by your doctor.

When Do You Need Extra Vitamin B9?

  • Those pregnant with twins, your doctor could have your take 1,000 mg daily
  • Overweight women may need more than 400mg a day, ask your doctor before you become pregnant and before you take extra
  • Those taking anti-seizure or diabetes meds may be told to take more daily
  • If your developing baby has already developed an NTD, your doctor may have you take 4,000 mg daily
  • If you have Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, a genetic mutation that makes it harder to produce folic acid (folate) in your body

It is important you understand all the prenatal vitamin limits when choosing your prenatal vitamins.

Vitamin B12: Cobalamin

Vitamin B12 is important for maintaining the health of your nervous system, but it’s also believed that when combined with folic acid during pregnancy, B12 supplements can help to prevent spina bifida and other spinal and central nervous system birth defects in your baby, too.
You can find B12 in fortified foods (soy or soy milk), fish, poultry, eggs, and milk and should aim for around 2.6 mcg (micrograms) per day, but using supplements to achieve this intake will help.

Natural Food Sources of Vitamin B12:

  • Wild Salmon
  • Soy Milk or Soy Products (fortified with B12 on the label)
  • Shrimp
  • Grass-fed Beef Liver or Tenderloin
  • Yogurt
  • Fortified Cereals
  • Red Meat
  • Swiss Cheese
  • Milk
  • Cottage Cheese
  • Cod

How Vitamin B12 Aids In Pregnancy

  • Essential for baby’s neural tube formation, brain and spine development
  • Together with Folate (B9), it works to produce DNA synthesis and red blood cells
  • Aids the development and functioning of your brain, nerves and blood cells
  • Helps improve your energy, mood and stress levels by aiding the metabolization of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
  • Helps maintain the normal central nervous system and neurological functions by regulating the synthesis of myelin and fatty acids.

Signs You Do Not Get Enough Vitamin B12

For women of childbearing age, B12 deficiencies are quite rare, but if they occur it increases the risk of your baby developing an NTD (Neural Tube Defect). This is similar to problems that may result from low B9 (folate).

These serious birth defects can include:

  • Anencephaly – the spinal cord and brain do not form properly
  • Encephalocele – parts of the brain begins to push out
  • Spina bifida – the baby’s spine does not form correctly

If any of these birth defects run in the family a triple screen test will be necessary.
If you believe you may have a vitamin B12 deficiency and are suffering from depression, anxiety, fatigue or insomnia, contact your doctor immediately.
Brain damage can occur in severe deficiency conditions, it is very important you share all your concerns with your doctor to prevent any vitamin deficiencies from causing damage to your body or your developing baby’s body.

Do You Need a B12 Supplement?

Your doctor may ask you to supplement B12 with folic acid if you are vitamin B12 deficient before pregnancy. Both of these supplements together will help prevent birth defects in developing babies as well as helps combat defects that affect the spine and central nervous system. Prenatal vitamins should help with most deficiencies, ask your doctor if you have any questions.
It is important to note that while the Institute of Medicine (IOM) does not set an upper limit because of B12’s “low potential for toxicity,” you should still speak with your doctor before adding in an additional B12 supplement (on top of a prenatal vitamin) if you are not deficient.

Vitamin B Roles For Pregnancy Cheat Sheet

Here’s a handy cheat sheet to help you remember exactly how each B vitamin can support you and your growing baby throughout pregnancy.

  • B-1 (Thiamine): 1.4 mg – Supports baby’s healthy brain development
  • B-2 (Riboflavin): 1.4 mg – Keeps eyes healthy and skin glowing
  • B-3 (Niacin): 18 mg – Eases morning sickness, keeps nausea at bay and improves digestion
  • B-5 (Pantothenic Acid): 6 mg – Reduces leg cramps and helps produce essential pregnancy hormones
  • B-6 (Pyridoxine): 25 – 50 mg – Aids the development of baby’s nervous system and brain (don’t exceed 100 mg)
  • B-7 (Biotin): 30 mcg – Deficiency is often caused by pregnancy, so increased consumption is vital
  • B-9 (Folic Acid): 400 – 800 mcg – Plays a huge role in reducing the risk of birth defects (don’t exceed 1000 mcg)
  • B-12 (Cobalamin): 2.6 mcg – Maintains and supports the development of you and your baby’s nervous system

B Vitamin Complex Supplements During Pregnancy

Typically, prenatal vitamins contain the perfect blend of B vitamin complex to fulfill all the recommended dosages we’ve outlined here. There’s no need to routinely supplement any B vitamins other than taking your prenatal vitamin; simply enjoy a well-balanced diet alongside it and look forward to the arrival of your little one!
If you have any questions be sure to ask your OBGYN. You and your developing baby’s health depend on you asking questions, staying healthy and stress-free. Enjoy being pregnant, and eat healthy for two (your baby needs only about 300 extra healthy calories per day unless otherwise advised by your doctor).

Want to Know More?

 


Compiled using information from the following sources:

1. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet. 1991; 338:131–137.

2. Biotin. (2017, Jan 10).

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/313.html

3. Pitkin RM. Folate and neural tube defects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85:285S–288S.

4. Harvard’s Nutrition Source on Vitamin B.

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-b/

5. Food sources of riboflavin.

https://www.dietitians.ca/Downloads/Factsheets/Food-Sources-of-Riboflavin.aspx

6. Scott, J. M. (n.d.). Addition of vitamin B12 to folic acid supplements to optimize the prevention of spina bifida and other neural tube defects.

7. Shrim, A., Boskovik, R., Maltepe, C., et al. Pregnancy outcome following use of large doses of vitamin B6 in the first trimester. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 26(8), 749-51.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17130022

8. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012 Jul;26 Suppl 1:55-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01277.x. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742602

9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH. National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplements: Vitamin B

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/

10. The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology/Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. “Pregnancy outcome following use of large doses of vitamin B6 in the first trimester”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17130022

11. National Institutes of Health (NIH): Vitamin B12 – Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/

12. National Library of Medicine, Pregnancy outcome following use of large doses of vitamin B6 in the first trimester
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17130022
13. University of Michigan, Vitamin B6 for Morning Sickness
https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/tn9126

Источник: https://americanpregnancy.org/healthy-pregnancy/pregnancy-health-wellness/vitamin-b-pregnancy/

What your pregnancy cravings could mean

Why do pregnant women crave certain foods?

While it's difficult to pinpoint exactly why some women experience food cravings, obstetrician Dr Cindy MP Duke says that some probably have a physiologial explanation (such as nutritional deficiencies and hormonal changes). But others can't be explained, possibly because research on the topic is lacking.

Brooklyn-based Brandice Taylor-Davis says that throughout her pregnancy she craved two things the entire time: steak and ice lollies - of which she would eat four at a time.

"I also craved steak almost daily, but we eventually discovered I was severely anaemic and that was corrected through iron supplements. I did crave steak less after that."

When cravings are more likely

Some women will crave the same foods throughout pregnancy but, for others, the cravings may change. Duke explains that pregnant women can also develop aversions to certain smells and flavours of foods that were previously pleasing to them. This has to do with how their sensory nerves perceive and respond to smell and taste.

If you've experienced a sudden love for cakes and fizzy drinks during the first few months of pregnancy, there's a reason for it. Duke says that most cravings occur in the first and second trimester as a result of the dramatic shift in hormones.

The most common pregnancy food cravings

It should come as no surprise that the majority of women who experience cravings during pregnancy desire unhealthy food.

"Cravings for sweet foods and starchy carbohydrates are usually at the top of the list and in my nutrition clinics pregnant women report the desire for refined carbs from early pregnancy, and especially when nausea kicks in," explains nutritionist, Yvonne Bishop-Weston.

In fact, a pregnancy cravings survey commissioned by Pregnacare found that women want everything from ice cubes to dry chocolate powder when expecting.

The group surveyed 1,400 women in the UK. Here are a few highlights:

  • More than a third of women said they craved ice cubes.
  • Cake, fizzy drinks, ice cream and spicy food were popular cravings.
  • The study also suggests an increase in cravings for cake, biscuits, fizzy drinks and burgers when compared with previous generations.
  • Haribo® sweets, boiled eggs with horseradish and garlic mushrooms dipped in custard are among some of the strange foods craved by pregnant women.
  • Others admitted to having a hankering for dry chocolate powder, while one vegetarian even said she suddenly developed a taste for bacon.
  • Three in ten women said they were desperate to tuck into chocolate. They said their mothers had also craved chocolate but were more likely to have hankered after food such as lean proteins and fish during their pregnancies as well.

Bishop-Weston suggests that what pregnant women crave does seem to be influenced by regional diets and availability of foods.

What are some non-food cravings?

In addition to food-related cravings, some pregnant women will also experience non-food cravings (a phenomenon known as pica). Duke explains that pica is sometimes driven by the anaemia some women experience during pregnancy. This can cause a pregnant woman to crave things like coal, dirt, chalk and sand.

If you are experiencing any of these cravings, it's best to talk to your doctor about ways to manage the condition for the remainder of your pregnancy.

How to maintain a healthy diet during pregnancy

Eating for two is part of the fun of being pregnant, right? Yes, but you must proceed with caution. Just because you are growing a baby, doesn't give you the green light to eat whatever you want.

Plus, pregnancy can be rough on your body. Not only do you have a constant shift in energy levels and varying degrees of nausea, you're also hit with the highs and lows of emotions, due to fluctuating hormones. That's why it's important to maintain a healthy diet, despite some of the intense food cravings you may be experiencing.

Since most of the reported food cravings don't tend to be for the healthy foods which are needed in pregnancy, "it’s critical that you focus on eating a rainbow of differently coloured fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans, lentils and seeds," explains Bishop-Weston.

Here are some other things you can do to maintain a healthy diet during pregnancy:

  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take a supplement of 10 micrograms a day of vitamin D throughout pregnancy, and 400 micrograms a day of folic acid until 12 weeks pregnant. Ideally begin them as soon as you start trying to get pregnant. You may find it easier to take an antenatal vitamin supplement that includes these and other vitamins and minerals.
  • if you have diabetes, are taking medication for epilepsy, or if you or members of your family have a history of neural tube defects, you may need to take a higher dose of folic acid.
  • Consume a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, especially those rich in folic acid, such as green vegetables.
  • Eat iron-rich foods such as red meat, dried fruit, green vegetables and fortified cereals.
  • Consume calcium-rich foods such as yoghurt, milk and cheese.
  • Eat plenty of fibre, which can be found in wholegrain bread as well as fruit and vegetables.
  • Drink plenty of water to stay adequately hydrated.
Источник: https://patient.info/news-and-features/what-your-pregnancy-cravings-could-mean

Role of mushrooms in gestational diabetes mellitus

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Источник: https://www.aimspress.com/article/id/3353

Pregnancy, the Western Diet and the Incorporation of Mushrooms

Written by Renata Filiaci, MSHW, Trained Doula 

Community mindfulness in nutrition as a cornerstone for healthy life style, especially in pregnancy, has amplified. Functional and natural food is a concept of nutrition, based on the role of reducing the risk of disease. The Western diet is associated with the excessive overconsumption of sugars, carbohydrates, omega-6 fatty acids, proteins, salt, and processed foods. A proper nutritious diet should consist of the balance between micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) for the body to function appropriately and specifically necessary for pregnant persons. The constant imbalances in these nutritional qualities have contributed to an influx of inflammation. 

Many people with acute or chronic inflammation use both over-the-counter or prescription drugs recommended by allopathic practitioners, such as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), anti-histamines, and prednisone; however, short and long-term use can present side effects, potentially severe side effects, as well as not adequately treat the illness.

Some studies have found that taking NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen, aspirin, celecoxib) during the early part of pregnancy may increase your risk of miscarriage as well as corticosteroids may increase the maternal risk of hypertension, edema, gestational diabetes, osteoporosis, premature rupture of membranes, and small-for-gestational-age babies.

However, a nutritional diet can be hard especially when you’re pregnant and your cravings might be insane. I’ve always been a firm believer in a whole food diet in general, which is definitely a way you can get your valuable vitamins and nutrients, while taking your prenatal vitamins, and fighting the potential to have a buildup of inflammation.  

During pregnancy, it is believed that levels of low-grade and heightened inflammation in pregnant persons is correlated with the risk and increase of mental illness, brain developmental problems, and neurodevelopmental delays in children. Low-grade inflammation can be caused by hypertension (high blood pressure), anxiety, depression, and infection.

Considering we are surrounded by a pandemic, and infection is prevalent, it is suggested to take in the necessary vitamins and nutrients that can help us reduce infection, such as vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin D. Chronic inflammatory related diseases that pose a risk in pregnant persons are inflammatory bowel disease, preeclampsia, diabetes, and obesity, which can also decrease the actions of the immune system. 

Necessary prenatal vitamins and nutrients

  • Calcium - helps to build strong bones and teeth

  • Iron - helps red blood cells deliver oxygen to your baby

  • Vitamin A – ocular, development of fetal organs and fetal skeleton

  • Vitamin C - tissue repair, wound healing, and it helps your baby's bones and teeth develop

  • Vitamin D - may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, low birthweight and preterm birth

  • Vitamin B6 - baby's brain development and immune function, may help reduce nausea and vomiting

  • Vitamin B12 - maintaining the health of your nervous system

  • Vitamin B9 (Folate) - lower the risk of neural tube birth defects

  • DHA (omega 3 fatty acid) - fetal development of the brain and retina during the third trimester

  • Iodine - normal function of the thyroid in you and baby

Prenatal Nutritional benefits of mushrooms

Mushrooms have an abundant amount of nutrients which can assist in giving a pregnant person their essential supplemental nourishment. 

The theory of using plants for medicinal purposes is a developing reality in Western culture and medicine, although Eastern medicine has incorporated plants into their diet to help with chronic illness for thousands of years, especially integrating mushrooms, medicinally and culinary. What do we know about mushrooms as a whole? Some people can have a huge disgust towards them but I will say they are a fascinating kingdom. Fungi are dependent on obtaining nutrients from other organisms, such as soil, plants, or the human body, by releasing enzymes to breakdown food sources, like weakened, decaying or dead matter. The anatomy of a mushroom consists of the mycelium, fruiting body, and spores. The mycelium is the root system as it absorbs water and nutrients from the surrounding environment which forms the fruiting body. It also works as a network, helping plants communicate between each other sharing information on unwanted pathogens and invaders that are entering this network. The fruiting body grows above ground and contains the stem and cap, often edible and associated with the therapeutic effects beneficial for humans. Mushrooms are low in calories, cholesterol free, and nutrient dense. Not only do mushrooms consist of important nutrients, the bioactive compounds of mushrooms have antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-tumor, antioxidant, antiallergic, adaptogen, immunomodulating, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties which can be extremely beneficial for pregnant persons, especially if you are high risk.

Mushroom nutrients and bioactive constituents:

  • Selenium - decrease thyroid peroxidase antibody levels in pregnancy

  • Potassium - sending nerve impulses and helping your muscles contract by absorbing electrolytes

  • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) - develops blood cells, skin, and digestive tract lining in you and baby, could also prevent preeclampsia

  • Vitamin B12

  • Vitamin B9

  • Vitamins B3 (Niacin) - help to prevent the development of birth defects

  • Vitamin D

  • Protein - You require a slightly higher intake of protein during pregnancy to help with the various changes your body goes through to support your baby's growth

  • Fiber – reduces constipation and risk of developing hypertension and preeclampsia

  • Polysaccharides – anti-inflammatory carbohydrate

Types of edible mushrooms and their therapeutic abilities related to pregnancy:

Enoki Mushrooms

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The enoki mushroom, also known as the golden needle mushroom, grows as white, slender, clustered stalks of fungus on dead wood, native to Asia. Enoki, now cultivated and eaten internationally, is a favored and delicious edible mushroom high in nutritional value and bioactive compounds. The polysaccharide component of enoki should be developed into the immune health products because it demonstrates that the enoki mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development. Through research, an increase in immune function can help with multiple variations of a chronic illness whether it is influencing the immune response in patients with cancer, conventional oncological treatment, or wound healing, such as in patients with diabetes or autoimmune disease.

Lion’s Mane Mushrooms

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The lion’s mane mushroom is a eukaryotic spine fungus that grows on the trunks, branches, and stumps of trees that has a cluster of cascading white strands, inspiring the birth of its name. Lion’s mane mushroom, which predominantly provides neuroprotective activity, can potentially avert the beginning of developing neurodegenerative disease if taken when endoplasmic reticulum stress is evident. Considering the amount of physiological and pathological disturbances (high levels of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids) that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress, the lion’s mane mushroom could theoretically be beneficial for patients on all spectrums, such as people who consume the Western diet, people with mental health problems, and, hypothetically, other environmental factors.

Maitake Mushrooms

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Maitake mushroom (hen of the woods), meaning dancing mushroom, is native to the mountains and forests of Japan and North America, growing on oaks or elm trees. In the United States, the mushroom is typically called, hen of the woods, due to the cluster-like form that resembles chicken feathers. After further examination, the decrease of hypertension and hypertensive symptoms and regulation of insulin production by maitake mushroom, this mushroom could potentially prevent further complications and development of diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease as well as lessen inflammatory states. 

Oyster Mushrooms

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Preferably growing in warm climates on Aspen trees, the oyster mushroom grows in clusters, with flat-tiered caps and gills on the underside. The oyster mushroom is extremely abundant in nutrients and bioactive compounds. As seen in many studies, the oyster mushroom and shiitake mushroom can be applied as functional food-based therapeutics against cardiovascular diseases, pre-diabetics, and preventing chronic diabetes as it reverses deterioration and further strain on the heart and combats high low-density lipoprotein levels; anti-atherosclerosis therapy made of these mushrooms should parallel its course. 

Shiitake Mushrooms

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The shiitake mushroom, grown on the hardwood trees of Japan, China, Indonesia, and Taiwan, has been wildly used in Asian food and medicine for thousands of years. With growing popularity in the United States, the mushroom can be cooked fresh or dried, adding a meaty texture to a meal. Within my research, seeing as the shiitake mushroom lowered weight gain and fat disposition, it could be given as an edible supplement for weight maintenance; the fatty acids of the shiitake mushroom are important functional bio-components of both edible and medicinal fungi.

 

So, the question is, are mushrooms safe for pregnancy?

Mushrooms are considered safe for pregnant persons.

However, mushrooms have very tough cell walls and are potentially indigestible to many if you don't cook them down. Raw mushrooms contain small amounts of toxins, including some compounds that are considered carcinogens until heat deactivates those properties. Also, thoroughly heating mushrooms releases the nutrients they contain, including protein, B vitamins, and minerals, as well as a wide range of different bioactive compounds not found in other foods like their abundance in triterpenes and triterpenoids. 

With that being said, I would suggest adding mushrooms into your diet as a nutrient abundant powerhouse that can help you get the vitamins needed throughout pregnancy and afterwards! If you are looking for recipes and information on how to prepare these mushrooms, feel free to email [email protected] for healthy ideas on how to add them into your diet. 

Renata Filiaci got her Masters of Science in Health and Wellness with a Nutrition, Herbal Medicine, Aromatherapy, and Homeopathy background. She is a trained labor/birth and postpartum doula and finalizing her certification through Dona International. Check out her bio on Pregappetit.com for more!

Daniel Caglione

Источник: https://www.pregappetit.com/blog/pregnancy-the-western-diet-and-the-incorporation-of-mushrooms

5 easy breakfast ideas in pregnancy

Find out why breakfast is important in pregnancy and get some healthy breakfast ideas.

Research suggests that skipping breakfast can cause us to snack on high-calorie foods during the day and can also make us less active. People who eat a healthy breakfast are less likely to be overweight  and have a lower risk of developing certain health conditions. These include diabetes, high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. 

Breakfast gives you a much-needed energy boost after a long stretch of ‘fasting’ during the night. If you find it difficult to eat in the morning, start with small portions and gradually, your appetite will increase. 

If you are experiencing morning sickness, having a light breakfast as soon as you get up, will boost your blood sugar levels. This will hopefully help ease symptoms. 

What makes a healthy breakfast?

Breakfast is a great time to take in important nutrients for you and your baby. These include B vitamins, folate, calcium and vitamin C.

A healthy breakfast could contain a combination of the following food groups:

Fibre-rich carbohydrates

Carbohydrates provides us with energy and fuel for the day ahead. They are also a valuable source of fibre to protect gut health. Breakfast carbohydrates could include:

  • wholegrain bread
  • low sugar/ high fibre breakfast cereal (try to have cereals that contain 5g of sugar per 100g or less) 
  • porridge oats.

Protein 

Protein is important for growth and repair in the body. Including a protein source with your breakfast can help you feel fuller for longer. Protein sources for breakfast could include:  

  • yoghurt
  • baked beans
  • milk (or plant-based milk) 
  • eggs
  • nuts and seeds.

Fruit or vegetables

Fruit and vegetables are great sources of vitamins, minerals and fibre. Choices for breakfast could include:

  • tomato
  • mushroom
  • berries
  • apples
  • bananas. 

You can add these to your normal breakfast or blitz them up into a smoothie.

5 easy pregnancy breakfast ideas

Here are 5 easy breakfast ideas that combine sources of fibre, protein and fruits or vegetables to help you start your day right!

Sprinkle sliced banana or berries onto your porridge. 

If you don’t have much time in the morning, try making overnight oats the night before: 

  • Put the oats in a container and add milk, yoghurt and some sliced, frozen or dried fruit. 
  • Put in the fridge ready for the next morning. 

Use plant-based milk and yoghurt for a vegan-friendly option. 

Be aware that a standard serving size of oats is 30g which is about 2 to 3 tablespoons (dried). This doesn’t look like much, but when you add milk or water they expand more than you expect! 

Keep it simple with some toast and a glass of milk

If you are experiencing morning sickness, keeping it simple with toast is a winner. Bread contains carbohydrates to keep your energy levels up and is easy to nibble if you aren’t feeling hungry. Spread with peanut butter or marmite and add a glass of milk for a portion of dairy. 

Smoothies are perfect for a busy morning. You can keep your favourite chopped up fruits and vegetables in your freezer ready to add to your blender. Then just add some milk and plain yoghurt and blitz!

Scrambled eggs with a wholemeal bagel

You can have lightly cooked eggs as long as they are Red Lion standard. Try scrambled eggs with grilled tomatoes and wholemeal bagel for a breakfast. This option includes nutrients, slow-release carbohydrates and plenty of protein! 

Top plain yoghurt with any fresh or tinned-in-juice fruit you have and add a handful of granola. Check food labels because some types of granola include a lot of added sugar!  

Find out about more good foods to eat when pregnant.

Review dates

Last reviewed: 05 March 2021

Next review: 05 March 2024

Источник: https://www.tommys.org/pregnancy-information/im-pregnant/nutrition-in-pregnancy/5-easy-breakfast-ideas-pregnancy

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